History of the christian church



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Radbertus) XII. 482-483.

51375 De praedestione Dei libri duo, Migne, CXXI. col. 11-80.

61376 Contra Graecorum opposita Romanam ecclesiam infamantium libri quatuor, ibid. col. 225-346.

71377 IV. 1. Ibid. col. 303.

81378 It is instructive to compare the apology of Aeneas, bishop of Paris (reprinted in the same vol. of Migne, col. 685-762), which is a mere cento of patristic passages.

91379 De corpore et sanguine Domini liber. Ibid. col. 125-170.

01380 See p. 743.

1381 P. 543 sqq.

21382 De Verit. Corp. et sang. Christi contra OEcolampad., Cologne, 1527.

31383 Ruchat, Reform. de la Suisse, vol. iv. p. 207; ed. Vulliemin, vol. iii. p. 122.

41384 Schrörs, l.c. p. 9.

51385 August 12, 844. See Schrörs, l.c. p. 26.

61386 Hefele, IV. 292.

71387 See pp. 528 sqq; 552.

81388 See Hefele, IV. 507. The letter is in Migne, CXXIV. col. 881-896.

91389 See pp. 268 sqq.

01390 See p. 750.

1391 See Hist. Lit. de la France, l.c. The philosophical treatise De diversa et multiplici animae ratione (Migne, CXXV. col. 929-952) is probably falsely attributed to him. Cf. Ebert, l.c. p. 250.

21392 See pp. 528 sqq.

31393 Migne, CXXV. col. 49-56.

41394 De Praedestinatione, ibid. col. 55-474.

51395 Collectio de una et non trina Deitate, ibid. col. 473-618.

61396 Opuscula et epistolae in causa Hincmari Laudunensis, Migne, CXXVI. col. 279-648.

71397 De divortio Lotharii regis et Tetbergae reginae, Migne, CXXV. col. 619-772.

81398 See especially Inter. vi., xvii., xviii., ibid. col. 659-673, 726-730.

91399 Coronationes regiae ibid. col. 803-818.

01400 De regis persona et regio ministerio, ibid. col. 833-856.

1401 See preface, col. 833, 834.

21402 Ebert (II. 251) accordingly finds the explanation of the treatise in its third division.

31403 De cavendiis vitiis et virtutibus exercendio, ibid. col. 857-930.

41404 De coercendis militum rapinis, and De coërcendo et exstirpando raptu viduarum puellarum ac sanctimonialium, ibid. col. 953-956, 1017-1036.

51405 Ad proceres regni, ibid. col. 993-1008.

61406 Capitula, ibid. col. 773-804, 1069-1086.

71407 Pro ecclesiae libertatum defensione ibid. col. 1035-1070.

81408 De presbyteris criminosis, ibid. col. 1093-1110.

91409 De causa Teutfridi presbyteri, ibid. col. 1111-1116.

01410 De verbis Psalmi: Herodii domus dux est eorum, ibid. col. 957-962.

1411 De visione Bernoldi presbyteri, ibid. col. 1115-1120.

21412 See , 169, p. 732.

31413 Vita Sanctii Remigii, Migne. CXXV. col. 1129-1188.

41414 Encomium ejusdem S. Remigii, ibid. col. 1187-1198.

51415 Ebert. l.c. p. 256.

61416 Annalium Bertinianorum pars tertia, Migne, CXXV. col. 1203-1302. Reprint f Pertz, "Monum. Germ. Hist. Script." I. 455-515.

71417 Ebert, l.c. 367, 868.

81418 Epistolae, Migne, CXXVI. col. 9-280.

91419 Carmina, Migne, CXXV. col. 1201-1202. There are a few verses elsewhere in Migne, and a poem on the Virgin Mary in Mai, "Class. auctori e Vaticanis codicibus, " 452 sqq.

01420 Ebert, l.c. 257.

1421 See supplementary note to this section.

21422 He even stood on a very familiar footing if the story of Matthew of Paris mentioned on p. 539 may be credited. Cf Matthew Paris, Chronica major, ed. Luard, pp. 415 sq.

