History of the christian church



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HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH*

CONTENTS
———————————
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
§ 1. Nature of Church History.

§ 2. Branches of Church History.

§ 3. Sources of Church History.

§ 4. Periods of Church History.

§ 5. Uses of Church History.

§ 6. Duty of the Historian.

§ 7. Literature of Church History.
———————————
FIRST PERIOD

APOSTLIC CHRISTIANITY

A.D. 1–100.
CHAPTER I.

PREPARATION FOR CHRISTIANITY.


§8. Central Position of Christ in the History of the World.

§ 9. Judaism.

§ 10. The Law, and the Prophecy.

§ 11. Heathenism.

§ 12. Grecian Literature, and the Roman Empire.

§ 13. Judaism and Heathenism in Contact.


CHAPTER II.

JESUS CHRIST.


§ 14. Sources and Literature.

§ 15. The Founder of Christianity.

§ 16. Chronology of the Life of Christ.

§ 17. The Land and the People.

§ 18. Apocryphal Tradition.

§ 19. The Resurrection of Christ.


CHAPTER III.

THE APOSTOLIC AGE.


§ 20. Sources and Literature of the Apostolic Age.

§ 21. General Character of the Apostolic Age.

§ 22. The Critical Reconstruction of the History of the Apostolic Age.

§ 23. Chronology of the Apostolic Age.


CHAPTER IV.

ST. PETER AND THE CONVERSION OF THE JEWS.


§ 24. The Miracle of Pentecost and the Birthday of the Christian Church.

§ 25. The Church of Jerusalem and the Labors of Peter.

§ 26. The Peter of History and the Peter of Fiction.

§ 27. James the Brother of the Lord.

§ 28. Preparation for the Mission to the Gentiles.
CHAPTER V.

ST. PAUL AND THE CONVERSION OF THE GENTILES.


§ 29. Sources and Literature on St. Paul and his Work.

§ 30. Paul before his Conversion.

§ 31. The Conversion of Paul.

§ 32. The Work of Paul.

§ 33. Paul’s Missionary Labors.

§ 34. The Synod of Jerusalem, and the Compromise between Jewish and Gentile Christianity.

§ 35. The Conservative Reaction, and the Liberal Victory—Peter and Paul at Antioch.

§ 36. Christianity in Rome.


CHAPTER VI.

THE GREAT TRIBULATION.


§ 37. The Roman Conflagration and the Neronian Persecution.

§ 38. The Jewish War and the Destruction of Jerusalem.

§ 39. Effects of the Destruction of Jerusalem on the Christian Church.
CHAPTER VII.

ST. JOHN, AND THE LAST STADIUM OF THE APOSTOLIC PERIOD – THE CONSOLIDATION OF JEWISH AND GENTILE CHRISTIANITY.


§ 40. The Johannean Literature.

§ 41. Life and Character of John

§ 42. Apostolic Labors of John.

§ 43. Traditions Respecting John.


CHAPTER VIII.

CHRISTIAN LIFE IN THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH.


§ 44. The Power of Christianity.

§ 45. The Spiritual Gifts.

§ 46. Christianity in Individuals.

§ 47. Christianity and the Family.

§ 48. Christianity and Slavery.

§ 49. Christianity and Society.

§ 50. Spiritual Condition of the Congregations.—The Seven Churches in Asia.
CHAPTER IX.

WORSHIP IN THE APOSTOLIC AGE.


§ 51. The Synagogue.

§ 52. Christian Worship.

§ 53. The Several Parts of Worship.

§ 54. Baptism.

§ 55. The Lord’s Supper.

§ 56. Sacred Places.

§ 57. Sacred Times—The Lord’s Day.
CHAPTER X.

ORGANIZATION OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH.


§ 58. Literature.

§ 59. The Christian Ministry, and its Relation to the Christian Community.

§ 60. Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists.

§ 61. Presbyters or Bishops. The Angels of the Seven Churches. James of Jerusalem.

§ 62. Deacons and Deaconesses.

§ 63. Church Discipline.

§ 64. The Council at Jerusalem.

§ 65. The Church and the Kingdom of Christ.


CHAPTER XI.

THEOLOGY OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH.


