|7297 The Itinerary of Richard I., giving an account of the Third Crusade, lays stress upon the good fighting qualities of the prelates and clergy. It speaks of one priest who was incessantly active against the enemy, hurling darts from a sling with indefatigable toil, I. 42. The archbishop of Besançon superintended the construction of a great machine for battering down the walls of Acre and met its expense, I. 60. Two hundred knights and three hundred followers served under archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury, old man as he was, and "abbots and bishops led their own troops, fighting manfully for the faith," I. 62.
8298 De militibus templi, V., Migne, 182, 928.
9299 Roger of Wendover, Luard’s ed., M. Paris, III: 35.
0300 Milites Christi
, Robert the Monk
, VII., Rec., III. 867; Christi Militia
, Guibert, VII., II., Rec., IV. 229. The army was also called crucifer exercitus
, Ekkehard, Rec
. V. 16.
1301 The French terms were se croiser, prendre la croix, prendre le signe de la croix. See, for example, Villehardouin, 2, 8, 18, Wailly’s ed. pp. 3, 7, 13. This historian of the Fourth Crusade also calls the Crusaders les croisés, 38, Wailly’s ed. p. 24.
2302 Quoniam illi, qui cum pietate catholicae religionis in belli certamine cadunt, requies eos aeternae vitae suscipiet contra paganos atque infideles strenue dimicantes, etc., Gottlob, Kreuzablass, 25.
303 Quicumque pro sola devotione
...ad liberandam ecclesiam Dei Jerusalem profectus fuerit, iter illud pro omni paenitentia reputetur
, Gottlob, 72 sqq.; Mirbt. Quellen
4304 Gesta, I. 1; Rec., IV. 124.
5305 Lea, Hist. of Inquis., I. 44, says. "Crusaders were released from earthly as well as heavenly justice by being classed with clerks and subjected only to spiritual justice."
6306 See Origin of the Temporal Privileges of Crusaders, by Edith C. Bramball, "Am Jour. of Theol." 1901, pp. 279-292, and Gottlob, Kreuzablass, pp. 140 sqq.
7307 De militibus templi, II., III., Migne, 182, 923 sq.
This is what Fulcher meant, Rec
., III. 323, when he put into Urban’s mouth the words nunc jure contra barbaros pugnent qui olim fratres dimicabant
. Two hundred years later Alvarus Pelagius made the same argument: quamvis Saraceni Palestinam possident
, juste tamen exinde depelluntur
, etc. See Schwab
, Joh. Gerson
9309 Summa, II. (2), 188, 3; Migne, III., 1366 sq.: militare propter aliquid mundanum est omni religioni contrarium, non autem militare propter obsequium Dei, etc: He adds that clerics going to war must act under the command of princes or of the Church, and not at their own suggestion.
0310 Luard’s ed., V. 196.
1311 Baldric of Dol, Hist. Jerus., I. 8; Rec., IV. 17: gaudebant uxores abeuntibus maritis dilectissimis, etc.
2312 Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial., X. 22, speaks of a woman suffering with severe pains in childbirth who was delivered with ease, so soon as she consented to her husband’s going on a crusade.
313 The name Franks became the current designation for Europeans in the East, and remains so to this day. The crusading enthusiasm did not fully take hold of Germany till the twelfth century. Hauck, Kirchengesch. Deutschlands, IV. 80.
The expression was a translation of the Latin ultra mare
, used for the East
, and, so far as I know, for the first time by Gregory VII., Reg
. II. 37; Migne, 148, 390.
5315 Gregorovius, IV. 288, says no traces of enthusiasm can be found in Rome. "Senate and people would probably have laughed in derision had Urban summoned them to rise in religious enthusiasm to forsake the ruins of Rome and advance to the rescue of Jerusalem." The Crusades were a financial detriment to Rome by diverting pilgrimages from the tombs of the Apostles to the tomb of the Saviour.
6316 Here is one such miracle. At the battle of Ramleh, 1177, there was a miraculous extension of the cross borne by the bishop of Bethlehem. It reached to heaven and extended its arms across the whole horizon. The pagans saw it, were confused, and fled. Hoveden, II. 133 sq.
7317 Hegel, Philosophie der Gesch., 3d ed. 1848, p. 476, brings out this idea most impressively.
8318 Röhricht, Gesch. d. ersten Kreuzzuges, p. 6, says that in these struggles "the crusading enthusiasm was born."
9319 See the beautiful testimony of Gregory, who advised a Cappadocian abbot against going with his monks to Jerusalem, Schaff, Ch. Hist. III. 906.