31423 His affinity with Maximus has been shown by Baur and Dorner.

41424 Ueberweg, l.c. p. 359.

51425 See full account in this vol. pp. 539 sqq. and 551 sqq.

61426 These works are in Migne, CXXII. col. 355-440, and col. 1029-1194.

71427 Versio Ambiguorum S. Maximi. Migne, CXXII. col. 1193-1222.

81428 Expositiones super ierarchiam coelestem S. Dionysii, etc. Ibid. col. 125-284.

91429 Homilia in prologum S. Evangelii secundum Joannem. Ibid. col. 283-296.

01430 Commentarius in S. Evangelium secundum Joannem. Ibid. col. 297-548.

1431 See Lit., p. 762.

21432 Liber de egressu et regressu animae ad Deum. Migne, CXXII. co.,1023, 1024.

31433 Ibid. Verses, col. 1221-1240.

41434 Peri;fuvsew"merismou'. Id est, de divisione naturae. Ibid. col. 411-1022.

51435 V. 40, ibid. col. 1022, I. 13.

61436 Est igitur natura generale nomen ut diximus, omnium quae sunt et quae non sunt."De Div. Nat. I. Ibid. col. 441, l. 10.

71437 I. 3-7. Cf Ueberweg, l.c., p. 361.

81438 Metaph. XII. 7; cf. Augustin, who mentions the first three forms, De civ. Dei, V 9, and Ueberweg, l.c. I. 363.

91439 "Ambo siquidem ex uno fonte, divina videlicet sapientia, manare dubium non est."De div. Nat. I. 66, Migne, ed. col. 511, l. 28.

01440 Ibid. II. 16, col 548. IV. 16. col. 816, cf. col. 829.

1441 Ibid. IV. 5, col. 749.

21442 "Septuaginta prae manibus non habemus." Migne col. 243.

31443 Neander, III. p. 462.

41444 "Ipse namque omnium essentia est, qui solus vere est." Migne, Ibid. I.3 (col. 443).

51445 "Est igitur principium, medium et finis." I. 11(col. 451).

61446 "Dem per seipsum incomprehensibilis est!’ I. 10 (col. 451).

71447 I. 14 (col. 459).

81448 II. 28 (col. 593). For a discussion of this point see Christlieb, J. 8 B., pp. 168-176.

91449 De div. Nat. I. 13 (col. 455). Ueberweg, l.c. , p. 361.

01450 De div. Nat. II. 33 (col. 612).

1451 III. 10 (col. 650). This is the remark of the "disciple," but the "master" does not contradict it. Cf. III. 17, V. 30; I. 13.

21452 I. 7, 8 (cols. 445448).

31453 Igitur omnis theophania, id est omnis virtus, et in hac vita et in futura vita,"I. 9 (col. 449).

41454 I. 7, 8, 13 (cols. 445-448, 454-459).

51455 III. 23 (col. 689).

61456 II. 15, 22 (cols. 545-548, 562-566, especially col. 566).

71457 II. 22 (col. 566).

81458 III. 19 (col. 680).

91459 I. 27, 56-58 (col. 474, 475; 498-501).

01460 II. 9 (col. 536).

1461 "Intellectus omnium est omnia," III.4 (col. 632, 1.3 Fr. bel.). "Intellectus rerum veraciter ipsae res sunt," II. 8 (col. 535).

21462 IV. 7 (cols. 762-772), e.g. "In homine omnis creatura substantialiter creata sit."(col. 772).

31463 IV. 7 (col. 762-772).

41464 IV. 14 (col. 807, 808).

51465 "’Corpus quippe,’ inquit, ’et sensum et animam secundum nos habens,’ Christus videlicet, ’et intellectum:’ His enim veluti quatuor partibus humana natura constituitur." II. 13 (col.

61466 V. 25 (col. 912).

71467 V. 25 (col. 912).

81468 Neander, l.c. III. p. 465.

91469 "Nullum peccatum est quod non se ipsum puniat, occulte tamen in hoe vita, aperte vero in altera, quae est futura." De Divina Praedestinatione, XVI. vi. (col. 4236)

01470 "Sicut enim Deus electorum, quos praedestinavit ad gratiam, liberavit voluntatem, eamque caritatis suae affectibus implevit, ut non solum intra fines aeternae legis gaudeant contineri, sed etiam ipsos transire nec velle, nec posse maxi mum suae gloriae munus esse non dubitent: ita reproborum, quos praedestinavit ad poenam turpissimam, coercet voluntatem, ut e contrario, quicquid illis pertinet ad gandium beatae viae, istis vertatur in supplicium miseriae." De div. Praed. XVIII. vii. (col. 434), cf. XVII. i. v.

