Different conjectures as to the author
, time and place of composition: 1) A pseudonymous Dionysius (of Egypt) at the end of the fifth century. Gieseler, Engelhardt, Dorner, and others. 2) Dionysius of Alexandria, d. 265. Baratier. 3) Another Dionysius of the fourth century. 4) During the Eutychian and Nestorian controversies. Le Nourry. 5) A Pseudo-Dionysius of the third century, who wished to introduce the Eleusynian mysteries into the church. Baumgarten Crusius. 6) Apollinaris the elder, d. 360. 7) Apollinaris the younger, d. 370. Laurentius Valla. 8) Synesius of Ptolemais, c. 410. La Croze. 9) Peter Gnapheus or Fullo, patriarch of Constantinople. Le Quien. 10) A writer in Edessa, or under the influence of the Edessene school, between 480 and 520. Westcott.—See the Prolegomena of Le Nourry, De Rubeis, Corderius, in the first vol. of Migne’s ed., and Lupton
8778 The Monothelites appealed to a passage in Ep. IV. ad Caium. See Hefele, III. 127 sq. Dorner (II. 196 sqq.) correctly represents the mystic Christology of Pseudo-Dionysius as a connecting link between Monophysitism and the orthodox dogma.
9779 The first book which he notices in his "Bibliotheca" (about 845) is a defense of the genuineness of the Dionysian writings by a presbyter Theodorus, who mentions four objections: 1) they were unknown to the earlier fathers; 2) they are not mentioned in the catalogues of writing by Eusebius; 3) they are filled with comments on church traditions which grew by degrees long after the apostolic age; 4) they quote an epistle of Ignatius, written on his way to martyrdom under Trojan. Photius seems to think that the objections are stronger than the answers of Theodorus. See Neander, III. 170; Westcott, l.c. p. 4, and Hergenroether, Photius, III. 29 and 331.
Other Latin versions were made afterwards by Johannes Sarracinus in the twelfth century
, by Ambrosius Camaldulensis in the fifteenth, by Corderius in the seventeenth.
1781 St. Thomas, the "Angelic Doctor," is so full of quotations from Dionysius that Corderius says, he drew from him "totam fere doctrinam theologicam." Migne I. 96.
2782 Paradiso, X. 115.
3783 An eleventh letter which exists only in Latin (said to have been written by Scotus Erigena), and a Latin Liturgy of Dionysius (published by Renaudot and in Migne’s ed. I. 1123-1132), are spurious.
4784 As for the three stages of spiritual ascent, kavqarsi", muvhsi", teleivwsi", and the verb ejpopteuvesqai,i.e. to be admitted to the highest grade at mysteries, to become an ejpovpth" or muvsth". For other rare words see the vocabulary of Dion. in Migne, I. 1134 sqq., and II. 23 sqq.
5785 to;o}nuJperouvsion, das ueberseiende Sein.
Or, in the descending order, they are:
serafivm, ceroubivm, qrovnoi.
(b) kuriovthte", dunavmei" , ejxousivai.
(c) ajrcaiv, ajrcavggeloi, ajggeloi.
Five of these orders are derived from St. Paul, Eph. 1:21 (ajrchv, ejxousiva, duvnami", kuriovth"), and Col. 1:16 (qrovnoi, kuriovthte". ajrcaiv, ejxousivai); the other four (serafivm, ceroubivm, ajrcavggeloi, a[ggeloi) are likewise biblical designations of angelic beings, but nowhere mentioned in this order. Thomas Aquinas, in his doctrine of angels, closely follows Dionysius, quoting him literally, or more frequently interpreting his meaning. Dante introduced the three celestial triads into his Divina Commedia (Paradiso, Canto XXVIII. 97 sqq.):
"These orders upward all of them are gazing,
And downward so prevail, that unto God
They all attracted are and all attract.
And Dionysius with so great desire
To contemplate these orders set himself,
He named them and distinguished them as I do."
787 They are not called bishop, priest, and deacon, but iJeravrch", iJereuv", and leitourgov". Yet Dionysius writes to Timothy as presbuvtero" tw'/ sumpresbutevrw/.
9789 katafatikov", affirmative from katafavskw(katavfhmi), to affirm
0790 ajpofatikov", negative, from ajpofavskw(ajpovfhmi), to deny.
1791 See above p. 592, and Peri;qeivwnojnomavt. cap. III. 2. (ed. of Migne, I. 682 sq.) Comp. the lengthy discussion of Baronius, Annal. ad ann. 48. In this connection St. Peter is called by Dionysius korufaivakai;presbutavthtw'nqeolovgwnajkrovth" (suprema ista atque antiquissima summitas theologorum). Corderius (see Migne I, 686) regards this as "firmissimum argumentum pro primatu Petri d consequeenter (?) Pontificum Romanorumm ejusdem successorum."
