383 Ut stellae quoque juxta Apocalypsim de coelo cadere viderentur, Petrus ille
4384 Ekkehard XIII., Rec., V. 21, says that Peter’s cohorts became the object of derision to the Turks as soon as they reached Asia Minor, cohortes ...paganis fuerant jam ludibrio factae.
5385 Hagenmeyer, pp. 220 sqq., 243, suggests that at the time of William’s writing such things were no longer told.
The official title of the kings was rex Latinorum in Hierusalem
. In rejecting the crown, says William of Tyre, "Godfrey did so as a believing prince. He was the best of kings, the light and mirror of all others,"lumen et speculum
, IX. 9, Rec
., I. 377. The clergy had dreamed of the complete subjection of the civil government of Jerusalem to the spiritual government under the patriarch. The first patriarch not only secured for his jurisdiction one-fourth of Jerusalem and Jaffa, but the promise from Godfrey of the whole of both cities
, provided Godfrey was successful in taking Cairo or some other large hostile city, or should die without male heirs. See Röhricht, Gesch. des ersten Kreuzzuges
, p. 218.
7387 See Dagobert’s appeal in Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, 176 sq., 412 sqq. He speaks of "Jerusalem as the most excellent of all places for sanctity," and says that "for this reason it was oppressed by the pagans and infidels." Fulcher, writing of the year 1100, declares that there were only three hundred knights and as many footmen left for the defence of Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Ramleh. See quotation in Hagenmeyer, 415.
8388 Hic jacet inclitus dux Godefridus de Bouillon qui totam sitam terram acquisivit cultui christiano, cujus anima regnet cum Christo.
9389 According to Raymund of Agiles, Arnulf was a man of loose life and his amours subjects of camp songs.
0390 From the fall of Acre, 1291 to 1848, the patriarchs, with two exceptions, lived in Rome. In 1848 Valerga, appointed patriarch by Pius IX., took up his residence in Jerusalem.
2392 Fulani, "anybodies." The designation fulan ibn fulan, "so and so, the son of so and so," is a most opprobrious mode of address among the Arabs.
393 The following mode of reducing a tribe of robbers is characteristic. The robbers took refuge in a cave. Baldwin resorted to smoking them out. Two emerged; Baldwin spoke kindly to them, dressed one up and sent him back with fair promises, while he put the other to death. Ten others emerged. One was sent back and the other nine put to death. The same method was employed till two hundred and thirty had been induced to come forth and were put to death. The fires were then started again till all came forth and met the same fate.
4394 From this point William of Tyre writes as an eye-witness, XVI. sqq.
5395 According to the letter of Terricius, Master of the Temple, two hundred and ninety Templars perished, and the Saracens covered the whole land from Tyre to Gaza like swarms of ants. Richard of Hoveden, an. 1187, says the Templars fought like lions.
Saladin offered a glass of water to Guy. When Guy handed It to Reginald
, Saladin exclaimed, "I did not order that. You gave it," and at once despatched Reginald by his own hand, or through a servant. Reginald had plundered a caravan in which Saladin’s sister was travelling. Lane-Poole, Saladin
, p. 215.
7397 The bezant was worth three dollars.
8398 See Otto of Freising, VII. 30.
9399 Gottlob, Kreuzablass, 106 sqq. Eugenius quoted Urban II’s decree of indulgence at Clermont.
0400 De consideratione, II. 1, Reinkens’translation, pp. 31-37. In this chapter of his famous tract, Bernard explains and justifies his course in the Crusade.
1401 Odo, I. 1, caeperunt undique conclamando cruces expetere ... coactus est vestes suas in cruces scindere et seminare.
2402 As a proof of Konrad’s strength, William of Tyre, XVII. 4, relates that at the siege of Damascus he hewed a man clad in armor through head, neck, and shoulder to the armpit with one stroke of his blade.
Bk. XVI. 20. William suggests that Manuel’s jealousy was aroused because Konrad asserted the title
, king of the Romans. Diehl, Essays on the Crusades
, p. 107, doubts the statement that Manuel’s guides intentionally misled and betrayed the Germans. He, however, acknowledges that Greek inhabitants of Asia Minor "fleeced or starved the Latins."
404 William of Tyre, XVII., gives a list of the distinguished personages present, Bishop Otto of Freising, the emperor’s brother, being among them.
5405 De consideratione, II. 1.
6406 The story of Richard’s seizing a lion and tearing out its throbbing heart was a subject of English romance in the fourteenth century and probably of French romance in the thirteenth century.
