3953 p. 289.
4954 De consid. III. 1.
5955 Coulton’s Salimbene, p. 13.
6956 See Döllinger, Akad. Vortäge, III. 280.
Gutjahr, Petrus Cantor Paris. sein Leben u. Schriften
, Graetz, 1899.
8958 De consid. III. 1.
959 Serm. in Cant., 64, 65, Migne, 183. 1086, 1091, plus nocet falsus catholicus quam verus hereticus.
0960 This was the usual expression used by the Church and in legal documents. Flade, p. 114.
1961 Catharos, Patarenos, Speronistas, Leonistas, Arnaldistas, Circumcisos, Passaginos, Josephinos, Garatenses, Albanenses, Franziscos, Bagnarolos, Commixtos, Waldenses, Roncarolos, Communellos, Warinos et Ortolinos cum illis de Aqua Nigra et omnes haereticos utriusque sexus, quocumque nomine censeantur
. Bréholles, V. 280.
2962 Döllinger, II. 300; Coulton’s Salimbene, p. 13.
3963 Ep. I. 94, Migne, 214. 81.
4964 Flade, p. 17.
5965 Schmidt. II. 276; Döllinger, I. 127. The term "Cathari" occurs in the twelfth century in Ecbertus and the acts of the Third Lateran Council, 1179, which speak of the heretics in Southern France as Cathari, Patrini, Publicani, or as known by some other name. Quos alii Catharos, alii Patrinos, alii Publicanos, etc., alii aliis nominibus vocant. Innocent III. called them Cathari and Patarenes, Epp. I. 94; II. 228; VIII. 85, 105, etc.
Alanus de Insulis, Migne, 210. 266, says, "The Cathari are so called from the cat, whose posterior parts they are said to kiss and in whose form, as they say, Lucifer appears to them." Jacob de Voragine
, in his Legenda aurea
, refers to the use made of the cat by Satan in connection with heresy. He relates that on one occasion some ladies, who had been heretics, were kneeling at St. Dominic’s feet and suddenly cried out: "’Servant of God, help us.’’ Tarry awhile,’Dominic said, ’and ye shall see what ye have been serving.’ Suddenly a black cat sprang up in their midst, right horrible, with long tail standing upright and emitting from the after end a terrible stench. After a while the cat climbed up the bell rope to the steeple, and the ladies were converted."
7967 Schmidt, who discusses the names in an elaborate note (II. 275-284), says that a portion of Milan was still called Contrada de’Patari in the eighteenth century. Frederick II., in his Sicilian code, derived the name Patarenes from patior, to suffer. Patarenos se nominant velut expositos passioni, Huillard-Bréholles, IV. 6. So also Walter Map, De nugis, Wright’s ed., p. 61, who says the devil persuaded the Patarenes that they would become perfect by suffering and doing what he commanded.
M. Paris, Luard’s ed., III. 520, speaks of "Bugares" as a common appellation for the "Paterini, Jovinians, Albigenses, and those stained with other heresies
," and associates with them Robert Bugre, who from being a heretic became a Dominican and noted Inquisitor. The modern word "bugger" is derived from his name.
969 Döllinger, I. 129 sq.
0970 Ibid., I. 1-51, gives an elaborate description of the Paulicians and the Bogomili. He regards the Paulicians as the bridge between the Gnostics of the ancient Church and the sectaries of the Middle Ages, p. 3.
1971 Ibid., p. 114, says that the teachings of the Cathari and the Bogomili are so much alike that the "direct descent of the former from the latter must be regarded as beyond doubt." Our knowledge of the Bogomili is derived from Euthymus, whose Narratio de Bogomilis was edited by Gieseler, Göttingen, 1842.
2972 Hauck, Kirchengesch., III. 431.
3973 Schmidt, I. 31; Hefele, IV. 674 sqq.
4974 Hauck, IV. 88.
5975 Dial., V. 19.
6976 William of Newburgh, Hamilton’s ed., pp. 121-123. Walter Map, De Nugis, p. 62, reduces the number to sixteen. They were called Publicani by the Oxford council, 1260
7977 Stubbs, ed. of De Hoveden, II. p. liv. sq.
8978 Döllinger, I. 121 sq., has no hesitation in declaring him a bishop of the Paulicians
979 . Superabundant jam ad omnem infinitatem.
0980 Caesar of Heisterbach, quoted by Döllinger, I. 124.
1981 p. 1768.