2792 Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44. See the notes in Lange, on Matthew, p. 525 (Am. ed.).
The exclamation is variously given: oJa[gnwsto"ejnsarki;pavsceiqeov" by Syngelus); or h] to;qei'onpavscei, h] tw'/ pavscontisumpavscei ("Aut Deus patitur, aut patienti compatitur
"), or, as the Roman Breviary has it: "Aut Deus naturae patitur, aut mundi machina dissolvitur
," "Either the God of nature is suffering, or the fabric of the world is breaking up." See Corderius in his annotations to Ep
. VII., in Migne, I. 1083, and Halloix, in Vita S. Dion., ibid. II. 698. The exclamation of Dionysius is sometimes (even by so accurate a scholar as Dr. Westcott, l.c.
, p. 8) erroneously traced to the 7th Ep. of Dion., as a response to the exclamation of Apollophanes.
. VII. 2, where Dionysius asks Polycarp to silence the objections of Apollophanes to Christianity and to remind him of that incident when be exclaimed: tau'ta, w\ kale;Dionuvsie, qeivwnajmoibai;pragmavtwn, "Istae O praeclare Dionysi, divinarum sunt vicissitudines rerum
." The same incident is alluded to in the spurious eleventh letter addressed to Apollophanes himself. So Suidas also gives the exclamation of Apollophanes, sub verbo
5795 Brev. Rom. for Oct. 9, in the English ed. of the Marquess of Bute, vol. II. 1311. Even Alban Butler, in his Lives of the Saints (Oct. 9), rejects the fable of the identity of the two Dionysii.
6796 In Migne’s ed., Tom. LXXIX. 159.
According to the terminology of Cave and others, the 7th century is called Saeculum Monotheleticum
; the eighth, S. Eiconoclasticum
; the ninth, S. Photianum
; the eleventh
, S. Hildebrandinum
; the twelfth, S. Waldenses
; the thirteenth, S. Scholasticum
; the fourteenth, S. Wicklevianum
; the fifteenth, S. Synodale
; the sixteenth, S. Reformationis
. All one-sided or wrong except the last. Historical periods do not run parallel with centuries.
Hallam (Lit. of Europe,
etc., ch. 1, § 10) puts the seventh and eighth centuries far beneath the tenth as to illumination in France, and quotes Meiners who makes the same assertion in regard to Germany. Guizot dates French civilization from the tenth century; but it began rather with Charlemagne in the eighth.
In Migne’s Patrologia Latina
the number of volumes which contain the works of Latin writers, is as follows:
Writers of the seventh century, Tom. 80--88 8 vols.
" " " eighth " " 89--96 7 "
" " " ninth " " 97--130 33 "
" " " tenth " " 131-138 7 "
" " " eleventh " " 139-151 12 "
" " " twelfth " " 152-191 39 "
" " " thirteenth " " 192-217 25 "
None of these centuries comes up to the Nicene and post-Nicene ages. Migne gives to Augustine alone 12, and to Jerome 11 volumes, and both of these were no compilers, but original writers. The contrast between the literary poverty of the middle ages and the exuberant riches of the sixteenth or nineteenth century is still greater; but of course the invention of the art of printing and all the modern facilities of education must be taken into account.
0800 One of the most important uncial manuscripts of the Scriptures, the Codex Ephraem (C), is a palimpsest (codex rescriptus), but the original text can with difficulty be deciphered, and has been published by Tischendorf (Lipsiae, 1843). See Schaff’s Companion to the Greek Testament, p. 120 sq., and Gregory’s Prolegomena to Tischendorf’s eighth critical ed. of the Gr. Test. (Leipzig, 1884), I. 366 sq.
The oldest manuscript on cotton paper in the British Museum is dated 1049; the oldest in the National Library of Paris
, 1050. The oldest dated specimen of linen paper is said to be a treaty of peace between the kings of Aragon and Castile of 1177.
2802 The testimony of John of Salisbury in the twelfth century (c. 1172) is more than neutralized by opposite contemporary testimonies, and is justly rejected by Bayle (Diction.), Heeren (I. 66), Gregorovius, Neander (III. 150 sq. , Baur (Dogmengesch. II. 4), and Ebert (I. 525). Gieseler (I. 490 sq.) speaks of "the monkish contempt of Gregory for the liberal sciences;" but he adds that "the law traditions of his hostility to all literature are not to be fully believed."
3803 Ep. ad Leandrum, prefixed to his Expos. of Job, and Ep. ad Desiderium, XI. 54 (Opera, ed. Migne, III. 1171).
4804 The author of this commentary represents it as a device of the evil spirit to dissuade Christians from liberal studies, "ut et secularia nesciant et ad sublimitatem spiritualium non pertingant."