Fulke the Black, count of Anjou (987-1040), made three journeys to Jerusalem in penance for sacrilege and other crimes. He had burned his young wife at the stake dressed in her gayest attire
, and caused his son to crouch at his feet harnessed as an ass. At Jerusalem he showed his devotion by going about with a halter about his neck. He bit off a piece of the Lord’s tombstone with his teeth and carried back to Europe objects most sacred and priceless, such as the fingers of Apostles and the lamp in which the holy fire was lit. Odolric, bishop of Orleans, gave a pound of gold for the lamp and hung it up in the church at Orleans, where its virtue cured multitudes of sick people.
1321 Hauck, IV. 79.
2322 Ekkehard, 5, Rec., V. 14, may exaggerate when he speaks of very frequent letters and embassies from the Greek emperors to the West, per legationes frequentissimas et epistolas etiam a nobis visas ... lugubriter inclamanter, etc. The letter of Alexius to Robert of Flanders, 1088, has been the subject of much inquiry. Hagenmeyer pronounces it genuine, after a most careful investigation, Epistulae, etc., 10-44.
Diehl, in Essays on the Crusades
, 92, seems even to deny that an appeal was ever made by the Byzantine emperor Alexius for aid to the West
, and speaks of it as an invention of a later time. Certainly no criticism could be more unwarranted unless all the testimonies of the contemporary writers are to be ruthlessly set aside.
4324 Reg., I. 49; II. 37, Migne, 148, 329, 390.
5325 multa millia Christianorum quasi pecudes occidisse, Reg., I. 49
6326 See Jules Lair, Études crit. sur divers textes des Xeet XIesiècles. Bulle du pape Sergius IV., etc., Paris, 1899. Lair, in opposition to Riant, Pflugk-Harttung, etc., gives reasons for accepting as genuine Sergius’s letter, found 1857. For Sylvester’s letter see Havet, Lettres de Gerbert, Paris, 1889. Röhricht, Gesch. d. ersten Kreuzzuges, 8, pronounces Sylvester’s letter a forgery, dating from 1095. Lair tries to prove it was written by Sergius IV.
The date of the pilgrimage is not given
, but may be accepted as having fallen between 1092-1094. Peter is called "the Hermit" by all the accounts, begining with the earliest, the Gesta Francorum
. There is no good ground for doubting that he was from Amiens, as Albert of Aachen distinctly states. William of Tyre says from the "bishopric of Amiens." Hagenmeyer, p. 39, accepts the latter as within the truth.
8328 William of Tyre, Bk. I. 12, Rec., I. 35, gives only a few lines to the visions and the words spoken by the Lord. His account of the meeting with Urban is equally simple and scarcely less brief. Peter found, so he writes, "the Lord Pope Urban in the vicinity of Rome and presented the letters from the patriarch and Christians of Jerusalem and showed their misery and the abominations which the unclean races wrought in the holy places. Thus prudently and faithfully he performed the commission intrusted to him."
At the Council of Clermont Urban made reference to the "very many reports" which had come of the desolation of Jerusalem, Fulcher, Rec
., III. 324. Robert the Monk, I. 1, Rec
., III. 727, says relatio gravis saepissime jam ad aures nostras pervenit
. According to Baldric he appealed to the many among his hearers who could vouch for the desolate condition of the holy places from their own experience, Rec
., IV. 14. See Hagenmeyer, 74-77.
0330 So William of Tyre, Bk. I. 13. Later writers extend the journey of Peter inordinately.
1331 William of Tyre does not mention this embassy. It may be because of the low opinion he had of Alexius, whom (II. 5) he pronounces scheming and perfidious.
2332 There is no statement that the council formally decreed the Crusade. For the acts we are dependent upon scattered statements of chroniclers and several other unofficial documents.
333 Ranke, Weltgeschichte. According to William of Tyre, Peter the Hermit was present at Clermont. The contemporary writers do not mention his presence.
4334 Gregorovius, IV. 287, is right when he says, "the Importance of Urban’s speech in universal history outweighs the orations of Demosthenes and Cicero."
Robert the Monk, I. 1, Rec
., III. 727. The contemporary writers, giving an account of Urban’s speech, are Baldric, Guibert, Fulcher, and Robert the Monk. All of them were present at Clermont. William of Tyre greatly elaborates the address
, and Röhricht calls William’s account an invention which is a masterpiece of its kind,—eine Erdichtung die ein Meisterstück seiner Art
, etc., Gesch. des ersten Kreuzzuges
, p. 20. Röhricht, pp. 235-239, and Munro, "Am. Hist. Rev.," 1906, pp. 231-243, make interesting attempts to reconstruct Urban’s address. The different accounts are not to be regarded as contradictory, but as supplementary one of the other. Röhricht, p. 20, expresses the opinion that none of the accounts of the address is "accurate." No doubt the spirit and essential contents are preserved. Urban made prominent the appeals for aid from the East, the desolations of Jerusalem, and the sufferings of Christians in the East. See Munro.
