History of the christian church



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CHAPTER IV.
THE PAPAL HIERARCHY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.
§ 48. General Literature on the Papacy.
*Bullarium Magnum Romanum a Leone M. usque ad Benedictum XIV. Luxemb., 1727–1758. 19 vols., fol. Another ed., of superior typography, under the title: Bullarum ... Romanorum Pontificum amplissima Collectio, opera et studio C. Cocquelines, Rom., 1738–1758, 14 Tomi in 28 Partes fol.; new ed., 1847–’72, 24 vols. Bullarii Romani continuatio, ed. A. A. Barberi, from Clement XIII. to Gregory XVI., Rom., 1835–1857, 18 vols.

*Monumenta Germaniae Historica inde ab anno Christi quingentesimo usque ad annum millesimum et quingentesimum; ed. by G. H. Pertz (royal librarian at Berlin, d. 1876), continued by G. Waitz. Hannoverae, 1826–1879, 24 vols. fol. A storehouse for the authentic history of the German empire.

*Anastasius (librarian and abbot in Rome about 870): Liber Pontificalis (or, De Vitis Roman. Pontificum). The oldest collection of biographies of popes down to Stephen VI., a.d. 885, but not all by Anastasius. This book, together with later collections, is inserted in the third volume of Muratori, Rerum Ital. Scriptores (Mediol., 1723–’51, in 25 vols. fol.); also in Migne, Patrol. L. Tom. cxxvii. (1853).

Archibald Bower (b. 1686 at Dundee, Scotland, d. 1766): The History of the Popes, from the foundation of the See of Rome to the present time. 3rd ed. Lond., 1750–’66. 7 vols., 4to. German transl. by Rambach, 1770. Bower changed twice from Protestantism to Romanism, and back again, and wrote in bitter hostility, to the papacy, but gives very ample material. Bp. Douglas of Salesbury wrote against him.

Chr. F. Walch: Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der römischen Päpste. Göttingen, 2d ed., 1758.

G. J. Planck: Geschichte des Papstthums. Hanover, 1805. 3 vols.

L. T. Spittler: Geschichte des Papstthums; with Notes by J. Gurlitt, Hamb., 1802, new ed. by H. E. G. Paulus. Heidelberg, 1826.

J. E. Riddle: The History of the Papacy to the Period of the Reformation. London, 1856. 2 vols.

F. A. Gfrörer: Geschichte der Karolinger. (Freiburg, 1848. 2 vols.); Allgemeine Kirchengeschichte (Stuttgart, 1841–’46, 4 vols.); Gregor VII. und sein Zeitalter (Schaffhausen, 1859–64, 8 vols.). Gfrörer began as a rationalist, but joined the Roman church, 1853, and died in 1861.

*Phil. Jaffé: Regesta Pontificum Roman. ad annum 1198. Berol., 1851; revised ed. by Wattenbach, etc. Lips. 1881 sqq. Continued by Potthast from 1198–1304, and supplemented by Harttung (see below). Important for the chronology and acts of the popes.

J. A. Wylie: The Papacy. Lond., 1852.

*Leopold Ranke: Die römischen Päpste, ihre Kirche und ihr Staat im 16 und 17ten Jahrhundert. 4 ed., Berlin, 1857. 3 vols. Two English translations, one by Sarah Austin (Lond., 1840), one by E. Foster (Lond., 1847). Comp. the famous review of Macaulay in the Edinb. Review.



Döllinger. (R.C.): Die Papstfabeln des Mittelalters. Munchen, 1863. English translation by A. Plummer, and ed. with notes by H. B. Smith. New York, 1872.

*W. Giesebrecht: Geschichte der Deutschen Kaiserzeit. Braunschweig, 1855. 3rd ed., 1863 sqq., 5 vols. A political history of the German empire, but with constant reference to the papacy in its close contact with it.

*Thomas Greenwood: Cathedra Petri. A Political History of the great Latin Patriarchate. London, 1856–’72, 6 vols.

C. de Cherrier: Histoire de la lutte des papes el des empereurs de la maison de swabe, de ces causes et des ses effets. Paris, 1858. 3 vols.

