9199 He had before come into collision with John over the harsh treatment of the archbishop of Dublin. Works of Innocent III., Reg., VI. 63; Migne, 215, 61; Potthast, 167.
His scholarly tastes are attested by his sermons
, poems, and comments on books of the Bible which still exist in manuscript in the libraries of Oxford, Cambridge, Lambeth, and of France. He is falsely credited by some with having been the first to divide the entire Bible into chapters. See Hook, Archbishops of Canterbury
, II. 678.
1201 Innocent, in his letter to John of May 26, 1207, declared he would turn neither to the right nor to the left in confirming the election. Potthast, 264.
202 This and the expression "by God’s feet" were John’s favorite forms of objurgation.
3203 See Migne, 217, 190; Potthast, 286.
4204 Potthast, 316.
5205 A favorite expression of Matthew Paris.
Another example of John’s unspeakable cruelty was his treatment of a rich Jew of Bristol upon whom he had made a demand for 10,000 marks. On his refusing, John ordered ten teeth to be taken out
, one each day. The executioner dentist began with the molars. The sufferer held out till he had been served this way seven times. He then yielded, giving up the money, which, as Matthew Paris says, he might have done seven days before, thus saving himself all his agony. Luard’s ed., II. 528.
7207 Shakespeare is responsible for the popular mistake which makes Pandulf a cardinal. King John, Act III. Sc. 1. He served as legate in England, 1217-1221. The official documents call him "subdeacon and familiar to our lord the pope Innocent."
8208 Potthast, 416. The Latin in Matthew Paris, Luard’s ed. II. 541-546; a translation is given by Gee and Hardy, 75-79.
9209 IV. 479, carta detestabilis quam lacrimabilis memoriae Johannes infeliciter confecit
Henry II. had become the feudatory of Alexander III., and Richard I., after resigning his crown to the emperor, had held it for the payment of a yearly rent. Lingard offers extenuating considerations for John’s surrender
, which, however, he denominates "certainly a disgraceful act."
1211 M. Paris, Luard’s ed. II. 611.
212 Aug. 24, 1215, Potthast, 435.
3213 Compositionen hujusmodi reprobamus penitus et damnamus compositio non solum sit vilis et turpis, verum etiam illicita et iniqua ut merito sit abomnibus reprobanda. M. Paris, Luard’s ed., II. 619 sq. Another ground given by Innocent for annulling the document was that he as England’s overlord had not been consulted before the king’s signature was attached.
The language is the strongest: tam cartam quam obligationes irritantes penitus et cassantes, ut nullo unquam tempore aliquam habeant firmitatem
. M. Paris, Luard’s ed. II. 619. See Hurter, II. 656 sq. Some excuse has been found by advocates of papal infallibility for this fierce sentence upon the ground that Innocent was condemning the mode by which the king’s consent was obtained. Innocent adduces three considerations, the conspiracy of the barons to force the king, their disregard of his Crusading vow, and the neglect of all parties to consult the pope as overlord. He condemns, it is true, the document as a document
, and it has been said the contents were not aimed at Innocent’s mistake and official offence were that, passing by entirely, the merits of the Charter, he should have espoused the despotism of the iniquitous king.
5215 Potthast, 437; M. Paris, in Luard, II. 627. About the same time at John’s request, Innocent annulled the election of Simon Langton, Stephen’s brother, to the see of York.
6216 Thomas Fuller remarks that "the commonness of these curses caused them to be contemned, so that they were a fright to few, a mock to many, and a hurt to none."
Roger of Wendover says he surfeited himself with peaches and new cider. M. Paris, Luard’s ed., II. 667. Shakespeare, following a later tradition
, represents him as dying of poison administered by a monk:—
"The king, I fear is poisoned by a monk,
* * * * * * * *
It is too late; the life of all his blood
Is touched corruptibly; and his pure brain
Which some suppose the soul’s frail dwelling-house)
Doth, by the idle comments that it makes,
Foretell the ending of mortality."
, Act V. Sc. 6 sq.
8218 April 19, 1213.
9219 The invitation included the prelates of the East and West, Christian emperors and kings, the grand-masters of the Military Orders, and the heads of monastic establishments.