1471 "Nonne Verbum assumens hominem, omnem creaturam visibilem et invisibilem accepit, et totum, quod in homine accepit salvum fecit." De div. Nat. V. 25 (col. 913).

21472 "Commune ommium, quae facta sunt, quodam veluti interitu redire in causas, quae in Deo subsistunt; proprium vero intellectualis et raitonalis substantiae, unum cum Deo virtute contemplationis, et Deus per gratiam fieri. " V. 21 (col. 898).

31473 II. 6, 8, V. 7, 8, 3-6. Cf. Christlieb, l.c. p. 802.

41474 I. pp. 360, 363, 364.

51475 The full text of the bull is given by Floss, Migne, CXXII. col. 439.

61476 De div. Nat. I. 66 (col. 511).

71477 In the line of Spinoza, Schelling, and especially Hegel. On the other band be sums up the ancient philosophy in its Christianized shape.

81478 "Ein organisch gegliedertes, die höchsten speculativen Ideen umfassendes System."L.c. II. 274.

91479 So Pope Nicolas I. (Epist. cxv. in Migne, Patrol. Lat. CX [X. col. 11 19); Prudentius (De Praedestinatione contra J. Scotum, in Migne, CXV. col. 1011), and the council of Langres (859).

01480 Christlieb in Herzog2 vol. xiii. p. 789.

1481 Bib. Lat. med., Hamburg, 1734, I. 230.

21482 Photius, II. 230-240. Wetzer u. Welte, 2d ed. 1. col. 788-792.

31483 Migne, CXXVII. col. 103-CXXVIII.

41484 Migne, CXXIX. col. 27-512. Those of the sixth council are unprinted.

51485 Idem. col. 511-554.

61486 Collecteana. Idem. col. 557-714.

71487 Idem. col. 713-738.

81488 Idem. col. 737-742.

91489 CXXVIII. col. 1357-1378.

01490 Neander, Hist. Chr. Ch. III. 469.

1491 Agnosticon or Libri Proeloquiorum. Migne, CXXXVI. col. 145-344.

21492 De contemptu canonum. Ibid. col. 485-522.

31493 Qualitatis conjectura cujusdam. Ibid. col. 521-550.

41494 Epistolae. Ibid. col. 643-688. Sermones. Ibid. col. 689-758.

51495 Giesebrecht (I. 615) says of Gerbert: "Er gehörte zu den seltenen Gelehrten, die in den weltlichen Dingen gleich heimisch sind, wie in dem Reich der Ideen, die von unbegrenzter Empfänglichkeit sich jeden Stoff aneignen, leicht alle Verhältnisse durchschauen und bemeistern, denen die Hülfsmittel des Geistes nie versiegen, und deren Kräfte auch die zerstreuteste Thätigkeit kaum erschöpft."

61496 See above, p. 290 sqq. Baronius declares this synod a fiction of Gerbert, and makes him responsible for the sentiments, the Benedictine editors of the Hist. Lit. only for the style, of the acts, "qui est beaucoup au-dussus de celuis de quantité d’ autres écrits du mème temps." The acts were first published in the Magdeburg Centuries, and then by Mansi and Pertz. See Hefele, IV. 647 sq.

71497 Richer says Senlis (in the province of Rheims); Aimons, his continuator says Rheims. The acts of that synod are lost. See Hefele, IV. 646.

81498 Hefele (IV. 654) assumes a gradual change in his views on the papal power in consequence of deeper reflection and bitter experience, and applies to him the words of Pius II.: "Aeneam rejicite, Pium recipite." Reuter says (I. 84): "Der Heros der Aufklärung wurde, der Repräsentant der auf übernatürlichem Fundament basirten Autorität." But Gerbert was a strong supernaturalist before that time, as his book on the Lord’s Supper proves. His controversy with the papacy had nothing to do with doctrine any more than the controversy between Gallicanism and Ultramontanism. It was simply a question as to the extent of papal jurisdiction.