§ 66. Literature.

§ 67. Unity of Apostolic Teaching.

§ 68. Different Types of Apostolic Teaching.

§ 69. The Jewish Christian Theology—I. James and the Gospel of Law.

§ 70. II. Peter and the Gospel of Hope.

§ 71. The Gentile Christian Theology. Paul and the Gospel of Faith.

§ 72. John and the Gospel of Love.

§ 73. Heretical Perversions of the Apostolic Teaching.


CHAPTER XII.

THE NEW TESTAMENT.


§ 74. Literature.

§ 75. Rise of the Apostolic Literature.

§ 76. Character of the New Testament.

§ 77. Literature on the Gospels.

§ 78. The Four Gospels.

§ 79. The Synoptists.

§ 80. Matthew.

§ 81. Mark.

§ 82. Luke.

§ 83. John.

§ 84. Critical Review of the Johannean Problem.

§ 85. The Acts of the Apostles.

§ 86. The Epistles.

§ 87. The Catholic Epistles.

§ 88. The Epistles of Paul

§ 89. The Epistles to the Thessalonians.

§ 90. The Epistles to the Corinthians.

§ 91. The Epistles to the Galatians.

§ 92. The Epistle to the Romans.

§ 93. The Epistles of the Captivity.

§ 94. The Epistle to the Colossians.

§ 95. The Epistle to the Ephesians.

§ 96. Colossians and Ephesians Compared and Vindicated.

§ 97. The Epistle to the Philippians.

§ 98. The Epistle to Philemon.

§ 99. The Pastoral Epistles.

§ 100. The Epistle To The Hebrews.

§ 101. The Apocalypse.

§ 102. Concluding Reflections. Faith and Criticism.
Alphabetical Index
––––––––

HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH*

CONTENTS
SECOND PERIOD
ANTE-NICENE CHRISTIANITY
a.d. 100–311 (325).
––––––––
INTRODUCTION.
§ 1. General Literature on the Ante-Nicene Age

§ 2. General Character of Ante-Nicene Christianity.


CHAPTER I:

Spread of Christianity.
§ 3. Literature.

§ 4. Hindrances and Helps.

§ 5. Causes of the Success of Christianity.

§ 6. Means of Propagation.

§ 7. Extent of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

§ 8. Christianity in Asia.

§ 9. Christianity in Egypt.

§ 10. Christianity in North Africa.

§ 11. Christianity in Europe.
CHAPTER II:

Persecution of Christianity and Christian Martyrdom.
§ 12. Literature.

§ 13. General Survey.

§ 14. Jewish Persecution.

§ 15. Causes of Roman Persecution.

§ 16. Condition of the Church before the Reign of Trajan.

§ 17. Trajan. a.d. 98–117—Christianity Forbidden

§ 18. Hadrian. a.d. 117–138.

§ 19 Antoninus Pius. a.d. 137–161. The Martyrdom of Polycarp.

§ 20. Persecutions under Marcus Aurelius. a.d. 161–180.

§ 21. Condition of the Church from Septimius Severus to Philip the Arabian. a.d. 193–249.

§ 22. Persecutions under Decius, and Valerian. a.d. 249–260. Martyrdom of Cyprian.

§ 23. Temporary Repose. a.d. 260–303.

§ 24. The Diocletian Persecution, a.d. 303–311.

§ 25. The Edicts of Toleration. a.d. 311–313.

§ 26. Christian Martyrdom.

§ 27. Rise of the Worship of Martyrs and Relics.


CHAPTER III.

Literary Contest of Christianity with Judaism and Heathenism.
§ 28. Literature.

§ 29. Literary Opposition to Christianity.

§ 30. Jewish Opposition. Josephus and the Talmud.

§ 31. Pagan Opposition. Tacitus and Pliny.

§ 32. Direct Assaults. Celsus.

§ 33. Lucian.

§ 34. Neo-Platonism.

§ 35. Porphyry and Hierocles

§ 36. Summary of the Objections to Christianity.

§ 37. The Apologetic Literature of Christianity.

§ 38. The Argument against Judaism.

§ 39. The Defense against Heathenism.

§ 40. The Positive Apology.
CHAPTER IV:

Organization and Discipline of the Church.
§ 41. Progress in Consolidation.