0220 In qua idem ipse sacerdos et sacrificium Jesus Christus, cujus corpus et sanguis in sacramento altaris sub speciebus panis et vini veraciter continentur, transubstantiatis pane in corpus, et vino in sanguinem
, etc. Mansi, XXII. 982; Mirbt, Quellen
1221 The Lombard had defined the substance of the three persons as a real entity, quaedam summa res.
222 See Hauck, art. Amalrich, in Herzog, I. 432 sq.
3223 See chapters on the Inquisition and the Cathari.
4224 The patriarchs of Jerusalem and Constantinople, of the Latin succession, were conspicuous at the council, and also Antioch by a representative, the Melchisite patriarch of Alexandria, and the Maronite patriarch.
5225 Chapter XIII.
7227 Plenam suorum peccaminum de quibus fuerint corde contriti et ore confessi veniam indulgemus et in retributione justorum salutis eternae pollicemur augmentum.
8228 V: 102 sq. Gibbon, ch. LIX, after acknowledging Innocent’s talents and virtues, has this criticism of two of the most far-reaching acts of his reign: "Innocent may boast of the two most signal triumphs over sense and humanity, the establishment of transubstantiation, and the origin of the Inquisition."
9229 Weltgeschichte, viii: 334.
0230 Geschichte des Mittelalters, p. 220.
For judgments of mediaeval authors, see Potthast, Regesta
, 461. The contemporaneous author of the Gesta Innocentii
, Migne, 214, p. xviii., thus describes Innocent: "Fuit vir perspicacis ingenii et tenacis memoriae, in divinis et humanis litteris eruditus, sermone tam vulgari quam litterali disertus, exercitatus in cantilena et psalmodia
, statura mediocris et decorus aspectu, medius inter prodigalitatem et avaritiam, sed in eleemosynis et victualibus magis largus, et in aliis magis parcus, nisi cum necessitatis articulus exigebat severus contra rebelles et contumaces, sed benignus erga humiles et devotos; fortis et stabilis, magnanimus et astutus; fidei defensor, et haeresis expugnator; in justitia rigidus, sed in misericordia pius
; humilis in prosperis, et patiens in adversis; naturae tamen aliquantulum indignantis, sed facile ignoscentis."
232 Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, ch. XIX.
3233 Ranke, VIII. 337, calls him a foreigner on German soil.
4234 The coronation took place outside the walls of the city. Peter died in prison on his way to Constantinople.
5235 The coronation ceremonies passed off amidst the general good will of the Roman populace and were interrupted by a single disturbance, a dispute over a dog between the ambassadors of Florence and Pisa which ultimately involved the cities in war. Villani, VI. 2.
6236 Damietta, an important harbor in Egypt, had been chosen by the crusaders as their base of operations against Jerusalem and the point from which Jerusalem was to be reached.
7237 On the ground that Iolanthe was immediate heir to the crown through her mother.
8238 His exact age is not known. M. Paris, Luard’s ed., IV. 162; Giles’s trans., I. 383, says that at the time of his death he was almost a centenarian (fere centenarius).
9239 Frederick had received the cross at his coronation in Rome from the hand of Gregory, then Cardinal Ugolino.
"The English chronicler," speaking of the pope’s act, uses his favorite expression
, "that he might not be like a dog unable to bark" (ne canis videretur non valens latrare
). Luard’s ed., M. Paris, III. 145; Giles’s trans. of Roger of Wendover, II. 499.
1241 Luard’s ed., M. Paris, III. 145 sq. See Registres, p. 107.
242 Henry died in an Italian prison. Conrad, whose mother was Iolanthe, was nine years old at the time of his coronation. In 1235 Frederick married for the third time Isabella, sister of Henry III. of England. This marriage explains Frederick’s repeated appeals to the clergy and people of England.
3243 Potthast, p. 952; Huillard-Bréholles, VI. 1, 136.
4244 In view of these repeated fulminations it is no wonder that the papal legate, Albert of Bohemia., wrote from Bavaria that the clergy did not care a bean (faba) for the sentence of excommunication. Huillard-Bréholles, V. 1032; Potthast, 908.
