Daniel, I. 206 sq.; Mone, I.1 ("Primo Deus coeli globum
") and 284 (Ave sacer Christi sanguis
). The hymn for the infant martyrs at Bethlehem is far inferior to the Salvete flores martyrum
of Prudentius. The first of the hymns quoted in the text is translated by Mrs. Charles and by Neale. German versions by Königsfeld (Ihr Siegeshymnen schallet laut, and Unschuld’ger Kinder Martyrschaar
), Knapp, and others. Bede composed also a metrical history, of St. Cuthbert, which Newman has translated in part ("Between two comrades dear"
7477 His carmina were edited from an old MS. found in the convent of Fulda by Christopher Brower, a Jesuit, in 1617 (as an appendix to the poems of Venantius Fortunatus), and reprinted in Migne’s Rab. Mauri Opera (1852) Vol. VI. f. 1583-1682. Comp. Kunstmann, Hrabamus Magnentius Maurus, Mainz 1841; Koch, I. 90-93; Ebert, II. 120-145; Hauck in Herzog2 XII. 459-465. Hauck refers to Dümmler on the MS. tradition of the poem, of R. M.
8478 So Brower
, and quite recently S. W. Duffield
, in an article In Schaff’s "Rel. Encycl." III. 2608 sq. Also Clément, Carmina
, etc., p. 379.
In the abridged and not very happy translation of Bishop Cosin (only four stanzas), beginning:
"Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire,
And lighten with celestial fire.
Thou the anointing Spirit art,
Who dost thy sevenfold gift, impart. "
It was introduced into the Prayer Book after the Restoration, 1662. The alternate ordination hymn, "Come, Holy Ghost, eternal God," appeared in 1549, and was altered in 1662.
By Tomasi (I. 375) and even Daniel (I. 213, sq.; IV. 125), apparently also by Trench (p. 167). Tomasi based his view on an impossible tradition reported by the Bollandists (Acta SS
. Apr. 1, 587), that Notker sent to Charlemagne (who died a hundred years before) his sequence Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis gratia
, and received in response the Veni, Creator Spiritus
from the emperor (whose Latin scholarship was not sufficient for poetic composition). The author of the article "Hymns" in the 9th ed. of the "Encycl. Brit." revives the legend
, but removes the anachronism by substituting for Charlemagne his nephew, Charles the Bald (who was still less competent for the task).
1481 By Mone (I. 242, note), Koch, Wackernagel. Mone’s reasons are "the classical metre with partial rhymes, and the prayer-like treatment."
2482 In the twelfth and thirteenth century (Komm, Schöpfer, heiliger Geist), as also by Luther (Komm, Gott Schöpfer, heiliger Geist), by Königsfeld (Komm, Schöpfer, heil’ger Geist, erfreu), and others. The oldest German translator (as reported by Daniel, I. 214), says that he who recites this hymn by day or by night, is secure against all enemies visible or invisible.
3483 As contained in his work De Universo 1. I. c.3 (in Migne’s edition of the Opera, V. 23-26). Here he calls the Holy Spirit digitus Dei (as in the hymn), and teaches the double procession which had come to be the prevailing doctrine in the West since the adoption of the Filioque at the Synod of Aix in Creed. The scanning of Paraclêtus with a long penultimate differs from that 809, though under protest of Leo III. against its insertion into the Nicene of other Latin poets (Paraecletos).
484 The Latin text is from Brower, as reprinted in Migne (VI. 1657), with the addition of the first doxology. The first translation is by Robert Campbell, 1850, the second by Rev. S. W. Duffield, made for this work, Feb. 1884. Other English versions by Wither (1623), Drummond (1616), Cosin (1627), Tate (1703), Dryden (1700), Isaac Williams (1839), Bishop Williams (1845), Mant ("Come, Holy Ghost, Creator blest"), Benedict ("Spirit, heavenly life bestowing"), MacGill ("Creator Holy Spirit! come"), Morgan ("Creator Spirit, come in love"), in the Marquess of Bute’s Breviary ("Come, Holy Ghost, Creator come"). See nine of these translations in Odenheimer and Bird, Songs of the Spirit, N. Y. 1871, p. 167-180. German versions are almost as numerous. Comp. Daniel, I. 213; IV. 124; Mone, I. 242; Koch, 1. 74 sq.