6336 Fulcher, Rec., III. 324. I follow chiefly the accounts of Fulcher and Robert. Robert represents the appeals for aid as coming from Jerusalem and Constantinople.
Robert the Monk, I. 2 Rec.
, III. 729. The expression "navel of the earth,"umbilicus terrarum,
used by Robert
, was a common one for Jerusalem.
8338 Baldric, Rec., IV. 15, via brevis est, labor permodicus est qui tamen immarcescibilem vobis rependet coronam. Gregory VII., Reg., II. 37, Migne, 148, 390, had made the same promise, quoting 2 Cor. iv. 17, that for the toils of a moment the Crusaders would secure an eternal reward.
9339 Deus vult, Deos lo volt, Diex el volt. These are the different forms in which the response is reported. For this response in its Latin form, Robert the Monk is our earliest authority, I. 2, Rec., III. 729. He says una vociferatio "Deus vult, Deus vult."
In the First Crusade all the crosses were red. Afterwards green and white colors came into use. Urban himself distributed crosses. Guibert, II. 5, Rec
., IV. 140, and Fulcher
, I. 4, state that Urban had the Crusaders wear the cross as a badge.
1341 Urban’s letters, following up his speech at Clermont, are given by Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 136 sqq.
2342 Petrum more heremi vilissima cappa tegebat, Radulf of Caen. The above description is taken from strictly contemporary accounts.
343 The statura brevis of Radulf becomes in William of Tyre’s account pusillus, persona contemptibilis.
4344 I have thus translated Radulf’s spiritus acer.
5345 Albert of Aachen: neminem invenerunt qui tam ferocissimo et superbo loqui auderet quousque Petrus.
6346 So Guibert speaks of the crowds listening to him as tanta populorum multitudo. Hagenmeyer, p. 114, accepting Guibert’s statement, refers to immense throngs, ungeheure Zahl.
7347 Guibert: quidquid agebat namque seu loquebatur quasi quiddam subdivinum videbatur.
So Ekkehard, XII., Rec
., V. 20 sq. who has something derogatory to say of all of these preachers and also of Peter’s subsequent career. Quem postea multi hypocritam esse dicebant
9349 Robert the Monk, I. 5, Rec., III. 731. Super ipsos praesules et abbates apice religionis efferebatur.
0350 Guibert: neminem meminerim similem honore haberi. Baldric speaks of him as Petrus quidam magnus heremita, or as we would say, "that great hermit, Peter."
1351 Hegel, Philosophie der Gesch., p. 444, calls the Crusades "the culminating point of the Middle Ages." Contemporaries like Guibert of Nogent, 123, could think of no movement equal in glory with the Crusades. Ordericus Vitalis, III. 458, praised the union of peoples of different tongues in a project so praiseworthy.
For the account of these early expeditions
, we are chiefly dependent upon Albert of Aachen. Guibert makes no distinction of sections, and has only a cursory notice of the expeditions before the arrival of Peter in Constantinople.
353 Sine Pecunia, Sansavoir, Habenichts. These preliminary expeditions, Röhricht and other historians call Die Züge der Bauern, the campaigns of the peasants.
4354 See Hagenmeyer, 204 sq. Peter apologized to the emperor for the defeat on the ground of his inability to control his followers, who, he declared, were unworthy to see Jerusalem. Anna Comnena calls Peter the "inflated Latin."
5355 I. 26.
6356 Anna Comnena says the Crusaders flowed together from all directions like rivers. She gives the number of Peter’s army as eighty thousand foot and one hundred thousand horse. Fulcher speaks of the numbers setting out from the West as "an immense assemblage. The islands of the sea and the whole earth were moved by God to make contribution to the host. The sadness was for those who remained behind, the joy for those who departed."
7357 This is upon the testimony of Albert of Aachen and Guibert. See Röhricht, Erster Kreuzzug, 240 sq., and references there given.