§ 42. Clergy and Laity.

§ 43. New Church Officers.

§ 44. Origin of the Episcopate.

§ 45. Development of the Episcopate. Ignatius.

§ 46. Episcopacy at the time of Irenaeus and Tertullian.

§ 47. Cyprianic Episcopacy.

§ 48. The Pseudo-Clementine Episcopacy.

§ 49. Beginnings of the Metropolitan and Patriarchal Systems

§ 50. Germs of the Papacy.

§ 51. Chronology of the Popes.

§ 52. List of the Roman Bishops and Roman Emperors during the First Three Centuries.

§ 53. The Catholic Unity.

§ 54. Councils.

§ 55. The Councils of Elvira, Arles, and Ancyra.

§ 56. Collections of Ecclesiastical Law. The Apostolical Constitutions and Canons.

§ 57. Church Discipline.

§ 58. Church Schisms.


CHAPTER V:

Christian Worship.
§ 59. Places of Common Worship.

§ 60. The Lord’s Day.

§ 61. The Christian Passover. (Easter).

§ 62. The Paschal Controversies.

§ 63. Pentecost.

§ 64. The Epiphany

§ 65. The Order of Public Worship.

§ 66. Parts of Worship.

§ 67. Division of Divine Service. The Disciplina Arcani.

§ 68. Celebration of the Eucharist.

§ 69. The Doctrine of the Eucharist.

§ 70. The Celebration of Baptism.

§ 71. The Doctrine of Baptism.

§ 72. Catechetical Instruction and Confirmation.

§ 73. Infant Baptism.

§ 74. Heretical Baptism.


CHAPTER VI:

Christian Art.
§ 75. Literature.

§ 76. Origin of Christian Art.

§ 77. The Cross and the Crucifix.

§ 78. Other Christian Symbols.

§ 79 Historical and Allegorical Pictures

§ 80. Allegorical Representations of Christ.

§ 81. Pictures of the Virgin Mary.
CHAPTER VII:

The Church in the Catacombs.
§ 82. Literature.

§ 83. Origin and History of the Catacomb.

§ 84. Description of the Catacombs.

§ 85. Pictures and Sculptures.

§ 86. Epitaphs.

§ 87. Lessons of the Catacombs.


CHAPTER VIII:

The Christian Life in Contrast with Pagan Corruption.
§ 88. Literature.

§ 89. Moral Corruption of the Roman Empire.

§ 90. Stoic Morality

§ 91. Epictetus.

§ 92. Marcus Aurelius.

§ 93. Plutarch.

§ 94. Christian Morality.

§ 95. The Church and Public Amusements.

§ 96. Secular Callings and Civil Duties.

§ 97. The Church and Slavery.

§ 98. The Heathen Family.

§ 99. The Christian Family.

§ 100. Brotherly Love, and Love for Enemies.

§ 101. Prayer and Fasting.

§ 102. Treatment of the Dead

§ 103. Summary of Moral Reforms.

CHAPTER IX:

Ascetic Tendencies.
§ 104. Ascetic Virtue and Piety.

§ 105. Heretical and Catholic Asceticism.

§ 106. Voluntary Poverty.

§ 107. Voluntary Celibacy.

§ 108. Celibacy of the Clergy.
CHAPTER X:

Montanism.
§ 109. Literature.

§ 110. External History of Montanism.

§ 111. Character and Tenets of Montanism.
CHAPTER XI:

The Heresies of the Ante-Nicene Age.
§ 112. Judaism and Heathenism within the Church.

§ 113. Nazarenes and Ebionites (Elkesaites, Mandaeans).

§ 114. The Pseudo-Clementine Ebionism.

§ 115. Gnosticism. The Literature.

§ 116. Meaning, Origin and Character of Gnosticism.

§ 117. The System of Gnosticism. Its Theology.

§ 118. Ethics of Gnosticism.

§ 119. Cultus and Organization.

§ 120. Schools of Gnosticism.

§ 121. Simon Magus and the Simonians.

§ 122. The Nicolaitans.

§ 123. Cerinthus.

§ 124. Basilides.

§ 125. Valentinus.