2982 Döllinger, I. 125.
3983 Döllinger, II. 300.
4984 Ibid., I. 117; II. 82. Schmidt derived them from Albania and from Coriza in Dalmatia.
Rainerius is our chief authority for these statements. He makes the above threefold classification (Martène, V. 1761), and then proceeds to give the doctrinal and practical errors the sects had in common
, and those which separated them. He also gives a list of the Catharan centres in Lombardy and other parts. See also the important document, the Supra stella,
by Salvus Burce, 1235, published by Döllinger, II. 52-84. The title was chosen to distinguish it from a Catharan treatise entitled Stella
, the Star.
6986 See also Alphandéry, p. 35. Lempp, in a criticism of Alphandéry’s work, Lit.-zeitung, 1905, p. 601, takes the view which is presented in the text.
7987 Döllinger, II. 322, etc.; Douais, II. 105, etc.; Bonacursus, Migne, 204. 777.
8988 Bonacursus, p. 775.
Döllinger, II. 294, etc.; Ermengaudus, 1237. Lea, I. 563-567, gives a document, apparently dating from about 1300, in which a Catharan uses Scripture to prove that the God of the Old Testament is not the God of the New. He deposed, "God says in Genesis, ’Ye shall not eat the tree of life.’ But the God of the New Testament says in the Apocalypse ’to him that overcometh I will give to eat of the tree of life. ’That one prohibits, this one promises. Therefore they are antagonistic, one to the other." Again he deposed
, "Genesis says I will place enmity between thee and the woman. The God of the Old Testament is thus the sower of discord and enmity. But the God of the New Testament is the giver of peace and the reconciler of all things. Hence they are antagonistic."
0990 Bonacursus, p. 777; Ermengaud, p. 1234 sq.; Douais, II. 93, 96, 103, etc.
1991 Döllinger, II. 149-153.
2992 Boni homines, Döllinger, II. 22, 27, etc.; Boni Christiani, II. 4, 17, 25, etc. In Southern France one of the of the repeated charges was that the accused called the Cathari bons hommes, Douais, II. 9, 11, 14, 25, etc. The Credentes are so called by French synods, by Innocent III., in letters written by papal legates, etc. See Hefele, V. 846, 850, etc.; Döllinger and Douais under Credentes in Index.
3993 Synod of Toulouse, 1229, etc. See Schmidt, II. 127.
4994 Haereticationi interfuit, Douais, II. 17, 19, 22, etc.
6996 Ermengaud, Migne, 204, 1362; Rainerius, p. 1764; Döllinger, II. 41.
7997 Among those who recanted was the rich citizen Morand of Toulouse, who did penance by standing naked to the waist at the altar of St. Saturninus and allowing himself to be scourged in the presence of the papal legate. He went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but on his return went back to the Cathari and died as one of the Perfect. Schmidt, I. 77 sqq.
8998 Döllinger, II. 30.
999 Ibid., II. 5, 322.
01000 Ibid., II. 21, 34, 65, 90, 283, etc.
1001 In latrinam ventris et per turpissimum locum, quae non possunt fieri, si esset ibi deus. Döllinger, II. 5.
21002 Douais, II. 17, 22, 27, 45, etc.
31003 Moneta, p. 315; jacere cum uxore sua sicut cum meretrice, Döllinger, II. 30; matrimonium est meretricium, Douais, II. 93; Döllinger, II. 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 40, 156, 300, etc. omnem carnalem concubitum dampnabilem dicunt, Douais, II. 93, 96, etc.
41004 Bonacursus, p. 776 Douais, II. 93, 103, etc.
51005 Ibid., p. 777; Rainerius, p. 1762; Döllinger, II. 294, 300.
61006 Döllinger, II. 5, 152, 181, 248, 294.
81008 Bonacursus, p. 777; Ermengaud, p. 1269. See Alphandéry, p. 83 sq.
91009 Döllinger, under Kreuz in Index II. 730; Bonacursus, p. 777 Douais, II. 94.
01010 Rainerius, 1762. See Alphandéry, p. 44.
1011 See Döllinger in Index under these two words and Schmidt, II. 71-103.
21012 Döllinger, I. 193, 210; II. 4, 25, 30, etc.; Douais, II. 23, etc.
31013 Alphandéry, p. 51; Döllinger, II. 205.
41014 Rainerius, p. 1766; Döllinger, II. 82, 278, 295, 324. At the time of Nicetas’visit, Bernard Raymund was ordained bishop of Toulouse, Guiraud Mercier, bishop of Carcassonne, and Raymund of Casalis, bishop of Val d’Aran.
51015 Sermon, 65, Migne, 183. 1091.
71017 Fredericq, Corpus Inq., I. 6. For Tanchelm, see Fredericq, vols. I. and II., and Life of Norbert in Mon. Germ., ch. 16.