7407 It required at least fifteen days for a ship to go from Acre to Marseilles, and about the same time for news to reach Rome from Jerusalem. The indulgences offered to Crusaders by Alexander III., on the news of Saladin’s conquests in Egypt and his defeat of the Christians at Banias, 1181, are quoted by Gottlob, 119 sq. Alexander appealed to the examples of Urban II, and Eugenius III.
8408 He sold the archbishopric of York for 3,000 pounds. Henry is reported to have left 900,000 pounds in gold and silver. Rog. of Wendover, an. 1180.
9409 Richard of Devizes, X.
0410 Giraldus Cambrensis accompanied the archbishop and gathered the materials for his itinerary on the way.
Frederick announced his expedition in a letter to Saladin
, in which he enumerated the tribes that were to take part in it, from the "tall Bavarian" to the sailors of Venice and Pisa. See Itin. reg. Ricardi de Hoveden
2412 Ranke, VIII. 246 sqq., spicily speculates upon the possible consequences of Isaac’s dethronement, and, as a German, regrets that Frederick did not take the prize, Es war ein Moment das nicht so leicht wieder kommen konnte.
3413 Another account by one who accompanied the expedition was that in his impatience to proceed, Barbarossa strove to swim the river and was drowned. Ranke, VIII. 249, regards the view taken in the text as the better one.
414 Itinerary, III. 16.
5415 Richard’s fleet, when he sailed from Messina, consisted of one hundred and fifty large ships and fifty-three galleys.
, III. 2, says Richard’s arrival was welcomed with transports of joy, shoutings, and blowing of trumpets. He was taken ashore as if the desired of all nations had come, and the night was made so bright with wax torches and flaming lights "that it seemed to be usurped by the brightness of the day
, and the Turks thought the whole valley was on fire." Richard of Devizes, LXIII., says, "The besiegers received Richard with as much joy as if it had been Christ who had come again."
7417 The Itinerary, I., 66, says Baldwin was made sick unto death when he saw "the army altogether dissolute and given up to drinking, women, and dice."
8418 The loss before Acre was very heavy. The Itinerary gives a list of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 counts, and 500 knights who lost their lives. IV. 6. De Hoveden also gives a formidable list, in which are included the names of the dukes of Swabia, Flanders, and Burgundy, the archbishops of Besançon, Arles, Montreal, etc. Baldwin died Nov. 19, 1190. The Itinerary compares the siege of Acre to the siege of Troy, and says. (I. 32) "it would certainly obtain eternal fame as a city for which the whole world contended."
and other documents make frequent reference to its deadly use. Among the machines used on both sides were the petrariae
, which hurled stones, and mangonels used for hurling stones and other missiles. Itinerary
, III. 7, etc. One of the grappling machines was called a "cat." The battering ram was also used
, and the sow
, a covering under which the assailants made their approach to the walls. King Richard was an expert in the use of the arbalest
, or cross-bow.
0420 The price of a loaf of bread rose from a penny to 40 shillings, and a horseload of corn was sold for 60 marks. De Hoveden, etc. Horse flesh was greedily eaten, even to the intestines, which were sold for 10 sols. Even grass was sought after to appease hunger. A vivid description of the pitiful sufferings from famine is given in the Itinerary, I. 67-83.
1421 Itinerary, I. 44.
This pretext is upon the sole authority of de Hoveden, an
. 1191. He says, however, that Saladin did not execute the Christian captives until Richard had declined to withdraw his threat and to give more time for the payment of the ransom money and the delivery of the true cross. Archer, Hist. of the Crusades
, p. 331, thinks that Baba-ed-din’s account implies Saladin’s massacre; but Lane-Poole, Life of Saladin
, p. 307, is of the contrary opinion. The Itinerary
, IV. 4, states that Richard’s followers, leapt forward to fulfil his commands, thankful to the divine grace for the permission to take such vengeance for the Christians whom the captives had slain with bolts and arrows."It has nothing to say of a massacre by Saladin. Lane-Poole, carried away by admiration for Saladin, takes occasion at this point to say that " in the struggle of the Crusades the virtues of civilization, magnanimity, toleration, real chivalry, and gentle culture were an on the side of the Saracens."The duke of Burgundy was party to the massacre of the Turkish captives.
, VI. 23. Here is a description of one of Richard’s frequent frays as given in the Itinerary
, VI. 4: "Richard was conspicuous above all the rest by his royal bearing. He was mounted on a tall charger and charged the enemy singly. His ashen lance was shivered by his repeated blows; but instantly drawing his sword, he pressed upon the fugitive Turks and mowed them down
, sweeping away the hindmost and subduing the foremost. Thus he thundered on, cutting and hewing. No kind of armor could resist his blows, for the edge of his sword cut open the heads from the top to the teeth. Thus waving his sword to and fro, he scared away the routed Turks as a wolf when he pursues the flying sheep."