5485 Perpetim, adv., perpetually, constantly. Some copies read perpeti (from perpes).
6486 The concluding conventional benediction in both forms is a later addition. The first is given by Daniel (I. 214), and Mone (I. 242), the second in the text of Rabanus Maurus. The scanning of Paraecletos differs in both from that in the second stanza.
7487 A few writers claim it for Pope Innocent III.
8488 See the Latin text in Daniel II. 35; V. 69; Mone, I. 244. In ver. 8 line 2 Daniel reads frigidum for languidum.
0490 Dr. E. A. Washburn, late rector of Calvary Church, New York, a highly accomplished scholar (d. 1881). The version was made in 1860 and published in "Voices from a Busy Life," N. Y. 1883, p. 142.
Comp. on Notker the biography of Ekkehard; Daniel V. 37 sqq.; Koch I. 94 sqq.; Meyer von Knonau
,Lebensbild des heil. Notker von St. Gallen
, and his article in Herzog2
X. 648 sqq. (abridged in Schaff-Herzog II. 1668); and Ans. Schubiger, Die Sängerschule St. Gallens vom 8ten his 12ten Jahrh
. (Einsiedlen, 1858). Daniel II. 3-31 gives thirty-five pieces under the title Notker et Notkeriana. Neale (p. 32) gives a translation of one sequence: Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis gratia
2492 For further information on Sequences see especially Neale’s Epistola Critica de Sequentiis at the beginning of the fifth vol. of Daniel’s Thes. (p. 3-36), followed by literary notices of Daniel; also the works of Bartsch and Kehrein (who gives the largest collection), and Duffield in Schaff’s Rel. Encyl. III. 161. Neale defines a sequentia: "prolongatio syllabae tou' Alleluia."
3493 Translated by Neale, p. 32.
494 Daniel, II. 329; Mone, I. 397. Several German versions, one by Luther (1524): "Mitten wir im Leben sind mit dem Tod umfangen." This version is considerably enlarged and has been translated into English by Miss Winkworth in "Lyra Germanica" : "In the midst of life behold Death has girt us round. See notes in Schaff’s Deutsches Gesangbuch, No. 446.
The text is taken from The First Book of Edward VI
., 1549 (as republished by Dr. Morgan Dix, N. Y. 1881, p. 268). In the revision of the Prayer Book the third line was thus improved:
O Lord, who for our sins art justly displeased (irasceris)."
6496 Daniel, I. 224. English Versions by Neale, Benedict, and Washburn (l. c. p. 145). German translation by Königsfeld: "Wie du mich mit Schrecken schüttelst." Neale (p. 52) calls this "an awful hymn, the Dies Irae of individual life." His version begins:
"O what terror in thy forethought, Ending scene in mortal life!"
7497 Daniel, I. 116-118 (Rhythmus de gloria et gaudiis Paradisi), under the name of St. Augustin. So also Clément, Carmina, p. 162-166, who says that it is, attributed to Augustin "per les melleurs critiques," and that it is "un reflet de la Cité de Dieu." But the great African father put his poetry into prose, and only furnished inspiring thoughts to poets. German translation by Königsfeld (who gives it likewise under the name of St. Augustin) "Nach des ew’gen Lebens Quellen."
8498 See their hymns in Daniel, I. 183 sqq., and partly in Mone, and Clément.
From this poem (see Daniel I. 209 sq. ) Guido of Arezzo got names for the six notes Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La:
"Ut queant laxis Re-sonare fibris
Mi-ra gestorum Fa-muli tuorum,
Sol ve polluti La-bii reatum,
0500 See Daniel
, Hymni adespotoi circa sec
, I. 191 sqq. Mone gives a larger number.
1501 In the Roman Breviary: "Coelestis urbs Jerusalem." Neale thinks that the changes in the revised Breviary of Urban VIII. have deprived "this grand hymn of half of its beauty."
2502 See the original in Daniel, I. 194. Other English translations by Mrs. Charles, and E. C. Benedict. In German by Königsfeld: "Plötzlich wird der Tag erscheinen."