5805 The Vatican library, which can be traced back to Pope Nicolas V., is perhaps the most valuable in the world for manuscripts (e.g. the Cod. B. of the Greek Bible) and important ecclesiastical documents, but also one of the most inaccessible to outsiders. The present Pope Leo XIII. has liberalized the management, but under the exclusive direction of cardinals and in the interest of the Roman church (1883).
7807 De Consolatione Philosophiae Libri V
., first printed, Venice, 1497; best ed. by Theod. Obbarius, Jenae, 1843, in Migne’s ed., I. 578-862. Boëthius translated also works of Aristotle, and wrote books on arithmetic, geometry, rhetoric, and music; but the theological works which bear his name, De sancta Trinitate, De duabus naturis et una persona Christi, Fidei Confessio seu Brevis Institutio religionis Christianae
, based upon the Aristotelian categories and drawn in great part from St. Augustin, are not mentioned before Alcuin and Hincmar, three centuries after his death, and are probably the production of another Boëthius, or of the martyr St. Severinus, with whom he was confounded. The most complete edition of his works is that of Migne in two vols. (in the "Patrol. Lat.," Tom. 63 and 64). Comp. Fr. Nitzsch, Das System des Boëthius und die ihm zugeschriebenen Theol. Schriften
(Berlin, 1860); Dean Stanley’s article in Smith’s "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography," I. 496; and Jourdain, De l’origine des traditions sur le christianisme de Boèce
, Paris, 1861.
808 De Institutione Divinarum Literarum
, in 33 chps., in Migne, Tom. 70, col. 1106-1150. Cassiodorus wrote also a work on the Liberal Arts
, twelve books of Varieties (letters, edicts, and rescripts), a Tripartite Church-History
from Constantine to his time (an epitome of Sozomen, Socrates, Theodoret), and commentaries. Best edition is that of Migne, "Patrol. Lat
." in 2 vols. (vols. 69 and 70.) He will be more fully discussed in the next chapter, 153.
9809 Paradiso, X. 125-129. Cieldauro or Cieldoro is the church San Pietro in Ciel d’oro at Pavia, where Liutprand, King of the Lombards, erected a monument to Boëthius, about 726. So says Karl Witte, in Dante Allighieri’s Goettliche Komoedie (1865), p. 676.
0810 As angelica virtus, coaeternus, purgatoria clementia.
Some suppose that he reserved this for a sixth book which he was prevented from writing
; others read Christianity into the work by allegorical interpretation, or supplement it by theological works falsely ascribed to him.
2812 Decline and Fall
, Ch. 39 (vol. IV. 138). Ebert (Gesch. der christl. lat. Lit
. I. 472) assumes a partial influence of Christianity upon this work. "Boëtius
," he says, "war nur ein Namenchrist, aber doch immerhin ein solcher; die erste christliche Erziehung war keineswegs spurlos an ihm voruebergegangen. Sein Werk ruht zwar seinem ganzen Gehalt nach auf der heidnisch-antiken Philosophie, hauptsächlich dem Platonismus, und zwar in der neuplatonischen Form, wie schon eine sehr fluechtige Kenntniss desselben alsbald zeigt, und in allen Einzelheiten, freilich nicht ohne einige Uebertreibung, von Nitzsch nach gewiessen worden Werk erhält nicht bloss durch das starke Hervortreten stoischroemischer Ethik einen christlichen Anschein, sondern diesenimmt hier auch mitunter in der That eine specifisch christliche Färbung an, wie es denn selbst auch an Reminiscenzen aus der Bibel nicht ganz fehlt. Hoechst merkwuerdig ist, wie in diesem Werke des letzten der roemischen Philosophen, wie Zeller ihn mit Recht nennt, diese verschiedenen, zum Theil ganz heterogenen Elemente sich durchdringen zu einer doch einigen Gesammtwirkung in Folge des sittlichen Moments, worin seine, wie ueberhaupt des römischen Eklekticismus Stärke beruht."
3813 Comp. Cramer, De Graecis medii aevi studiis, and the pamphlet of Lumby quoted on p. 584.
. in De Artibus
, etc., cap. 1 (in Migne’s ed. II. 1154): "Nominis partes sunt
In the same work he gives the divisions of philosophy and the categories of Aristotle in Greek and Latin, and uses such words as h\qo", pavqo", parevkbasi", ajnakefalaivwsi", stavsi", ajntevgklhma, ajntivstasi", pragmatikhv, ajpovdeixi", ejpiceirhvmata, etc.
5815 See Hefele, IV. 385 sq.
6816 Bede (Hist. Eccl. IV. 1) calls him "vir et saeculari et divina literatura et Graece instructus et Latine." Pope Zachary speaks of Theodore as "Athenis eruditus" and "Graeco-Latinus philosophus."