De Joinville, Life of St. Louis , an.
1253, says no doubt with the truth that Richard would have taken Jerusalem but for the envy and treachery of the Duke of Burgundy. He repeats the saying of Richard, which is almost too good not to be true. When an officer said, "Sire, come here and I will show you Jerusalem," the king throwing down his arms and looking up to heaven exclaimed, "I pray thee, O Lord God, that I may never look on the Holy City until I can deliver it from thy enemies." The Itinerary
has nothing to say on the subject. Richard of Devizes, XC., states that Hubert
, bishop of Salisbury, after his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, urged the king to go in as a pilgrim, but that "the worthy indignation of his noble mind would not consent to receive from the courtesy of the Gentiles what he could not obtain by the gift of God."
5425 Baha-ed-din, as quoted by Lane-Poole, p. 354. De Hoveden speaks of fruits, the Itinerary of horses. Later story ascribes to Saladin a yearly grant of one thousand bezants of gold to the Knights of St. John at Acre. In order to test the charity of the knights, the sultan had gone to the hospital in disguise and found the reports of their merciful treatment well founded. Of this and of the story of his knighthood at the hands of Humphrey of Toron, and vouched for by the contemporary Itinerary of King Richard, the Arab authorities know nothing. See Lane-Poole,Life of Saladin, 387 sqq.
A western legend given by Vincent de Beauvais relates that as Saladin was dying he called to him his standard-bearer and bade him carry through the streets of Damascus the banner of his death as he had carried the banner of his wars
; namely, a rag attached to a lance, and cry out. "Lo, at his death, the king of the East can take nothing with him but this cloth only."
7427 TheItinerary gives a story of Saladin and the notorious miracle of the holy fire until recently shown in the church of the Holy Sepulchre. It may well be true. When Saladin, on one occasion, saw the holy flame descend and light a lamp, he ordered the lamp blown out to show it was a fraud. But it was immediately rekindled as if by a miracle. Extinguished a second and a third time, it was again and again rekindled. "Oh, what use is it to resist the invisible Power!" exclaims the author of the Itinerary, V. 16.
8428 Hurter regards the numbers handed down as greatly exaggerated.
An epigram, dwelling upon the folly of the movement, ran:—
"Ad mare stultorum
Tendebat iter puerorum
"To the sea of the fools
Led the path of the children."
0430 Wilken for this assertion quotes theHistory of the Genoese Senate and People, by Peter Bizari, Antwerp, 1679. One of the families was the house of the Vivaldi.
1431 See Wilken, VI. 83.
2432 So Wilken, Sie ist durch die Zeugnisse glaubwürdiger Geschichtschreiber so fest begründet, dass ihre Wahrheit nicht bezweifelt werden kann, p. 72. Röhricht, Hist. Zeitschrift, XXXVI. 5, also insists upon the historical genuineness of the reports.
3433 See the ample description of Hurter, I. pp. 221-230, etc.
434 Epp. of Innocent, I. 353, 354, etc., Migne, 214, 329 sqq.
5435 Ep. I. 353, Migne, 214, 325 sqq.
6436 Guntherus, Migne, 212, 225.
7437 A French translation of Innocent’s letter commissioning Fulke to preach the Crusade is given by Charasson, p. 99.
Thibaut, then twenty-two
, and Louis, then twenty-seven, were nephews of the king of France, Villehardouin, 3; Wailly’s ed., p. 5. Thibaut died before the Crusaders started from France.
9439 Villehardouin, who was one of the six members of the commission (Wailly’s ed., p. 11), says, "The Turks could be more easily destroyed there than in any other country." Egypt was often called by the Crusaders, "the land of Babylon."
0440 Wailly’s edition of Villehardouin, p. 452, makes the sum 4,420,000 francs. It reckons a mark as the equivalent of 52 francs. The Grand Council added fifty armed galleys "for the love of God," on condition that during the continuance of the alliance Venice should have one-half the spoils of conquest.
Villehardouin describes him as a man de bien grand coeur
. He died at ninety-seven, in 1205, and was buried in the Church of St. Sophia. In his reply to the deputation
, the doge recognized the high birth of the Crusaders in the words, "we perceive that the lords are in the highest rank of those who do not wear a crown" (Villehardouin, 16; Wailly’s ed., 13).