Mannheimer, Die Judenverfolgungen in Speier, Worms und Mainz im Jahre 1096, während des ersten Kreuzzuges
, Darmstadt, 1877. Hagenmeyer, p. 139, clears Peter of Amiens of the shameful glory of initiating this racial massacre, and properly claims it for count Emich and his mob. See also Röhricht, Gesch. d. ersten Kreuzzuges
9359 Albert of Aachen, II. 18.
0360 Gibbon calls him "a respectable prelate alike qualified for this world and the next."
Bouillon, not to be confounded with Boulogne-sur-mer, on the English Channel, is a town in Belgian Luxemburg, and was formerly the capital of the lordship of Bouillon
, which Godfrey mortgaged to the bishop of Liège in 1095. It has belonged to Belgium since 1831.
2362 Gibbon: "In the accomplished character of Tancred we discover all the virtues of a perfect knight, the true spirit of chivalry, which inspired the generous sentiments and social offices of man far better than the base philosophy, or the baser religion, of the time."
363 Fulcher, I. 13, Rec., III. 336.
4364 Raymund of Agiles says Alexius treated the crusading army in such wise that so "long as ever he lives, the people will curse him and call him a traitor."
5365 The contemporary authorities represent the reprimand as given to Carpentarius. As Hagenmeyer suggests, Peter was included and Carpentarius’name alone mentioned because he was of royal blood.
6366 Among those who helped to dig for the weapon was Raymund of Agiles. Its authenticity was a matter of dispute, Adhemar being one of those who doubted. Barthelemy went through the ordeal of fire to prove the truth of his statements, but died in consequence of the injuries he suffered.
According to Robert the Monk, IV., Rec
., III. 824, a heavenly sign was granted on the eve of the final attack, a flame burning in the western sky
, ignis de coelo veniens ab occidente.
One of the interesting remains of the crusadal period are two letters written by Stephen, count of Chartres, to his wife Adele, the one before Nicaea and the other during the siege of Antioch. They are given in Hagenmeyer, Epistulae
, pp. 138, 149.
8368 The figures are differently given. See Sybel, 412, and Röhricht, Gesch. des ersten Kreuzzuges, 183. William of Tyre gives the number as twenty-one thousand, and the army defending Jerusalem as forty thousand.
9369 Raymund of Agiles reports that the Crusaders forgot the exhortation of Peter Barthelemy to make the last part of the journey barefoot. "They remembered their weariness no more, and hastening their steps reached the walls amidst tears and praises."
On this occasion Peter the Hermit and Arnulf, afterwards archbishop of Jerusalem, made addresses on the Mount of Olives to restore unity among the crusading leaders
, especially Tancred and Raymund. Albert of Aachen, VI. 8, Rec
., IV. 471, says, ad populos sermones ... plurimam discordiam quae inter Peregrinos de diversis causis excreverat exstinxerunt
. Tancred had stirred up much jealousy by raising his banner over Bethlehem. Hagenmeyer, p. 259, accepts Albert’s account as genuine against Sybel.
1371 Miles splendidus et refulgens.
2372 Guibert, VII. 7, Rec., IV. 226; Robert the Monk, VII., Rec., III. 867.
373 So Raymund of Agiles, an eyewitness, usque ad genua et usque ad frenos equorum, XX., Rec, III. 300. This he calls "the righteous judgment of God."
4374 So the Gesta: tales occisiones de paganorum gente nullus unquam audivit nec vidit ... nemo scit numerum eorum nisi solus deus. The slain are variously estimated from forty thousand to one hundred thousand. Guibert, Gesta, VII. 7, Rec., IV. 227, further says that in the temple area there was such a sea of blood, sanguinis unda, as almost to submerge the pedestrian.
5375 IX., Rec., III. 869. Robert gives an awful picture of the streets filled with dismembered bodies and running with gore.
6376 William of Tyre is the earliest witness to this scene. Leaving out embellishments, it does not seem to be at all unnatural. Hagenmeyer, pp. 265-269, calls it the "sheer invention of William’s fancy."
8378 Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite, p. 102, says, Dem Papste allein ist der Ruhm zu erhalten den ihm der Einsiedler von Amiens bis auf unsere Tage zur grösseren Hälfte streitig gemacht hat. Also Sybel, p. 243.
9379 Report of the Am. Hist. Association, 1900, p. 504 sq. See also the very emphatic statements of G. L.. Burr in art. The year 1000 and the Antecedents of the Crusades in the "Am. Hist. Rev.," April, 1901, pp. 429-439, and Trans. and Reprints of the Univ. of Pa., 1894, pp. 19 sqq.
0380 The Speech of Urban II. etc., in "Am. Hist. Rev.," 1906, p. 232.
1381 He says he reports what he heard, ex auditu et relatione.
2382 Nach einer solchen Katastrophe war ofenbar auch bei diesen alles Ansehen für ihn dabei, Hagenmeyer, p. 204.