|3123 Epist., 238 ad Eugen. III.
Otto v. Freising, l.c
.: "Dicebat, nec Clericos proprietatem, nec Episcopos regalia, nec monachos possessiones habentes aliqua ratione salvari posse. Cuncta haec Principis esse, ab ejusque beneficentia in usum tantum laicorum cedere opportere
5125 Tosti, in his Storia di Abelardo, Naples, 1851, says of Abaelard that he had the courage of thought, but not the courage of action (il coraggio del pensiero non quello dell’azione).
6126 This Guido was formerly identified with Guido of Castello who became Pope Coelestin II., Sept. 26, 1143, and ruled five months. But Giesebrecht and Gregorovius (IV. 455) distinguish the two. Francke exaggerates Arnold’s influence upon Swiss liberty while at Zürich. Milman makes him a forerunner of Zwingli, who opposed the hierarchy; but Zwingli knew little or nothing of Arnold, and had no idea of pauperizing the Church, or of a separation of Church and State.
7127 According to a Brescian poem, Arnold refused to recant and made only the single request for time for prayer before dying. Gregorovius, IV. 545.
8128 Unter die eigentlichen Heretiker. Hefele denies the errors ascribed to Arnold by Otto of Freising. Kirchengesch. 407.
The castle was destroyed in the Peasants’War in 1525. At the foot of the hill is a village and an old church with a fresco picture of Barbarossa, bearing the inscription: "Hic transibat Caesar, amor bonorum, terror malorum
.""Here Caesar passed away, beloved by the good, dreaded by the bad." Close by is the ancient seat of the Hohenzollern family. On the site of the old castle a splendid castle was erected by William I., the Emperor of Germany.
0130 John of Salisbury, Polycraticus, VIII. 23; Migne, 199, 814.
See vol. IV. 258, and Rückert’s poem there quoted. Em. Geibel also wrote a beautiful poem on the German dream of sleep and revival of Barbarossa:—
"Tief im Schoosse des Kyffhäusers
Bei der Ampel rothem Schein
Sitzt der alte Kaiser Friedrich
An dem Tisch von Marmorstein,
2132 Eskill of Lund seems to have had the loftiest ideas of prelatical prerogative, and boasted that he was accustomed to command kings, not obey them. It is quite possible the emperor took inward satisfaction at his custody. Hauck, IV. 210. Adrian’s letter, Mirbt, Quellen, 119 sq., speaks of the treatment of the archbishop as "that fearful and execrable deed and sacrilegious crime,"illud horrendum et execrabile facinus et piaculare flagitium.
Gregorovius, IV. 560, after praising his merits, says of Adrian. "He was shrewd, practical
, and unyielding as Anglo-Saxons are wont to be." His "nature was as firm and strong as the granite of his tomb."
4134 The subject has been thoroughly discussed by Professors Thatcher and Scheffer-Boichorst before him. John of Salisbury, Polycr. VI. 24; Migne, 199, 623, distinctly says that Adrian, "listening to his petitions, conceded and gave" Ireland to Henry and his heirs on the ground that all islands "by ancient law and Constantine’s donation, are said to belong to the Church." The pope sent to the king through John a ring of gold set with a precious stone to be a seal of investiture. There is no good reason to doubt this statement. And we know from Roger de Wendover, Rolls Series, I. 11, that an English embassy was sent to Adrian to secure this permission. The bull Laudabiliter (Mansi, XXI. 788), which formally confers the island upon the English crown and demands from it the payment of Peter’s Pence, is found also in Roger de Wendover (Giles, Trans., I. 529) and Giraldus. Upon internal grounds its genuineness is considered doubtful or flatly denied, as by Thatcher. This author gives, p. 4, a list of review articles on the subject. Scholarship and patriotism have made it possible for Irish writers to use much argument to show that the bull is a forgery and the alleged fact a fancy, whether of a prophetic enemy of Ireland or by a historical bungler is not known. The Protestant has an easier way out of the difficulty in affirming that the pope may make mistakes.
Octavian, according to the report of his enemies, plucked the papal cope from the shoulders of Roland
, and invested himself with such indecent haste that the cope was reversed, and the back of it appeared on his breast. The mistake created derisive laughter, and was construed as a divine judgment.
6136 The document is given in Rahewin, Gesta Frid. IV. 64, and Mirbt, Quellen, 121.
7137 Thomas à Becket, in a letter congratulating Alexander, compared Frederick’s discomfiture by pestilence to Sennacherib’s defeat at Jerusalem. 2 Chron. xxxii:21.
8138 His few acts are recorded in Jaffé-Wattenbach, Regesta, pp. 429-430. He submitted to Alexander, and was made archbishop of Benevento. Of the fourth anti-pope, Lando Sitino, who called himself Innocent III (1179-1180), nothing is recorded but his election and imprisonment, ibid., p. 431.