5245 The document is given in full in M. Paris, Luard’s ed., III. 553 sq.
6246 Bréholles, V. 327-340; Paris, III. 590-608.
7247 The charge is made in an encyclical of Gregory sent forth between May 21 and July 1, 1239.
8248 Iste rex pestilentiae a tribus barotoribus, ut ejus verbis utamur, scilicet Christo Jesu, Moyse et Mohameto totum mundum fuisse deceptum, et duobus eorum in gloria mortuis, ipsum Jesum in ligno suspensum manifeste proponens,
9249 Bréholles, V. 348 sqq.
0250 Bréholles, V. 777 sqq.
1251 M. Paris with his usual vivacity says, "They were heaped together like pigs."
252 Bréholles, V. 1120-1138; G. C. Macaulay gives a lively account of the proceeding in art. Capture of a General Council, Engl. Hist. Rev., 1891, pp. l-17
3253 See section on The Canon Law.
4254 M. Paris says he had never heard of such bitter hatred as the hatred between Innocent IV. and Frederick. Luard’s ed., V. 193
5255 M. Paris, heretofore inclining to the side of Frederick, at this point distinctly changes his tone. See, for example, Luard’s ed., IV. 478.
6256 Two German bishops seem to have been present. Hefele, V. 982 sq. Catholic historians have been concerned to increase the number of attending prelates from the north.
7257 Mansi, XXIII. 612 sqq., 638; Luard’s ed. of M. Paris, IV. 445-456. Gregorovius calls this decree "one of the most ominous events in universal history," V. 244.
8258 Bréholles, VI. 318.
9259 Too much credit must not be given to Frederick for a far-seeing policy based upon a love of truth or a perception of permanent principles. The rights of conscience he nowhere hints at, and probably did not dream of.
0260 M. Paris, Luard’s ed., IV. 478.
1261 See Aldinger.
262 The tragic career of this gifted man and consummate flower of chivalry is deeply engraven in the romance and architecture of Bologna.
3263 This is the, more credible narrative. Villani, an. 1250, tells the story that Manfred bribed Frederick’s chamberlain, and stifled the dying man with a wet cloth.
4264 Principum mundi maximus, stupor quoque mundi et immutator mirabilis
, "greatest of the princes of the earth, the wonder of the world and the marvellous regulating genius [innovator] in its affairs." Luard’s M. Paris, V. 190, 196. In his letters Frederick styled himself Fredericus Dei gratia Romanorum imperator et semper augustus, Jerusalem et Siciliae rex
5265 Kington, I. 475 sqq.
6266 Gregorovius, V. 271. This view is not discredited by the decentralizing charters Frederick gave to German cities on which Fisher, Mediaeval Empire, lays so much stress. See his good chapter on "Imperial Legislation in Italy" (XI).
7267 Ranke, VIII. 369 sqq.
8268 Akademische Vorträge, III. 213.
9269 Cardinal Rainer’s letter as given by M. Paris, Luard’s ed., V. 61-67; Giles’s trans., II. 298 sqq. Peter the Lombard, writing to one of his presbyters, says ecclesia Romana totis viribus contra imperatorem et ad ejus destructionem, Bréholles, V. 1226.
For the charge, that he denied the incarnation by the Virgin Mary and other charges
, see above and Bréholles, V. 459 sq.; M. Paris, Luard’s ed., III. 521.
1271 The statement was floating about in the air. It is traced to Simon Tornacensis, a professor of theology in Paris, d. 1201, as well as to Frederick. A book under the title De tribus impostoribus can be traced into the sixteenth century. It produced the extermination of the Canaanites and other arguments against the revealed character of the Bible and relegated the incarnation to the category of the myths of the gods. See Herzog, Enc. IX. 72-75; and F. W. Genthe,De impostura religionum, etc., Leipzig, 1833; Benrath’s art. in Herzog, IX. 72-75; Reuter. Gesch. der Aufklärung im M. A., II. 275 sqq.
272 Med. Emp., II. 163.
3273 Ranke calls it one of the best treatments of the Middle Ages on the subject. For Frederick’s influence on culture and literature, see Bréholles, I. ch. 9. Also Fisher’s Med. Emp., II. ch. 14, "The Empire and Culture."
4274 This bodyguard was with him on his last campaign and before Parma.
Of his cruelty and unrestrained morals, priestly chroniclers could not say enough. See Kington, II. 474 sqq. He was legally married four times
; Amari, in his History of the Mohammedans in Sicily
, calls him a "baptized sultan." For Frederick’s relation to the Mohammedans, see Bréholles, I. 325-375.