§ 126. The School of Valentinus. Heracleon, Ptolemy, Marcos, Bardesanes, Harmonius.

§ 127. Marcion and his School.

§ 128. The Ophites. The Sethites. The Peratae. The Cainites

§ 129. Saturninus (Satornilos).

§ 130. Carpocrates.

§ 131. Tatian and the Encratites.

§ 132. Justin the Gnostic.

§ 133. Hermogenes.

§ 134. Other Gnostic Sects.

§ 135. Mani and the Manichaeans.

§ 136. The Manichaean System.

CHAPTER XII:



The Development of Catholic Theology.
§ 137. Catholic Orthodoxy.

§ 138. The Holy Scriptures and the Canon.

§ 139. Catholic Tradition.

§ 140. The Rule of Faith and the Apostles’ Creed.

§ 141. Variations of the Apostles’ Creed.

§ 142. God and the Creation.

§ 143. Man and the Fall.

§ 144. Christ and the Incarnation.

§ 145. The Divinity of Christ.

§ 146. The Humanity of Christ.

§ 147. The Relation of the Divine and the Human in Christ.

§ 148. The Holy Spirit.

§ 149. The Holy Trinity.

§ 150. Antitrinitarians. First Class: The Alogi,Theodotus, Artemon, Paul of Samosata.

§ 151. Second Class of Antitrinitarians: Praxeas, Noëtus, Callistus, Berryllus.

§ 152. Sabellianism.

§ 153. Redemption.

§ 154. Other Doctrines.

§ 155. Eschatology. Immortality and Resurrection.

§ 156. Between Death and Resurrection.

§ 157. After Judgment. Future Punishment.

§ 158. Chiliasm.


CHAPTER XIII:

Ecclesiastical Literature of the Ante-Nicene Age, and Biographical Sketches of the Church Fathers.
§ 159. Literature.

§ 160. A General Estimate of the Fathers.

§ 161. The Apostolic Fathers.

§ 162. Clement of Rome.

§ 163. The Pseudo-Clementine Works.

§ 164. Ignatius of Antioch.

§ 165. The Ignatian Controversy.

§ 166. Polycarp of Smyrna.

§ 167. Barnabas.

§ 168. Hermas.

§ 169. Papias.

§ 170. The Epistle to Diognetus.

§ 171. Sixtus of Rome.

§ 172. The Apologists. Quadratus and Aristides.

§ 173. Justin the Philosopher and Martyr.

§ 174. The Other Greek Apologists. Tatian.

§ 175. Athenagoras.

§ 176. Theophilus of Antioch.

§ 177. Melito of Sardis.

§ 178. Apolinarius of Hierapolis. Miltiades.

§ 179. Hermias.

§ 180. Hegesippus.

§ 181. Dionysius of Corinth.

§ 182. Irenaeus

§ 183. Hippolytus.

§ 184. Caius of Rome.

§ 185. The Alexandrian School of Theology.

§ 186. Clement of Alexandria.

§ 187. Origen.

§ 188. The Works of Origen.

§ 189. Gregory Thaumaturgus.

§ 190. Dionysius the Great.

§ 191. Julius Africanus.

§ 192. Minor Divines of the Greek Church.

§ 193. Opponents of Origen. Methodius

§ 194. Lucian of Antioch.

§ 195. The Antiochian School.

§ 196. Tertullian and the African School.

§ 197. The Writings of Tertullian.

§ 198; Minucius Felix.

§ 199. Cyprian.

§ 200. Novatian.

§ 201. Commodian.

§ 202. Arnobius.

§ 203. Victorinus of Petau.

§ 204. Eusebius, Lactantius, Hosius.


––––––––
Illustrations from the Catacombs.

Alphabetical Index.



HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH*

contents
––––––––
THIRD PERIOD
THE CHURCH IN UNION WITH THE ROMAN EMPIRE
FROM CONSTANTINE THE GREAT TO GREGORY THE GREAT. a.d. 311–590.
Sources and Literature,

§ 1. Introduction and General View.


CHAPTER I.
DOWNFALL OF HEATHENISM AND VICTORY OF CHRISTIANITY N THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
Sources and Literature,

§ 2. Constantine The Great. a.d. 306–337.