For the text see Mirbt, Quellen
, 121-124. The chief authorities for the Peace of Venice are Alexander’s Letters to Roger, archbishop of York, in Migne, 200, 1160 sqq.; and Mansi, XXII. 180 sqq.; the Chronicon
of Romuald., archbishop of Salerno and commissioner from Sicily
, in Muratori, Scrip. Rer. Ital
. VII. Mathews, pp. 99-105, also gives the text.
0140 Vita Alex.: "prostravit se in terram."Chron. Romualdi (Muratori,VII. 231): "totum se extenso corpore prostravit."
141 Romuald. "quem Alexander papa cum lacrymis benigne elevans."
2142 Romuald.: "moxque a Teutonicis Te Deum laudamus est excelsa voce cantatum." Vita Alex.: "Tunc repleti sunt omnes gaudio et prae nimia laetitia vox conclamantium in Te Deum laudamus insonuit usque ad sidera." Alexander writes to Roger of York: "innumera multitudine virorum et mulierum praesente, alta voce reddente gratias et laudes Altissimo."
Alexander ad Rogerum (Migne, 200, 1 1131): "Cum ascenderemus palafredum nostrum ibi paratum, stapham tenuit, et omnem honorem et reverentiam nobis exhibuit, quam praedecessores ejus nostris consueverunt antecessoribus
." It is stated by Godfrey of Viterbo
, an attendant of the emperor, that the old pope, through the pressure of the crowd, was thrown from his horse, and that the emperor assisted him to remount. Pertz, Archiv
, IV. 363, quoted by Milman, bk. VIII. ch. IX.
4144 "Super aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis," etc. This and other stories of the fourteenth century are irreconcilable with contemporary records and are given up by nearly all modern historians. They may have partly originated in the fresco paintings of Spinello described by Lord Lindsay, History of Christian Art, II. 315. Milman, IV. 435 (Am. ed.), says."As poetry has so often become, here painting for once became history." Comp. Reuter, III. 758.
5145 The lists are defective, and the contemporary records vary between 287, 300, 396 bishops, and 1000 members in all. See Mansi, XXII. 213 sqq.; Hefele, V. 711; Reuter, III. 418 sqq.
"Ille Romanus Pontifex habeatur, qui a duabus partibus fuerit electus et receptus. Si quis autem de tertiae partis nominatione confisus ... sibi nomen Episcopi usurpaverit: tam ipse, quam qui eum recepuerint, excommunicationi subjaceant et totius sacri ordinis privatione mulctentur
," etc. Mansi, XXII. 217.
7147 Reuter, III. 495-499. A similar insult was offered by the Roman populace to Pius IX. when his coffin was transported in the night from the Vatican to its last resting-place in the basilica of S. Lorenzo. He, too, spent some time in exile after the proclamation of the Roman republic in 1849.
8148 Rahewin, in his Gesta Friderici, IV. 86, gives an animated description of Frederick’s appearance, habits, dress, achievements, etc. He calls him the best of emperors.
The Norman descent of Becket rests on contemporary testimony, and is accepted by Giles, Lingard, Robertson, Milman, Hook, Freeman, Reuter, Hefele. The commercial advantages of London attracted emigrants from Normandy. Lord Lyttleton, Thierry, Campbell, and J. A. Froude make Becket a Saxon, but without authority. Becket is a surname, and may be Norman as well as Saxon. The prefix à
seems to be of later date, and to have its origin (according to Robertson and Hook) in vulgar colloquial usage.
Tennyson describes Stephen’s reign as—
"A reign which was no reign, when none could sit
By his own hearth in peace; when murder common
As nature’death, like Egypt’s plague, had filled
All things with blood."
The tradition ran that she poisoned his favorite concubine, Rosamund de Clifford, who, with her labyrinthine bower, figures largely in the literature of romance, also in Tennyson’s Becket
. On her tomb were inscribed the lines:—
"Hic jacet in tumba Rosa Mundi, non Rosa Munda,
Non redolet, sed olet, quae redolere solet.
"Here Rose the graced
, not Rose the chaste, reposes;
The smell that rises is no smell of roses."
2152 Freeman, who exalts him as chancellor, thinks that he failed as archbishop; but his martyrdom was his greatest triumph.
Tennyson ingeniously introduces his drama with a game of chess between Henry and Becket, during which the king informs the chancellor of the fatal illness of Theobald, and speaks of the need of a mightier successor, who would punish guilty clerks; while the chancellor quietly moves his bishop and checkmates the king; whereupon Henry kicks over the board, saying—
"Why, there then—down go bishop and king together."
4154 "Though of Norman blood, his whole feeling, his whole character is English, and it is clear that no man looked on him as a stranger." Freeman (l.c., pp. 101 sq.).
Tennyson makes Becket say:—
"This Almoner hath tasted Henry’s gold.