*Rud. Baxmann: Die Politik der Päpste von Gregor I. bis Gregor VII. Elberfeld, 1868, ’69. 2 vols.

*F. Gregorovius: Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, vom 5. bis zum 16. Jahrh. 8 vols. Stuttgart, 1859–1873 .2 ed., 1869 ff.

A. v. Reumont: Geschichte der Stadt Rom. Berlin, 1867–’70, 3 vols.

C. Höfler (R.C.): Die Avignonischen Päpste, ihre Machtfulle und ihr Untergang. Wien, 1871.

R. Zöpffel: Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nächsten Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien in ihrer Entwicklung vom 11 bis 14. Jahrhundert. Göttingen, 1872.

*James Bryce (Prof. of Civil Law in Oxford): The Holy Roman Empire, London, 3rd ed., 1871, 8th ed. enlarged, 1880.

W. Wattenbach: Geschicte des römischen Papstthums. Berlin, 1876.

*Jul. von Pflugk-Harttung: Acta Pontificum Romanorum inedita. Bd. I. Urkunden der Päpste a.d. 748–1198. Gotha, 1880.

O. J. Reichel: The See of Rome in the Middle Ages. Lond. 1870.

Mandell Creighton: History of the Papacy during the Reformation. London 1882. 2 vols.

J. N. Murphy (R.C.): The Chair of Peter, or the Papacy and its Benefits. London 1883.


§ 49. Chronological Table of the Popes, Anti-Popes, and Roman Emperors from Gregory I. to Leo XIII.
We present here, for convenient reference, a complete list of the Popes, Anti-Popes, and Roman Emperors, from Pope Gregory I. to Leo XIII., and from Charlemagne to Francis II., the last of the German-Roman emperors:0
––––––––––
a.d.

POPES.


ANTI-POPES.

EMPERORS.



a.d.

(Greek Emperors)


590–604

St. Gregory I


Maurice

582
(the Great)


Phocas

602


604–606

Sabinianus


607


Boniface III

608–615


Boniface IV
Heraclius

610


615–618

Deusdedit


619–625


Boniface V

625–638


Honorius I

638(?)-640

Severinus

640–642


John IV
Constantine III

Constans II

641

642–649


Theodorus I

649–653 [655]

St. Martin I
Constantine IV
654–657

Eugenius I


(Pogonatus)

668


657–672

Vitalianus


672–676


Adeodatus

676–678


Donus or Domnus I

678–681


Agatho

682–683


Leo II

683–685


Benedict II

685–686


John V
Justinian II

685


686–687

Conon

687–692
Paschal

Leontius


694

687


Theodorus.
Tiberius III

697


687–701

Sergius I


Justinus II restored

705


701–705

John VI
Philippicus Bardanes

711

705–707


John VII
Anastasius II

713


708

Sisinnius


Theodosius III

716


708–715

Constantine I


Leo III. (the Isaurian)

718


715–731

Gregory II


731–741


Gregory III
(Charles Martel, d. 741, defeated the Saracens at Tours 732.)
741–752

Zacharias


(Pepin the Short,
752

Stephen II


Roman(Patricius).

741


752–757

Stephen III (II)


757–767


Paul I

767–768


Constantine II
Roman Emperors.
768

Philippus


768–772


Stephen IV

772–795


Adrian I
* Charlemagne

768–814


795–816

Leo III
Crowned emperor at Rome

800

816–817


Stephen V

817–824


Paschal I
* Louis the Pious (le Débonnaire)

814–840


824–827

Eugenius II


Crowned em. at Rheims

816


827

Valentinus


827–844


Gregory IV
* Lothaire I (crowned 823)

840–855


844
John (diaconus)

844–847


Sergius II
(Louis the German, King of Germany, 840–876)
847–855

Leo IV


The mythical papess Joan or John VIII

855–858


Benedict III

855
Anastasius.

* Louis II (in Italy)

855–875


858–867

Nicolas I


867–872


Adrian II

872–882


John VIII
* Charles the Bald

875–881


882–884

Marinus I


* Charles the Fat

881–887


884–885

Adrian III


885–891


Stephen VI
* Arnulf

887–899


891–896

Formosus
Crowned emperor

896

896


Boniface VI

896–897


Ste

897


Romanus

897


Theodorus II

898–900


John IX
(Louis the Child)

899


900–903

Benedict IV


903


Leo V
Louis III of Provence (in Italy)

901


903–904

Christophorus (deposed)


904–911


Sergius III

911–913


Anstasius III
Conrad I (of Franconia) King of Germany.