6276 Hist. Essays, I. 286. He says again, p. 283, "It is probable there never lived a human being endowed with greater natural gifts." We may agree with Freeman’s statement that in Frederick’s career "are found some of the most wonderful chapters in European history," p. 313.
7277 Holy Rom. Emp., ch. XIII.
8278 Herbert Fisher says, "Of all the mediaeval emperors, Frederick II. alone seems to have the true temper of the legislator."Med. Emp., II. 167. Equal to his best generalizations is Gibbon’s characterization of Frederick’s career, as "successively the pupil, the enemy, and the victim of the Church," ch. LIX.
M. Paris reports that a cardinal, after delivering a farewell sermon in Innocent’s name, said, "Since our arrival in the city
, we have done much good and bestowed alms. On our arrival we found three or four brothels, but now, at our departure, we leave only one behind, but that extends from the eastern to the western gate of the city." Luard’s ed., V. 237.
0280 A few months before, Henry, Frederick’s son by Isabella of England, had died. His son Enzio languished to his death in a Bologna prison, 1272.
1281 See the pages on the last popes of this period and of the last period of the Middle Ages, especially under Alexander VI. and Julius II.
Alfonso never visited Germany. Richard spent part of his time there, but was destitute of political power. The threat of excommunication deterred the electors from electing Conradin. For the imperial electoral college, see Fisher, Med. Emp
., I. 225 sq., and for Richard
, see Richard v. Cornwall seit sr. Wahl z. deutschen König
4284 Richard, duke of Cornwall, had died April 2, 1272.
5285 The ancient seat of the Hapsburgs was in Aarpu, Switzerland, scarcely one hundred miles away from Zollern.
6286 "Dann geendigt nach langem verderblichen Streit,
War die kaiserlose, die schreckliche Zeit."
—Der Graf von Hapsburg.
7287 See the elaborate art. Nepotismus in Wetzer-Welte, IX. 109 sqq.; and Haller in Literaturzeitung, see above.
8288 Inferno, XIX. 72 sqq. The term "whelps" refers to the Orsini or bear clan, to which Nicolas belonged.
9289 See the art. Martin by Knöpfler in Wetzer-Welte, VIII. 919 sq.
1291 See Ranke, VIII. 531 sqq.
The author of the suggestion that Coelestin should abdicate has given rise to a good deal of controversy in recent years. Was Benedict Gaëtani (Boniface VIII.) the author, or did the suggestion come from the senile old pope himself. Hans Schulz, a Protestant, has recently called in question the old view that laid the blame on Benedict, and regards it as probable that Coelestin was the first to propose abdication, and that Benedict being called in gave the plan his sanction. He says, however, that in the whole matter "Benedict’s eye was directed to the papal crown as his own prize." See Herzog’s Enc
., IV. 203. Hergenröther-Kirsch, Kirchengesch
., II. 312, and Finke, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz VIII
., p. 39 sqq., both Roman Catholic historians, have adopted the same position
, as does also Scholz, Publizistik zur Zeit Philipp IV. und Bonifaz VIII
., p. 3. The contemporary historians differ about the matter, but upon the whole are against the cardinal. The charge that he was at the bottom of the abdication and the main promoter of it was one of the chief charges brought against him by his enemy, Philip the Fair of France. One of the measures for humiliating Boniface proposed by the king was the canonization of Coelestin as one whom Boniface had abused. See Document of the year 1305, printed for the first time by Finke, p, xcviii. A tract issued by one of Boniface’s party attempted to parry this suggestion by declaring that Boniface, who was then dead, had merits which entitled him to canonization above Coelestin. The author said, "si canonizatio Celestini petitur, multo magis canonizacio sanctissimi patris domini Bonifacii, postulari debet et approbari
." He continues
, "Coelestin’s canonization is asked because he profited himself and died in sua simplicitate
; Boniface’s ought to be asked for because he profited others and died for the freedom of the Church." See the document printed for the first time in Finke, p. lxxxv, and which Finke puts in 1308. Coelestin was canonized 1313 by Clement V.
3293 A memorial volume was published under the title Celestin V ed il vi Centenario della sua incoronazione, Aquila, 1894.
4294 Inferno, III. 58 sq.
5295 Gibbon, who treats with scorn the Crusades as a useless exhibition of religious fanaticism, calls them the "world’s debate," Ch. LIX.
6296 John Fiske, Discovery of America, I. 318, 419, 505.