The cardinals have fingered Henry’s gold.
And Rome is venal even to rottenness."
They are found in Matthew Paris
, ad ann
. 1164; Mansi, XXI. 1187; Wilkins, Concilia M. Britanniae
, vol. I. Gieseler, II. 89 sqq. (Am. ed. II. 289 sq.); Reuter, I. 371-375, 573-577; Hefele-Knöpfler, V. 623-628 (in German); Stubbs, 135-140 (in Latin); Gee and Hardy, 68-73.
7157 Maitland, p. 135 sqq., has thrown light upon this article, and interprets it to mean that a clerk is first to be accused and plead in the temporal court, then to be taken to the ecclesiastical court, and if found guilty and degraded he is to be returned to the temporal court and receive sentence to the layman’s punishment. This procedure was for civil crimes, such as robbery, rape, murder.
8158 See the pope’s letter to the archbishop of York in the "Materials," vol. VI. 206 sq., and Robertson’s note; also Reuter, II. 683 sq. The letter is not in the Vatican, but in other MSS., and is admitted as genuine by Jaffé. It was probably written in the beginning of 1170, when Alexander was hard pressed by Barbarossa in the siege of Rome. See the other letters on the subject in "Materials," VII. 257, 305 sqq., 399.
In 1169 Henry proposed to marry one of his daughters to the young king of Sicily, and to give a sum of money to the cities of the Lombard League for the erection of fortifications
, provided they would influence Alexander to depose or transfer Becket. See Stubbs, ed. of Hoveden
, II. xci sq.
0160 Cubicularii, gentlemen of the bed-chamber.
161 The biographers say he was more fit to be called "the Brute."
2162 Modern writers are in the habit of calling him a monk, and so he may have been. In the contemporary narratives he is called simply "clerk." Abbott, I. 42 sq.
3163 See Abbott, I. 89 sqq., on the words used, and Becket’s reply.
4164 "Lenonem appellans." Becket was wont to use violent language. He called Geoffrey Riddell, the archdeacon of Canterbury, "archdevil." Three years after Becket’s death, Riddell was made bishop of Ely.
5165 Abbott, I. 147, holds that these words must have been spoken before the blow was struck which dislodged the cap from Becket’s head. The blow cut off a piece of the prelate’s skull.
6166 All the authorities relate this brutal sacrilege.
7167 Grim, with whom the other original authorities agree, says that those who saw this haircloth suit, covering the upper and lower parts of Becket’s body, put aside all their doubts and acknowledged him as a martyr.
See his Vita S
. in the "Materials," etc., II. 322: In loco passionis eius
...paralytici curantur, caeci vident, surdi audiunt, loquuntur muti, claudi ambulant, leprosi mundantur ...et quod a diebus patrum nostrorum non est auditum, mortui resurgunt.
9169 William’s long Vita et Passio S. Th. is printed in the "Materials," vol. I. 173-546. The credulous Alban Butler, in his Lives of the Saints, quotes from an old English MS. of a pretended eye-witness, who records two hundred and sixty-three miracles wrought by the intercession of St. Thomas,—many more than are found in the whole Bible.
Dr. Abbott devotes the main part of his work, I: 224 sqq., II. to a detailed description and discussion of the miracles. His closing chapter, II. 307-314, draws a parallel between these miracles and the miraculous works of Christ. He makes a distinction between mighty works wrought on human nature, such as the cure of diseases and the mighty works wrought on "nonhuman nature," as on bread, water, trees. The reality of the former he accepts, though he denies their supernatural character. The latter "are not to be accepted as historical, but as legends explicable from poetry taken as prose or from linguistic error or from these two combined." He goes on to say the distinction between Christ and Thomas is that "the spirit of St. Thomas had no power to pass into the hearts of men with a permanent vivifying message of its own. The Spirit of him whom we worship has both that power and that message." This is not the place to make an argument for the miracles of the New Testament, but two considerations place them and the miracles of Thomas of Canterbury in different categories. Christ’s miracles had the purpose and worth of attesting his mission as the Saviour of the world, and they were original. It was quite easy for the mediaeval mind in its fear and love of the wonderful to associate miracles with its saints
, Christ’s example being before them; but where it was original, the miracles it believed were for the most part grotesque.
171 A granite pillar in the Norman cathedral at Avranches bears an inscription in memory of the event. It is given by Stanley, p. 136.
2172 Sir Henry Irving, the distinguished English actor, died Oct. 20, 1905, seven days after a performance of this drama, the last time he appeared on the stage.
3173 Like Hildebrand, Innocent may have combined Germanic with Italian blood. Upon the basis of such family names among the Conti as Lothaire and Richard, Gregorovius finds evidence of Lombard origin.