§ 3. The Sons of Constantine. a.d. 337–361.

§ 4. Julian the Apostate, and the Reaction of Paganism. a.d. 361–363.

§ 5. From Jovian to Theodosius. a.d. 363–392.

§ 6. Theodosius the Great and his Successors. a.d. 392–550.

§ 7. The Downfall of Heathenism.
CHAPTER II. THE LITERARY TRIUMPH OF CHRISTIANITY OVER GREEK AND ROMAN HEATHENISM.
Sources and Literature,

§ 8. Heathen Polemics. New Objections.

§ 9. Julian’s Attack upon Christianity.

§ 10. The Heathen Apologetic Literature.

§ 11. Christian Apologists and Polemics.

§ 12. Augustine’s City of God. Salvianus.


CHAPTER III.

ALLIANCE OF CHURCH AND STATE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON PUBLIC MORALS AND RELIGION.


Sources and Literature,

§ 13. The New Position of the, Church in the Empire.

§ 14. Rights and Privileges of the Church. Secular Advantages.

§ 15. Support of the Clergy.

§ 16. Episcopal Jurisdiction and Intercession.

§ 17. Legal Sanction of Sunday.

§ 18. Influence of Christianity on Civil Legislation. The Justinian Code.

§ 19. Elevation of Woman and the Family.

§ 20. Social Reforms. The Institution of Slavery.

§ 21. Abolition of Gladiatorial Shows.

§ 22. Evils of the Union of Church and State. Secularization of the Church.

§ 23. Worldliness and Extravagance.

§ 24. Byzantine Court Christianity.

§ 25. Intrusion of Politics into Religion.

§ 26. The Emperor-Papacy and the Hierarchy.

§ 27. Restriction of Religious Freedom, and Beginnings of Persecution of Heretics.


CHAPTER IV.

MONASTICISM.


Sources and Literature,

§ 28. Origin of Christian Monasticism. Comparison with other forms of Asceticism.

§ 29. Development of Monasticism.

§ 30. Nature and Aim of Monasticism.

§ 31. Monasticism and the Bible.

§ 32. Lights and Shades of Monastic Life.

§ 33. Position of Monks in the Church.

§ 34. Influence and Effect of Monasticism.

§ 35. Paul of Thebes and St. Anthony.

§ 36. Spread of Anchoretism. Hilarion.

§ 37. St. Symeon and the Pillar Saints.

§ 38. Pachomius and the Cloister life.

§ 39. Fanatical and Heretical Monastic Societies in The East.

§ 40. Monasticism in the West. Athanasius, Ambrose, Augustine, Martin of Tours.

§ 41. St. Jerome as a Monk.

§ 42. St. Paula.

§ 43. Benedict of Nursia.

§ 44. The Rule of St. Benedict.

§ 45. The Benedictines. Cassiodorus.

§ 46. Opposition to Monasticism. Jovinian.

§ 47. Helvidius, Vigilantius, and Aerius.
CHAPTER V.

THE HIERARCHY AND POLITY OF THE CHURCH.


Sources and Literature,

§ 48. Schools of the Clergy.

§ 49. Clergy and Laity. Elections.

§ 50. Marriage and Celibacy of the Clergy.

§ 51. Moral Character of the Clergy in general.

§ 52. The Lower Clergy.

§ 53. The Bishops.

§ 54. Organization of the Hierarchy: Country Bishop, City Bishops, and Metropolitans.

§ 55. The Patriarchs.

§ 56. Synodical Legislation on the Patriarchal Power and Jurisdiction.

§ 57. The Rival Patriarchs of Old and New Rome.

§ 58. The Latin Patriarch.

§ 59. Conflicts and Conquests of the Latin Patriarchate.

§ 60. The Papacy.

§ 61. Opinions of the Fathers.

§ 62. The Decrees of Councils on the Papal Authority.

§ 63. Leo the Great. a.d. 440–461.

§ 64. The Papacy from Leo I to Gregory I. a.d. 461–590.

§ 65. The Synodical System. The Ecumenical Councils.

§ 66. List of the Ecumenical Councils of the Ancient Church,

§ 67. Books of Ecclesiastical Law.
CHAPTER VI.