3503 Daniel (I. 204) says of this hymn: "Hic hymnus Marianus, quem Catholica semper ingenti cum favore prosecuta est, in omnibus breviarriis, quae inspiciendi unquam mihi occasio data est, ad honorem beatissimae virginis cantandus praescribitur, inprimis in Annunciatione; apud permultos tamen aliis quoque diebus Festis Marianis adscriptus est. Quae hymni reverentia ad recentiora usque tempora permansit." It is one of the few hymns which Urban VIII. did not alter in his revision of the Breviary. Mone (II. 216, 218, 220, 228) gives four variations of Ave Maris Stella, which is used as the text.
This designation of Mary is supposed to be meant for a translation of the name
being taken for the plural of mare
: see Gen. I: 10 (Vulgate) "congregationes aquarum appellavit maria. Et vidit Deus, quod esset bonum
." (See the note in Daniel, I. 205). Surely a most extraordinary exposition, not to say imposition, yet not too far-fetched for the middle ages, when Greek and Hebrew were unknown, when the Scriptures were supposed to have four senses, and allegorical and mystical fancies took the place of grammatical and historical exegesis.
505 The comparison of Mary with Eve—the mother of obedience contrasted with the mother of disobedience, the first Eve bringing in guilt and ruin, the second, redemption and bliss—is as old as Irenaeus (about 180) and is the fruitful germ of Mariolatry. The mystical change of Eva and Ave is mediaeval—a sort of pious conundrum.
6506 The words of our Lord to John: "Behold thy mother" (John 19:27), were supposed to be spoken to all Christians.
Otto, bishop of Bamberg (between 1139 and 1189), is usually reported to have introduced the seven sacraments among the Pomeranians whom he had converted to Christianity
, but the discourse on which this tradition rests is of doubtful genuineness. The scholastic number seven was confirmed by the Council of Florence (the Greek delegates assenting), and by the Council of Trent which anathematizes all who teach more or less, Sess. VII. can. I. The Protestant churches admit only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord’s Supper, because these alone are especially commanded by Christ to be observed. Yet ordination and marriage, and in some churches confirmation also, are retained as solemn religious ceremonies.
8508 The Lutheran church retains confirmation by the minister, the Anglican church by the bishop.
9509 See above, § 87.
0510 Here, too, the Protestant (at least the Reformed) confessions differ from the Roman Catholic by requiring faith in active exercise as a condition of receiving the benefit of the sacrament. In the case of infant baptism the faith of the parents or responsible guardians is taken into account. Without such faith the sacrament would be wasted and profaned.
1511 Character indelebilis
2512 Organum from the Greek o[rganon, which is used in the Septuagint for several musical terms in Hebrew, as cheli, chinor (cithara), nephel (nablium), yugab. See the passages in Trommius, Concord. Gr. V. LXX, II. 144.
See Hopkins and Rimbault: The Organ, its History and Construction
, 1855; E. de Coussemakee: Histoire, des instruments de musique au moyen-age
, Paris 1859; Heinrich Otte: Handbuch der Kirchl. Kunstarchäologie
, Leipz. 4th ed. 1866, p. 225 sqq. O. Wangermann: Gesch. der Orgel und der Orgelbaukunst
, second ed. 1881. Comp. also Bingham, Augusti, Binterim, Siegel, Alt, and the art. Organ in Smith and Cheetham
, Wetzer and Welte, and in Herzog.
4514 Hence the names campanum, or campana, nola (continued in the Italian language), but it is more probable that the name is derived from Campanian brass (aes campanum), which in early times furnished the material for bells. In later Latin it is called cloqua, cloccum, clocca, cloca, also tintinnabulum, English: clock; German: Glocke; French: cloche; Irish: clog (comp. the Latin clangere and the German klopfen).
515 "Ut cloccae non baptizentur." According to Baronius, Annal. ad a. 968, Pope John XIII. baptized the great bell of the Lateran church, and called it John. The reformers of the. sixteenth century renewed the protest of Charlemagne, and abolished the baptism of bells as a profanation of the sacrament, See Siegel, Handbuch der christl. kirchlichen Alterthümer, II. 243.