4174 The de contemptu mundi sive de miseria conditionis humanae was first printed at Ulm, 1448, then at Lyons, 1473, Nürnberg, 1477, etc. See Migne’s ed. 217, 701-746.
5175 Mysterium evangelicae legis et sacramentum eucharistiae or de missarum mysteriis.
6176 II. 29.
The Dies Irae
has been ascribed to Innocent. Here are the concluding words of this famous treatise. "Ibi erit fletus et stridor dentium
(Matthew xiii.),gemitus et ululatus, luctus et cruciatus, stridor et clamor, timor et tremor, dolor et labor, ardor et faetor, obscuritas et anxietas, acerbitas et asperitas, calamitas et egestas, angustia et tristitia, oblivio et confusio, torsiones et punctiones, amaritudines et terrores, fames et sitis, frigus et cauma, sulphur et ignis ardens in saecula saeculorum. Unde liberet nos Deus, qui est benedictus in saecula saeculorum. Amen
." III. 17; Migne, 217, 746.
8178 See Gregorovius, V. 7.
0180 Statura mediocris, etc. See Gesta, Migne, 214, XVII. The portrait prefixed in Hurter has no historic value. For Innocent’s personal habits and methods of conducting business, see Hurter, II 743 sqq.
181 Apostolicae sedis primatus quem non homo sed Deus, imo verius Deus homo constituit.
2182 Reg. II. 209; Migne, 214, 758-765.
3183 Cum non humana sed divina fiat auctoritate quod in hac parte per summum pontificem adimpletur, qui non hominis puri sed veri Dei vere vicarius appellatur. I. 326; Migne, 214, 292.
4184 Nam cum aquae multae sint, populi multi, congregationesque aquarum sunt maria, per hoc quod Petrus super aquas maris incessit, super universos populos se potestatem accepisse monstravit. II. 209; Migne, 214, 760; Potthast, 82. In this letter Innocent quotes no less than twenty-five passages of Scripture.
5185 Sicut luna lumen suum a sole sortitur, quae re vera minor est isto quantitate simul et qualitate, situ pariter et effectu, sic regalis potestas ab auctoritate pontificali suae sortitur dignitatis splendorem
, etc. See Mirbt, Quellen
6186 Minor est qui unguitur quam qui ungit, et dignior est unguens quam unctus. Migne, 216, 1012, 1179; Potthast, 98.
7187 Sacerdotium per ordinationem divinam, regnum autem per extorsionem humanam. He also speaks of the unity of the Church as the product of grace and the divisions of the empire as the product of or judgment of sin. Ecclesia per Dei gratiam in unitate consistit, et imperium peccatis exigentibus est divisum. Migne, 216, 1179; Potthast, 98.
8188 Migne, 217, 922. Gregorovius pronounces this "probably the most imperious document of the papal power." V. 104.
Hauck, IV. 743, acknowledging the genius of Innocent
, expresses the somewhat disparaging judgment that "he was more of a rhetorician than a theologian, and more of a jurist and administrator than a statesman." Many Protestant writers of Germany show their national feeling by a disposition to disparage Gregory VII. and Innocent III.
0190 Weltgeschichte, VIII. 274. Matthews, 105 sq. gives Henry VI.’s Testament.
191 One of Frederick’s first acts was to release a portion of his patrimony to the pope’s brother, Count Richard. At a later period, under Honorius, Frederick recalled his gift.
2192 Imperium principaliter et finaliter dignoscitur pertinere, principaliter quia ipsa transtulit imperium ab Oriente ad Occidentem; finaliter quia ipsa concedit coronam imperii. Migne, 216, 1182; Potthast, 98; also Migne, 216, 1048; Potthast, 119.
3193 The very archbishop of Cologne who had crowned Otto now put the crown on Philip’s head.
4194 Otto had sought to join the fortunes of the two houses by marrying Philip’s daughter, Beatrice, who died soon after the nuptials.
This was the so-called Golden Bull of Eger
, July 12, 1213. Frederick calls himself in it, "King of the Romans and of Sicily." He promised to defend Sicily for the Roman Church as a "devoted son and Catholic prince,"devotus filius et Catholicus princeps
. Mirbt, Quellen
, 131 sqq.; Matthews, 115 sqq.
6196 Migne, 215, 1493, etc.
7197 The pope legitimatized the children of Agnes, who died in 1201.
The contemporary annalists know no words too black to describe John’s character. Lingard says, "John stands before us polluted with meanness, cruelty, perjury, murder, and unbridled licentiousness." Green, after quoting the words "foul as hell is, hell itself is defiled with the foul presence of John," says, "In his inner soul John was the worst outcome of the Angevins ... . But with the wickedness of his race he inherited its profound abilities." III. chap. I. Hunt, in Dict. of Nat’l. Biog
., XXIX. 406, uses these words, "He was mean, false, vindictive, abominably cruel
, and scandalously immoral."