911–918


913–914

Lando

914–928

John X
Berengar (in Italy).



915

928–929


Leo VI
Henry I. (the Fowler) King of Germany. The House of Saxony.

918–926


929–931

Stephen VIII


931–936


John XI

936–939


Leo VII

939–942


Stephen IX
* Otto I (the Great)

936–973


942–946

Marinus II


Crowned emperor

962


946–955

Agapetus II


955–963


John XII (deposed)

963–965


Leo VIII

964


Benedict V (deposed)

965–972


John XIII

972–974


Benedict VI
* Otto II

973–983


974–983

Benedict VII

(Boniface VII?)

983–984


John XIV (murdered)
* Otto III

983–1002


984–985

Boniface VII


Crowned emperor

996


985–996

John XV

996–999

Gregory V


997–998
Calabritanus John XVI

*Henry II (the Saint, the last of the Saxon emperors).

1002–1024

998–1003

Silvester II


Crowned emperor

1014


1003

John XVII


1003–1009

John XVIII

1009–1012

Sergius IV

1012–1024

Benedict VIII

1024–1039

1012
Gregory

* Conrad II, The House of Franconia.


1024–1033

John XIX
Crowned emperor

1027

1033–1046



Benedict IX (deposed)

1044–1046


Silvester III

* Henry III

1039–1056

1045–1046

Gregory VI
Crowned emperor

1046


1046–1047

Clement II


1047–1048

Damasus II

1048–1054

Leo IX

1054–1057

Victor II
* Henry IV

1056–1106

1057–1058

Stephen X


Crowned by the Antipope Clement

1084


1058–1059

Benedict X (deposed)


1058–1061

Nicolas II

1061–1073

Alexander II

1061
Cadalous (Honorius II)

(Rudolf of Swabia rival)

1077


1073–1085

Gregory VII (Hildebrand)


1080–1100


Wibertus (Clement III)

(Hermann of Luxemburg rival)

1081

1086–1087



Victor III

1088–1099

Urban II

1099–1118

Paschal II

1100
Theodoricus

1102
Albertus

* Henry V

1106–1125

1105–1111


Maginulfus (Silvester IV)

1118–1119

Gelasius II

1118–1121


Burdinus (Gregory VIII)

* Lothaire II (the Saxon

1125–1137

1119–1124

Calixtus II

1124
Theobaldus Buccapecus (Celestine)

* Conrad III, The House of Hohenstaufen. (The Swabian emperors.)

1138–1152

1124–1130

Honorius II.


Crowned Em. at Aix
1130–1143

Innocent II


1130–1138


Anacletus II

1138
Gregory (Victor IV)

1143–1144

Celestine II


1144–1145

Lucius II

1145–1153

Eugenius III
*Frederick I (Barbarossa)

1152–1190

1153–1154

Anastasius IV


Crowned emperor

1155


1154–1159

Adrian IV


1159–1181

Alexander III

1159–1164


Octavianus (Victor IV)

Guido Cremensis (Paschal III)


1164–1168


Johannes de Struma (Calixtus III)

1168–1178

1178–1180
Landus Titinus (Innocent III)

1181–1185

Lucius III

1185–1187

Urban III

1187


Gregory VIII

1187–1191

Clement III

*Henry VI

1190–1197

1191–1198

Celestine III

1198–1216

Innocent III
Philip of Swabia and Otto IV (rivals)

1198


*Otto IV

1209–1215

1216–1227

Honorius III


*Frederick II.

1215–1250.