6516 Campanarii, campanatores.
7517 Called Campanile. The one on place of San Marco at Venice is especially celebrated.
The literature on bells is given by Siegel, II. 239, and Otte
, p.2 and 102. We mention Nic. Eggers: de Origine et Nomine Campanarum
, Jen., 1684; by the same: De Campanarum Materia et Forma
1685; Waller: De Campanis et praecipuis earum Usibus
, Holm., 1694; Eschenwecker: Circa Campanas
, Hal. ) 1708; J. B. Thiers. Traité des Cloches
, Par., 1719; Montanus: Hist. Nachricht von den Glocken
, etc., Chemnitz, 1726; Chrysander: Hist. Nachricht von Kirchen-Glocken
, Rinteln, 1755; Heinrich Otte: Glockenkunde
, Leipz., 1858; Comp. also his Handbuch der kirchlichen Kunst-Archäologie des deutschen Mittelalters
, Leipz., 1868, 4th ed., p. 245-248 (with illustrations); and the articles Bells, Glocken,
in the archaeological works of Smith and Cheetham, Wetzer and Welte, and Herzog. Schiller has made the bell the subject of his greatest lyric poem
, which ends with this beautiful description of its symbolic meaning:
"Und diess sei fortan ihr Beruf,
Wozu der Meister sie erschuf:
Hoch über’m niedern Erdenleben
Soll sie im blauen Himmelszelt,
Die Nachbarin des Donners, schweben
Und gränzen an die Sternenwelt;
Soll eine Stimme sein von oben,
Wie der Gestirne helle Shaar,
Die ihren Schöpfer wandelnd loben
Und führen das bekränzte Jahr.
Nur ewigen und ersten Dingen
Sei ihr metall’ner Mund geweiht,
Und stündlich mit den schnellen Schwinger
Berühr’ im Fluge sie die Zeit.
Dem Schicksal leihe sie die Zunge;
Selbst herzlos, ohne Mitgefühl,
Begleite sie mit ihrem Schwunge
Des Lebens wechselvolles Spiel.
Und wie der Klang im Ohr vergehet,
Der mächtig tönend ihr entschallt,
So lehre sie, dass nichts bestehet,
Dass alles Irdische verhallt."
9519 Sometimes also bishops, synods, and, in cases of political importance, kings and emperors. The last case of a metropolitan canonization is ascribed to the archbishop of Rouen, a.d. 1153, in favor of St. Gaucher, or Gaultier, abbot of Pontoise (d. April 9, 1130). But Labbe and Alban Butler state that he was canonized by Celestine III. in 1194. It seems that even at a later date some bishops exercised a limited canonization; hence the prohibition of this practice as improper by Urban VIII. in 1625 and 1634.
0520 The occasion of the papal decision in 1170 was the fact that the monks of a convent in the diocese of Lisieux worshiped as a saint their prefect, who had been killed in the refectory by two of their number in a state of intoxication.
Comp. on this subject Benedict XIV. (Lambertini): De Servorum Dei Beatificatione et Beatorum Canonisatione
. Bononisae 1734-’38; ed. II. Venet. et Patav. 1743, 4 vol. fol. Ferraris: Bibliotheca Canonica
, a. v. "Veneratio Sanctorum." Canonization includes seven privileges: 1) recognition as saint by the whole (Roman) church; 2) invocation in public and private prayers; 3) erection of churches and altars to the honor of the saints
; 4) invocation at the celebration of the mass; 5) appointment of special days of commemoration; 6) exhibition of their images with a crown on their head; 7) exhibition of their bones and relics for veneration. The question whether the papal bulls of canonization are infallible and de fide
, or only sententia communis et certa
, seems to be still disputed among Roman Catholics.