81018 Introd. ad Theol., in Migne, 178. 1056, and Fredericq, I. 26.
91019 Döllinger, I. 98-104. Otto of Freising, De gestis Frid., 54, says he called himself Eudo or Eon, from the liturgical formula, per eum qui venturus est judicare, etc. He is also mentioned by Abaelard in his Introd. ad Theol.
01020 Adv. Petrobrusianos,
Migne, 189. 719-850. Abaelard gives a few lines to him. Migne, 178. 1056. Peter speaks of Peter de Bruys and Henry of Lausanne as duo homuncios
, p. 728. See Döllinger, I. 75-98.
1021 See Peter the Venerable, Adv. Petrobrus., Bernard, Ep., 241, in Migne, 182. 435. Döllinger, I. 79 sqq.; J. von Walter, Die ersten Wanderprediger Frankreichs, II. 130-140; Hauck, in Herzog, VIII. 606 sqq.
21022 Vita S. Bernardi, Migne, 185, 312 sqq. See the Lives of Bernard by Neander-Deutsch, II. 191-231; Vacandard, II. 200 sqq.; Morison, p. 302 sqq., 404 sq.
31023 Nomen ecclesiae congregationem fidelium signat, etc., Pet. Ven., p. 762. Peter goes back as far as Noah’s altar to prove the sacredness of localities.
41024 Pet. Ven., pp. 765, 847 sq.
61026 Bernard, Migne, 182. 434; Peter, pp. 729, 761 sq.
71027 Döllinger, I. 83, makes the charge that they renounced the Old Testament. But Peter of Cluny does not say so and, had it been so, he certainly would have emphasized that heresy.
81028 Döllinger, I. 75 sqq., makes an elaborate attempt to prove that Peter and Henry were Cathari, but the differences in their teachings and practices seem to make this impossible. So Newman (Papers of Am. Soc. of Ch. Hist., IV. 184-189), Hauck, and Walter, p. 130. Peter and Henry are nowhere called Manichaeans or dualists by Peter the Venerable and Bernard, who would scarcely have omitted this charge had there been just ground for it. They commended marriage; the Cathari rejected it. They insisted upon adult baptism; the Cathari repudiated all baptism. None of the rites peculiar to the Cathari were associated with Peter and Henry.
Mansi, XXII. 801-809; Denifle, Chartul. Un. Paris,
I. 70, 71, 72, 79, 107, etc.; Caesar of Heisterbach, Strange ed., II., 304 sqq.; Martène-Durand, Thes. anec
., IV. 166 sq.; Jundt, Hist. du pantheisme
, etc., p. 20 sq.; Preger, Gesch. der deutschen Mystik,
I. 173-184; Delacroix
, Le mysticisme speculatif,
etc., 32-51; Alpbandéry, pp. 141-154. For other sources
, see Delacroix, p. 39 sq.
01030 Chartularium, p. 70. Here, also, are given the names of the priests who were burnt or imprisoned.
1031 Putridus dens in ore, synod of Paris, 1209.
21032 So Preger, I. 212, on the basis of the "Anonymous of Passau." For the ninety-seven errors ascribed to the Brethren of the Free Spirit, see Preger, I. 461-469, and Hauck, in Herzog, I. 431.
31033 Chartul., pp. 70, 79.
41034 Preger, I. 184-191.
51035 This name, given in the code of Frederick II., would seem to refer to the same sect. The "Anonymous of Passau," writing about 1316, is our chief authority. See Müller, Die Waldenser, pp. 147 sqq.; Döllinger, Beiträge, II. 301, 703, etc.; Preger, II. 191-196; Delacroix, 52-76; Alphandéry, 154-167; Deutsch, art. Ortlieb, in Herzog, XIV. 499-501. Alphandéry urges the affiliation of the Ortlibenses with the Vaudois, chiefly because of their frequent juxtaposition in mediaeval writings.
61036 Delacroix, p. 73, insists upon the identity of the Amaurians and Ortlibenses in all essential matters.
71037 See Döllinger, II. 327; Alphandéry, 168 sqq.
81038 The notices are scattered. See under diabolus and Lucifer in Döllinger and Alphandéry, pp. 174 sqq. M. Paris, writing of 1226 and Frederick’s march through Northern Italy, speaks of Milan being a refuge and receptacle of all sorts of heretics, Patarines, Luciferi, Publicani, Albigenses, and usurers.
91039 The Josephini are mentioned by the synod of Verona, 1184, and the bull of Gregory IX., June 25, 1231, and the Speronistae by Salve Burce, Döllinger, II. 62, and in the bulls of Gregory IX., Aug. 20, 1229, June 25, 1231. See Fredericq, I. 75 sq.