1227–1241

Gregory IX


Crowned emperor

1220


1241

Celestine IV

(Henry Raspe rival)
1241–1254

Innocent IV


(William of Holland rival)

Conrad IV

1250–1254

1254–1261

Alexander IV

Interregnum

1254–1273


Richard (Earl of Cornwall)


1261–1264

Urban IV
Alfonso (King of Castile) (rivals)

1257

1265–1268



Clement IV

1271–1276

Gregory X

1276


Innocent V
Rudolf I (of Hapsburg)
1276

Adrian V
House of Austria

1272–1291

1276–1277

John XXI

1277–1280

Nicolas III

1281–1285

Martin IV

1285–1287

Honorius IV

1288–1292

Nicolas IV

Adolf (of Nassau)

1292–1298

1294


St. Celestine V (abdicated)

1294–1303

Boniface VIII

Albert I (of Hapsburg)

1298–1308

1303–1304

Benedict XI

1305–1314

Clement V1

*Henry VII (of Luxemburg)

1308–1313
1316–1334

John XXII


*Lewis IV (of Bavaria)

1314–1347

1334–1342

Benedict XII


(Frederick the Fair of Austria, rival 1314–1330)
1342–1352

Clement VI

1352–1362

Innocent VI


1362–1370

Urban V
*Charles IV (of Luxemburg)

1347–1437

1370–1378

Gregory XI


(Gunther of Schwarzburg, rival)
1378–1389

Urban VI

1378–1394
Clement VII

1389–1404

Boniface IX
Wenzel (of Luxemburg)

1378–1400

1394–1423
Benedict XIII

(deposed 1409)

1404–1406

Innocent VII


Rupert (of the Palatinate)

1400–1410

1406–1409

Gregory XII (deposed)


1410–1415

Alexander V

1410–1415

John XXIII (deposed)
Sigismund (of Luxemburg)

1410–1437

(Jobst of Moravia rival)
1417–1431

Martin V


Clement VIII

1431–1447

Eugene IV

1439–1449


Felix V

Albert II (of Hapsburg)

1438–1439

1447–1455

Nicolas
*Frederick III.2

1440–1493

1455–1458

Calixtus IV


Crowned emperor

1452


1458–1464

Pius II

1464–1471

Paul II

1471–1484

Sixtus IV


1484–1492

Innocent VIII
Maximilian I

1493–1519

1492–1503

Alexander VI.


1503


Pius III.

1503–1513

Julius II.
* Charles V

1519–1558

1513–1521

Leo X.
Crowned emperor at Bologna not in Rome

1530
1522–1523

Hadrian VI


1523–1534

Clement VII

1534–1549

Paul III

1550–1555

Julius III

1555


Marcellus II
Ferdinand I

1558–1564

1555–1559

Paul IV

1559–1565

Pius IV

1566–1572

Pius V

1572–1585

Gregory XIII


Maximilian II

1564–1576

1585–1590

Sixtus V

1590

Urban VII


1590–1591

Gregory XIV

1591


Innocent IX

1592–1605

Clement VIII
Rudolf II

1576–1612

1605

Leo XI



1605–1621

Paul V
Matthias

1612–1619

1621–1623

Gregory XV
Ferdinand II

1619–1637

1623–1644

Urban VIII


1644–1655

Innocent X
Ferdinand III

1637–1657

1655–1667

Alexander VIII


1667–1669

Clement IX
Leopold I

1657–1705

1669–1676

Clement X


1676–1689

Innocent XI

1689–1691

Alex’der VIII

1691–1700

Innocent XII

1700–1721

Clement XI

Joseph I


1705–1711

1721–1724

Innocent XIII
Charles VI.

1711–1740

1724–1730

Benedict XIII


Charles VII (of Ba
1730–1740

Clement XII


varia)

1742–1745

1740–1758

Benedict XIV


Francis I (of Lorraine)

1745–1765


1758–1769

Clement XIII


Joseph II

1765–1790

1769–1774

Clement XIV


1775–1799

Pius VI

Leopold II



1790–1792

Francis II

1792–1806

1800–1823

Pius VII
Abdication of Francis II

1806


1823–1829

Leo XII

1829–1830

Pius VIII


(Francis I, E
––––––––––
§ 50. Gregory the Great. a.d. 590–604.
Literature.
I. Gregorii M. Opera.: The best is the Benedictine ed. of Dom de Ste Marthe (Dionysius Samarthanus e congregatione St, Mauri), Par., 1705, 4 vols. fol. Reprinted in Venice, 1768–76, in 17 vols. 4to.; and, with additions, in Migne’s Patrologia, 1849, in 5 vols. (Tom. 75–79).