See Mansi, XIX. f. 169-179. The bull is signed by, the pope, five bishops, nine cardinal priests, an archdeacon and four deacons. It decrees that the memory of Saint Udalricus be venerated "affectu piisimo et devotione fidelissima
," and be dedicated to divine worship ("divino cultui dicata
"). It justifies it by the reason "quoniam sic adoramus (!) et colimus reliquius m et confessorum, ut eum, Cuius martyres et confessores sunt, adoremus Honaramus servos ut honor redundet in Dominum, qui dixit: Qui vos recipit me recipit’: ac proinde nos, qui fiduciam nostrae justitiae non habemus, illorum precibus et meritis apud clementissimum Deum jugiter adiuvemur
." The bull mentions many miracles of Ulrich, "quae sive in corpore, sive extra corpus gesta sunt, videlicet Caecos illuminasse, daemones ab obsessis effugasse, paralyticos curasse, et quam plurima alia signa gessisse
." On the life of St. Ulrich see the biography by his friend and companion Gerhard (between 983 and 993), best edition by Wirtz in the Monum. G. Scriptores
, IV. 377 sqq.; Acta Sanct
., Bolland. ad 4 Jul.; Mabillon, Ada Ordinis
S. B., V. 415-477; Braun, Gesch. der Bischöfe von Augsburg
(Augsb. 1813), vol. I.; Schrödl, in Wetzer and Welte, vol. XI. 370-383, and Vogel in Herzog1
vol. XVI. 624-628. Ulrich cannot be the author of a tract against celibacy which was first published under his name by Flacius in his Catalogus Testium Veritatis
, but dates from the year 1059 when Pope Nicolas II. issued a decree enforcing celibacy. See Vogel, l.c.
3523 The most recent acts of canonization occurred in our generation. Pope Pius IX. canonized in 1862 with great solemnity twenty-six Japanese missionaries and converts of the Franciscan order, who died in a persecution in 1597. Leo XIII. canonized, December 8, 1881, four comparatively obscure saints of ascetic habits and self-denying charity, namely, Giovanni Battista de Rossi, Lorenzo di Brindisi, Giuseppe Labre, and Clara di Montefalco. A Roman priest describes "the blessed Labre" as a saint who "never washed, never changed his linen, generally slept under the arches of the Colosseum and prayed for hours together in the Church of the Orphanage where there is a tablet to his memory." St. Labre evidently did not believe that "cleanliness is next to godliness"
4524 Omnium Sanctorum Natalis, or Festivas, Solemnitas, Allerheiligenfest
. The Greek church had long before a similar festival in commemoration of all martyrs on the first Sunday after Pentecost
, called Kuriakh;tw'nJAgivwnpavntwn. Chrysostom, in a sermon for that day, says that on the Octave of Pentecost the Christians were surrounded by the host of martyrs. In the West the first Sunday after Pentecost was devoted to the Trinity, and closed the festival part of the church year. See vol. III. 408.
525 Martyrologio Romano, May 13 and Nov. 1. The Pantheon or Rotunda, like Westminster Abbey, and St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, contains the ashes of other distinguished men besides saints, and is the resting-place of Raphael, and since 1883 even of Victor Emanuel, the founder of the Kingdom of Italy, whom the pope regards as a robber of the patrimony of Peter.
6526 Omnium Fidelium defunctorum Memoria orCommemoratio, Allerseelentag.
7527 Festum S. Michaelis
, or Michaelis Archangeli, Michaelmas.
8528 Hence also called Festum omnium Angelorum, St. Michael and all Angels.
9529 In the Eastern church on November 8. The origin of the Eastern celebration is obscure.
0530 Namely, sundry apparitions of Michael, at Chonae, near Colossae, in Monte Gargano in the diocese of Sipontum in Apulia (variously assigned to a.d. 492, 520, and 536), in Monte Tumba in Normandy (about 710), and especially one to Pope Gregory I. in Rome, or his successor, Boniface III. (607-610), after a pestilence over the Moles Hadriani, which ever since has been called the Castello di St. Angelo, and is adorned by the statue of an angel.
See vol. III. 444 sq. Acta Sanct
., Sept. 29; Siegel, Handbuch der christl. Kirchl. Alterthümer
, III. 419-425; Smith & Cheetham, II. 1176-1180; also Augusti, Binterim, and the monographs mentioned by Siegel
, p. 419. The angel-worship in Colossae was heretical and probably of Essenic origin. See the commentaries in loc
., especially Lightfoot, p. 101 sqq. A council of Laodicea near Colossae, about 363, found it necessary strongly to forbid angelolatry as then still prevailing in Phrygia. St. Augustin repeatedly objects to it, De vera Rel
. 110; Conf
. X. 42; De Civ
. X. 19, 25.