01040 Hase, Karl Müller, Kirchengesch. I. 570, Alphandéry, p. 2 sqq., and others treat the subject under the head of lay-activity.
1041 The Beguines are called a sect
, secta Beguinarum,
in Guy’s Practica,
p.264, etc. The term Beguines, or Bequini, is also derived from beggan,
to beg, by Jundt, or from bègue,
to stammer. See Haupt, in Herzog, II. 517. Lea, p. 351, seems inclined to advocate the old opinion which derived the name from St. Begga, d. 694, the mother of Pepin of Heristal and the reputed founder of a convent.
21042 Premium castitatis verbo et exemplo predicavit, Fredericq, II. 33.
31043 Multitudo innumerabilis,
Luard’s ed., V. 194. In another place
, IV. 278, he gives the number as 2,000. He also states that they were governed by no Church Rule, nullius sancti regula coarctatae
41044 Uhlhorn, p. 380.
51045 The brief of Boniface IX. mentions "gray and other colors," Döllinger, Beiträge, II. 383.
61046 A synod of Béziers, p. 299, forbade both male and female societies on the ground that there was no papal sanction. Wetzer-Welte, II. 204, calls them ordensähnliche Gesellschaften, and Alphandéry, p. 2, extra-ecclésiastiques.
71047 Hefele, VI. 490, 600.
81048 Hefele, VI. 543, 544.
91049 The actus carnis is no sin, for it is an impulse of nature. Döllinger, II. 384-407, 702 sqq. They were also accused with denying a hell.
01050 Haupt, in Herzog, II. 519.
1051 Bernard Guy, 264 sqq. See also the letter of the bishop of Utrecht, Oct. 6, 1318, in Fredericq, II. 74.
21052 "Sisters," a popular name for the Beguines.
31053 Willige Armen, see Döllinger, II. 381-383. Gregory XII., Eugene IV., and Sixtus IV. also commended the orthodox societies.
There are still religious houses in Belgium and Holland called beguinages. In 1896 there were fifteen in Belgium and in Holland, one in Breda
, and one in Amsterdam. For the Brethren of the Free Spirit, who are often associated with the Beghards but had a different origin, see part II. of this volume.
Valdesius, Valdensius, or Waldunus. The name is given in these and other forms by writers of the thirteenth century. De Bourbon, p. 290; Guy, p. 244; Döllinger, II. 6, 300, etc. Bernard, abbot of Fontis Calidi, Migne, 204. 793, allegorizes when he says they were called "Valdenses, as though they came from a dense valley and are involved in its deep thick darkness of errors." Alanus de insulis, Migne, 210, p. 377 sqq., says the "Waldenses are so called from their heresiarch Waldus, the founder of the new sect who presumed to preach without authority of prelate, without divine inspiration, knowledge, or letters. A philosopher without head
, a prophet without vision, an apostle without mission, a teacher without instructor, whose disciples, or rather musciples (discipuli imo muscipuli
), seduce the unwary in different parts of the world."
61056 Pauperes de Lugduno, Leonistae, etc. Zabatati, or Insobbalati, because the shoe was cut in the shape of a shield. Guy, 245; Döllinger, II. 92, 233, etc.
71057 Inter se vocant Fratres seu Pauperes Christi. Guy, p. 256.
81058 Per vicos et plateas evangelium praedicare et Valdesius multos homines utriusque sexus viros et mulieres complices sibi fecit ad similem praesumptionem, etc. Guy, p. 244.
91059 de nugis
, Wright’s ed., p. 64 sq. Map, who felt highly honored by his appointment
, called them simple and illiterate, idiotae et illiterati,
terms used also by de Bourbon, p. 292, and Guy, p. 244.
01060 The exact relation of the Poor Men of Lyons to the Humiliati is still a matter of discussion. Müller, in his Anfänge des Minoritenordens, etc., has done much to change our knowledge of the Humiliati. The view taken above may account for the language of the Verona council, Humiliati vel Pauperes de Lugduno, which was probably chosen for the very purpose of indicating that the resemblance between the two parties was so close as to make it uncertain whether there were two sects or only one. This view seems to be borne out by the two statements of Salve Burce. Döllinger, II. 64, 74.
1061 See p. 411. Sabatier, Regula Antiqua, p. 15, expresses the opinion that Francis may have been more indebted to them than we have supposed.
21062 Salve Burce, who was acquainted with Roncho, called him "a simple man, without education,"idiota absque literis. Döllinger, II. 64.