7817 William of Malmesbury calls this Hadrian "a fountain of letters and a river of arts."
818 L.c. V. c. 2, and V. 8, 23.
9819 He quotes e.g
. In Luc. 6:2 the Greek, for Sabbatum secundum primum
, ed. Migne, III. 392.
0820 De Arte Metrica Opera, I. l50-176. He explains here the different metres of Greek poetry.
1821 Lumby (l.c., p. 15) mentions his allusions to Eusebius, Athanasius, and Chrysostom, and a few familiar words, as ejpivskopo", parabavth", and a[nqrwpo".
2822 As paradeigma, gazophylacia, paraclitus.
3823 Comp. besides the Lit. already quoted in this vol. §134, the following: Heppe: Das Schulwesen des Mittelalters. Marburg, 1860. Kämmel: Mittelalterliches Schulwesen in Schmid’s "Encykl. des gesammten Erziehungs und Unterrichswesens." Gotha. Bd. IV. (1865), p. 766-826.
The division is expressed in the memorial lines:
"Grammatica loquitur, Dialectica verba docet, Rhetorica verba colorat;
Musica canit, Arithmetica numerat, Geometria ponderat, Astronomia colit astra
5825 De Ordine, II., c. 12 sqq., in Migne’s ed. of Augustin, Tom. l. 1011 sqq. Augustin connects poëtica with musica.
6826 Or, De Artibus ac Disciplinis Liberalium Literarum, in Migne’s ed. of Cassiodori Opera, II. 1150-1218. It is exceedingly meagre if judged by the standard of modern learning, but very useful for the middle ages.
7827 "However we may be disposed to treat the labors of Isidore with something of contempt, it is probably not possible to overrate the value and usefulness of this treatise to the age in which he lived, and indeed for many ages it was the most available handbook to which the world had access." Smith & Wace III. 308. Comp. this vol. § 155.
828 See this vol. § 169.
9829 Comp. this vol. §§ 123 and 175.
0830 See this vol. §§ 128-130.
From ajnagwgikov", exalting, lifting up
; ajnagwghv, a leading up
, is used in ecclesiastical Greek for higher, spiritual interpretation.
2832 "Toutes les provinces de l’occident," says Ozanam, "concoururernt au grand ouvrage des écoles carlovinggiennes."
3833 "per villas et vicos."
4834 A similar school had existed before under the Merovingians, but did not accomplish much.
5835 Comp. Oebeke, De academia Caroli M. Aachen, 1847. Philips, Karl der Gr. im Kreise der Gelehrten. Wien, 1856.
6836 The Histoire litteraire de France, Tom. III., enumerates about twenty episcopal schools in the kingdom of the Franks.
7837 In the preface to Gregory’s Pastoral, he expresses his desire that every freeborn English youth might learn to read English. The work has also great philological importance, and was edited by H. Sweet in 1872 for the "Early English Text Society."
Freeman calls Aelfred "the most perfect character in history
," a saint without superstition, a scholar without ostentation, a conqueror whose hands were never stained by cruelty. History of the Norman Conquest
, I. 49, third ed. (1877)
9839 They were edited by Thorpe. See Wright’s Biograph. Britan. Lit. (Anglo-Saxon Period), p. 485, 486; and article "Aelfric" in Leslie Stephen’s "Dictionary of National Biography." London and New York, 1885, vol. I. 164-166.
0840 See §§ 109-112, pp. 495, 496, 498.
1841 See §§ 94, 100-102, pp. 405 sq., 413, 450, 456.
2842 See §§ 67, 70, 107 and 108, pp. 304, 312 sqq., 476 sqq.
3843 See §§ 10, p. 30 sqq., and 50, 52, pp. 211 sqq.
4844 See §§ 13, p. 40 sq.
5845 See §§ 116, p. 511 sqq.
6846 See § 105, p. 472 sqq.
7847 See § 105, p. 471 sq.
848 See § 96, p. 426, and 120, p. 525 sq.
9849 See § 127, p. 549.
0850 · See § 126, p. 546 sqq.
1851 See § 123, p. 529 sqq.
2852 · See § 121, p. 528 sqq.
3853 §§ 64 and 65, pp. 292 and 295.
6856 See pp. 409, 496-498.
7857 Migne, XC. col. 244-785.
858 l.c. col. 785-856.
9859 l.c. col. 856-872.
0860 l.c. col 872-909.
1861 XCI. col. 1032-1417.
2862 l.c. col. 9-285.
3863 l.c. col. 288-353.
4864 Migne, XXVIII. col. 1116-1285.
5865 XCI. col. 353-361.
6866 XC. col. 912-956
7867 l.c. Cols. 960-1080.
868 l.c. cols. 1084-1176.