Especially valuable are Gregory’s Epistles, nearly 850 (in third vol. of Migne’s ed.). A new ed. is being prepared by Paul Ewald.

II. Biographies of Gregory I

(1) Older biographies: in the "Liber Pontificalis;" by Paulus Diaconus († 797), in Opera I. 42 (ed. Migne); by Johannes Diaconus (9th cent.), ibid., p. 59, and one selected from his writings, ibid., p. 242.

Detailed notices of Gregory in the writings of Gregory of Tours, Bede, Isidorus Hispal., Paul Warnefried (730).

(2) Modern biographies:

G. Lau: Gregor I. nach seinem Leben und nach seiner Lehre. Leipz., 1845.

Böhringer: Die Kirche Christi und ihre Zeugen. Bd. I., Abth. IV. Zurich, 1846.

G. Pfahler: Gregor der Gr. und seine Zeit. Frkf a. M., 1852.



James Barmby: Gregory the Great. London, 1879. Also his art. "Gregorius I." in Smith & Wace, "Dict. of Christ. Biogr.," II. 779 (1880).

Comp. Jaffé, Neander, Milman (Book III., ch. 7, vol. II., 39 sqq.); Greenwood (Book III., chs. 6 and 7); Montalembert (Les moines d’Occident, bk. V., Engl. transl., vol. II., 69 sqq.); Baxmann (Politik der Päpste, I. 44 sqq.); Zöpffel (art. Gregor I. in the, new ed. of Herzog).


Whatever may be thought of the popes of earlier times," says Ranke,3"they always had great interests in view: the care of oppressed religion, the conflict with heathenism, the spread of Christianity among the northern nations, the founding of an independent hierarchy. It belongs to the dignity of human existence to aim at and to execute something great; this tendency the popes kept in upward motion."

This commendation of the earlier popes, though by no means applicable to all, is eminently true of the one who stands at the beginning of our period.



Gregory the First, or the Great, the last of the Latin fathers and the first of the popes, connects the ancient with the mediaeval church, the Graeco-Roman with the Romano-Germanic type of Christianity. He is one of the best representatives of mediaeval Catholicism: monastic, ascetic, devout and superstitious; hierarchical, haughty, and ambitious, yet humble before God; indifferent, if not hostile, to classical and secular culture, but friendly to sacred and ecclesiastical learning; just, humane, and liberal to ostentation; full of missionary zeal in the interest of Christianity, and the Roman see, which to his mind were inseparably connected. He combined great executive ability with untiring industry, and amid all his official cares he never forgot the claims of personal piety. In genius he was surpassed by Leo I., Gregory VII., Innocent III.; but as a man and as a Christian, he ranks with the purest and most useful of the popes. Goodness is the highest kind of greatness, and the church has done right in according the title of the Great to him rather than to other popes of superior intellectual power.

The times of his pontificate (a.d. Sept. 3, 590 to March 12, 604) were full of trouble, and required just a man of his training and character. Italy, from a Gothic kingdom, had become a province of the Byzantine empire, but was exhausted by war and overrun by the savage Lombards, who were still heathen or Arian heretics, and burned churches, slew ecclesiastics, robbed monasteries, violated nuns, reduced cultivated fields into a wilderness. Rome was constantly exposed to plunder, and wasted by pestilence and famine. All Europe was in a chaotic state, and bordering on anarchy. Serious men, and Gregory himself, thought that the end of the world was near at hand. "What is it," says he in one of his sermons, "that can at this time delight us in this world? Everywhere we see tribulation, everywhere we hear lamentation. The cities are destroyed, the castles torn down, the fields laid waste the land made desolate. Villages are empty, few inhabitants remain in the cities, and even these poor remnants of humanity are daily cut down. The scourge of celestial justice does not cease, because no repentance takes place under the scourge. We see how some are carried into captivity, others mutilated, others slain. What is it, brethren, that can make us contented with this life? If we love such a world, we love not our joys, but our wounds. We see what has become of her who was once the mistress of the world .... Let us then heartily despise the present world and imitate the works of the pious as well as we can."

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