91499 See above, p. 295 sq.

01500 Döllinger, in his Papstfabeln des Mittelalters (English transl. ed. by Henry B. Smith, pp. 267-272), devotes several pages to this fable, and tram it to Rome and to Cardinal Benno, the calumnious enemy of Gregory VII., who was likewise accused of black arts. According to Benno, Satan promised his pupil Gerbert that he should not die till he had said mass in Jerusalem. Gerbert thought himself safe till he should get to Palestine; but when he read mass in the Jerusalem church (Santa Croce in Jersalemme) at Rome, he was summoned to die, and caused his tongue and hand to be cut off by way of expiation. The Dominicans adopted the myth, and believed that Gerbert early sold himself to Satan, was raised by him to the papal throne, and had daily intercourse with him, but confessed at last his enormous crimes, and showed his repentance by hacking off one limb after another. Since that time the rattling of his bones in the tomb gives notice of the approaching death of the pope.

1501 So especially Gfrörer, partly also Hauck. But Hock, Büdinger and Damberger defend his character and orthodoxy. Neander, Hefele, Giesebrecht deal justly with him.

21502 "Lesavoir dominant de Gerbert était la science des mathematiques." (Hist. Lit. de la France.) He wrote De numerorum divisione; De geometria; De spherae constructione; De Rationali et Ratione uti, etc. See Migne, l.c. 125 sqq.

31503 In Migne, col. 179-188. Comp. above, p. 552.

41504 De Corp. et Sang. D. c. 7 (col. 185): "Ecce quantum fides proficit, ubi sermo deficit."

51505 Olleris and Giesebrecht doubt the genuineness.

61506 L.c. col. 170: "Sublimitas episcopalis nullis poterit comparationibus aequari. Si regum compares infulas et principum diademata, longe erit inferius, quasi plumbi metallum ad auri fulgorem compares.’’

71507 L.c. col. 171, in explaining "Pasce oves meas " (John 21: 15 sqq.), he says: "Quas oves non solum tunc beatus suscepit apostolus, sed et nobiscum eas accepit, et cum illo eas suscipimus omnes."

81508 Migne, col. 201-286.

91509 "Dominae et gloriosae Adelaidi reginae semper Augustae Gerbertus, gratia Domini Remorum episcopus, et omnibus suis confratribus et coëpiscopis Remorum dioeceseos, bene valere in Christo." Migne, 242-244.

01510 Mansi, XIX. 242; Hefele, IV. 654.

1511 An epitaph (in Migne, l.c. 165) describes Fulbert as "suae tempestatis [sui temporis] pontificum decus, lux praeclara mundo a Deo data, pauperum sustentator, desolatorum consolator, praedonum et latronuin refrenator, vir eloquentissimus, et sapientissimus tam in divinis quam in liberalium artium libris" There is also an epitaph in poetry, l.c. col. 171.

21512 "Venerabilis ille Socrates" he is called by Adelmann.

31513 Reuter (I. 89) characterizes him very well: "Ein ungewöhnliches pädagogisches Talent ist sicher demjenigen eigen gewesen, welchen die bewundernden Schüler den Socrates der Franken nannten. Die Persönlichkeit war ungleich grösser als die wissenschaftliche Leistung, das individuell Anfassende bedeutsamer als die materielle Unterweisung. Nicht fähig originelle Gedanken zu entwickeln und mitzutheilen, hat Fulbert als Bildner der Eigenthümlichkeit begabter Schüler seine Virtuosität in der anreqenden Kraft seines Umgangs gezeigt. Dieser Lehrer wurde der Vater gar verschieden gestimmter wissenschaftlicher Söhne."

41514 Adelmann, one of his pupils, in a letter to Berengar, his fellow-student, reminded him of these memorable conversations, and warned him against error. See p. 554, and Neander, III. 502.

51515 By Bishop Cosin (in his Hist. Transsubstantiationis), as quoted by Robertson, If. 607.

61516 Ep. V. (Migne, col. 201): "Jam nunc ad illud Dominici corporis et sanguinis transeamus venerabile sacramentum, quod quidem tantum formidabile est ad loquendum: quantum non terrenum, sed coeleste est mysterium; non humanae aestimationi comparabile, sed admirable non disputandum, sed metuendum. De quo silere potius aestimaveram quam temeraria disputatione indigne aliquid definire; quia coelestis altitudo mysterii plane non valet officio linguae corruptibilis exponi. Est enim mysterium fide non specie aestimandum, non visu corporeo, sed spiritu intuendum." Then toward,; the close of the same letter (col. 204) he says: "
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