2442 Villehardouin, 56 sqq.; Wailly’s ed., 33 sq.
3443 Villehardouin mentions only the proposition to go against Zara. Robert of Clary and other writers state that Dandolo made a previous proposition that the fleet should proceed to Mohammedan territory and that the first booty should be used to pay the Crusaders’debt. He then substituted the proposition to go against Zara, and the Crusaders were forced by their circumstances to accept. There is some ground for the charge that in May, 1202, Dandolo made a secret treaty with the sultan of Egypt. See Pears, 271 sqq.
444 Villehardouin and Robert de Clary. Clary’s account is very vivacious and much the more detailed of the two.
5445 A deputation afterwards visited Innocent and secured his absolution, Villehardouin, 107; Wailly’s ed., 61. The news of the death of Fulke of Neuilly reached the Crusaders on the eve of their breaking away from Venice. Villehardouin, 73; Wailly’s ed., 43, calls him le bon, le saint homme.
Villehardouin, 109. Pears, p. 268, speaks pathetically of the Crusaders as "about to commit the great crime of the Middle Ages
, by the destruction of the citadel against which the hitherto irresistible wave of Moslem invasion had beaten and been broken." Not praiseworthy, it is true, was the motive of the Crusaders, yet there is no occasion for bemoaning the fate of Constantinople and the Greeks. The conquest of the Latins prolonged the successful resistance to the Turks.
7447 Arabs were allowed to live in the city and granted the privileges of their religious rites. Gibbon with characteristic irony says. "The Flemish pilgrims were scandalized by the aspect of a mosque or a synagogue in which one God was worshipped without a partner or a son."
8448 Villehardouin, 233, Wailly’s ed. p. 137, pronounces the capture of Constantinople one of the most difficult feats ever undertaken, une des plus redoutables choses à faire qui jamais fut. A city of such strong fortifications the Franks had not seen before.
9449 Hurter (I. p. 685), comparing the conquest of Constantinople with the capture of Jerusalem, exalts the piety of Godfrey and the first Crusaders over against the Venetians and their greed for booty. He forgot the awful massacre in Jerusalem.
0450 Reg., VIII. Ep., 133.
1451 Nicetas gives a list of these losses. See Gibbon, LX., and Hurter.
Villehardouin, 191; Wailly’s ed., 111, says des reliques it n’en faut point parler, car en ce jour il y en avait autant dans la ville que dans le reste du monde
. The account of Guntherus
, Migne, 212, 253 sqq., is the most elaborate. His informant the Abbot Martin, was an insatiable relic hunter.
3453 See Riant; Hurter, I. 694-702; Pears, 365-370. A volume would scarce contain the history, real and legendary, of these objects of veneration.
454 A curious account is given by Dalmatius of Sergy, of his discovery of the head of St. Clement in answer to prayer, and the deception he practised in making away with it. The relic went to Cluny and was greatly prized. See Hurter. The successful stealth of Abbot Martin is told at length by the German Guntherus, Migne, 212, 251 sq.
Matthew Paris, in his account, says, "It was precious beyond gold or topaz, and to the credit of the French kingdom, and indeed, of all the Latins
, it was solemnly and devoutly received in grand procession amidst the ringing of bells and the devout prayers of the faithful followers of Christ, and was placed in the king’s chapel in Paris." Luard’s ed., IV. 75; Giles’s trans., I. 311.
6456 The mode of election was fixed before the capture of the city, Villehardouin, 234, 256-261; Wailly’s ed., 137,152 sqq. The election took place in a chamber of the palace. The leader of the French forces, Boniface of Montferrat, married the widow of the emperor Isaac and was made king of Salonica. Innocent III. (VIII. 134, Migne, 215, 714) congratulated Isaac’s widow upon her conversion to the Latin Church.
7457 He wrote to Baldwin that, while it was desirable the Eastern Church should be subdued, he was more concerned that the Holy Land should be rescued. He urged him and the Venetians to eat the bread of repentance that they might fight the battle of the Lord with a pure heart.
8458 The Greek patriarch had left the city reduced to a state of apostolic poverty, of which Gibbon, LXI, says that "had it been voluntary it might perhaps have been meritorious."
Pears concludes his work, The Fall of Constantinople
, by the false judgment that the effects of the Fourth Crusade were altogether disastrous for civilization. He surmises that, but for it, the city would never have fallen into the hands of the Turks
, and the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea would now be surrounded by "prosperous and civilized nations," pp. 412 sqq. There was no movement of progress in the Byzantine empire for the Crusaders to check.