CHURCH DISCIPLINE AND SCHISMS.


Sources and Literature,

§ 68. Decline of Discipline.

§ 69. The Donatist Schism. External History.

§ 70. Augustine and the Donatists. Their Persecution and Extinction.

§ 71. Internal History of the Donatist Schism. Dogma of the Church.

§ 72. The Roman Schism of Damasus and Ursinus.

§ 73. The Meletian Schism at Antioch.
CHAPTER VII.

PUBLIC WORSHIP AND RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES.


Sources and Literature,

§ 74. The Revolution in Cultus.

§ 75. The Civil and Religious Sunday.

§ 76. The Church Year.

§ 77. The Christmas Cycle.

§ 78. The Easter Cycle.

§ 79. The Time of the Easter Festival.

§ 80. The Cycle of Pentecost.

§ 81. The Exaltation of the Virgin Mariology.

§ 82. Mariolatry.

§ 83. The Festivals of Mary.

§ 84. The Worship of Martyrs and Saints.

§ 85. Festivals of the Saints.

§ 86. The Christian Calendar. The Legends of the Saints. The Acta Sanctorum.

§ 87. Worship of Relics. Dogma of the Resurrection. Miracles of Relics.

§ 88. Observations on the Miracles of the Nicene Age.

§ 89. Processions and Pilgrimages.

§ 90. Public Worship of the Lord’s Day. Scripture-Reading and Preaching.

§ 91. The Sacraments in General.

§ 92. Baptism.

§ 93. Confirmation.

§ 94. Ordination.

§ 95. The Sacrament of the Eucharist.

§ 96. The Sacrifice of the Eucharist.

§ 97. The Celebration o f the Eucharist.

§ 98. The Liturgies. Their Origin and Contents.

§ 99. The Oriental Liturgies.

§ 100. The Occidental Liturgies.

§ 101. Liturgical Vestments.
CHAPTER VIII.

CHRISTIAN ART.


Sources and Literature,

§ 102. Religion and Art.

§ 103. Church Architecture.

§ 104. The Consecration of Churches.

§ 105. Interior Arrangement of Churches.

§ 106. Architectural Style. The Basilicas.

§ 107. The Byzantine Style.

§ 108. Baptisteries. Grave-Chapels, and Crypts.

§ 109. Crosses and Crucifixes.

§ 110. Images of Christ.

§ 111. Images of Madonna and Saints.

§ 112. Consecrated Gifts.

§ 113. Church Poetry and Music.

§ 114. The Poetry of the Oriental Church.

§ 115. The Latin Hymn.

§ 116. The Latin Poets and Hymns.


CHAPTER IX.

THEOLOGY. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECUMENICAL ORTHODOXY.


Sources and Literature,

§ 117. General Observations. Doctrinal Importance of the Period. Influence of the Ancient Philosophy.

§ 118. Sources of Theology. Scripture and Tradition.
I. – The Trinitarian Controversies.
General Literature of the Arian Controversy.

§ 119. The Arian Controversy down to the Council of Nicaea, 318–325.

§ 120. The Council of Nicaea, 325.

§ 121. The Arian and Semi-Arian Reaction, a.d. 325–361.

§ 122. The Final Victory of Orthodoxy, and the Council of Constantinople, 381.

§ 123. The Theological Principles involved: Import of the Controversy.

§ 124. Arianism.

§ 125. Semi-Arianism.

§ 126. Revived Sabellianism. Marcellus and Photinus.

§ 127. The Nicene Doctrine of the Consubstantiality of the Son with the Father.

§ 128. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit.

§ 129. The Nicene and Constantinopolitan Creed.

§ 130. The Nicene, Doctrine of the Trinity. The Trinitarian Terminology.

§ 131. The Post-Nicene Trinitarian Doctrine of Augustine.

§ 132. The Athanasian Creed.
II. – The Origenistic Controversies.
§133. The Orgenistic Controversy in Palestine. Epiphanius, Rufinus, and Jerome, a.d. 394–399.

§ 134. The Origenistic Controversy in Egypt and Constantinople. Theophilus and Chrysostom a.d. 399–407.


III. – The Christological Controversies.



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