151 Afterwards Armagh disputed the claims of Downpatrick See Killen I. 71-73.
Killen, Vol. I. 12. Patrick describes himself as "Hiberione constitutus episcopus
." Afterwards he was called "Episcopus Scotorum
," then "Archiapostolus Scotorum," then "Abbat of all Ireland," and "Archbishop, First Primate, and Chief Apostle of Ireland.’ See Haddan & Stubbs, p. 295.
353 Haddan & Stubbs, p. 294, note: "The language of the Hymns of S. Sechnall and of S. Fiacc, and of S. Patrick’s own Confessio, and the silence of Prosper, besides chronological difficulties, disprove, upon purely historical grounds, the supposed mission from Rome of S. Patrick himself; which first appears in the Scholia on S. Fiacc’s Hymn."
454 The probable date of foundation is a. d. 480. Haddan & Stubbs, p. 295.
55 The Irish was first published by Dr. Petrie, and translated by Dr. Todd. Haddan & Stubbs (320-323) give the Irish and English in parallel columns. Some parts of this hymn are said to be still remembered by the Irish peasantry, and repeated at bed-time as a protection from evil, or "as a religious armor to protect body and soul against demons and men and vices."
656 See Killen I. 76, note. Montalembert says, III. 118, note: "Irish narratives know scarcely any numerals but those of three hundred and three thousand.
A witty Irishman, who rowed me (in 1875) over Lake Killarney
, told me that St. Patrick put the last snake into an iron box, and sunk it to the bottom of the lake, although he had solemnly promised to let the creature out. I asked him whether it was not a sin to cheat a snake? "Not at all," was his quick reply, "he only paid him in the same coin; for the first snake cheated the whole world." The same guide told me that Cromwell killed all the good people in Ireland, and let the bad ones live; and when I objected that he must have made an exception with his ancestors, he politely replied: "No, my parents came from America."
858 Petrie (Round Towers, p. 137, quoted by Killen I. 26) speaks of crowds of foreign ecclesiastics—Roman, Egyptian, French, British, Saxon—who flocked Ireland as a place of refuge in the fifth and sixth centuries.
959 Montalembert, II. 397.
060 See Reeves, S. Columba, Introd, p. lxxi.
161 Catalogus Sanctorum Hiberniae published by Ussher from two MSS, and in Haddan & Stubbs, 292-294.
262 Contained in the Leabhar Breac, and in the Book of Leinster.
363 Skene II. 22
464 Ammianus Marcellinus (XV. 9) describes the Druids as "bound together in brotherhoods and corporations, according to the precepts of Pythagoras!" See Killen, I. 29.
See next section. St. Patrick also is said to have been one of St. Martin’s disciples
; but St. Martin lived nearly one hundred years earlier.
66 Angus the Culdee, in his Litany, invokes "forty thousand monks, with the blessing of God, under the rule of Comgall of Bangor." But this is no doubt a slip of the pen for "four thousand." Skene II. 56. Bangor on the northeastern coast of Ireland must not be confounded with Bangor on the westem coast of Wales.
767 Haddan & Stubbs, Vol. I., 170-198, give a collection of Latin Scripture quotations of British or Irish writers from the fifth to the ninth century (Fastidius, St. Patrick, Gildas, Columbanus, Adamnanus, Nennius, Asser, etc.), and come to the conclusion that the Vulgate, though known to Fastidius in Britain about a. d. 420, was probably unknown to St. Patrick, writing half a century later in Ireland, but that from the seventh century on, the Vulgate gradually superseded the Irish Latin version formerly in use.
868 Haddan & Stubbs, I. 192; Comp. p. 10. Ebrard and other writers state the contrary, but without proof.
969 First published in the Swords Parish Magazine, 1861.
070 See details in Lanigan and Killen (ch. vii.).
This papal-Irish bull is not found in the Bullarium Romanum
, the editors of which were ashamed of it
, and is denounced by some Irish Romanists as a monstrous and outrageous forgery, but it is given by, Matthew Paris (1155), was confirmed by Pope Alexander III. in a letter to Henry II. (a. d.
1172), published in Ireland in 1175, printed in Baronius, Annales
, ad a. d.
1159, who took his copy from a Codex Vaticanus and is acknowledged as undoubtedly genuine by Dr. Lanigan, the Roman Catholic historian of Ireland (IV. 64), and other authorities; comp. Killen I. 211 sqq. It is as follows:
"Adrian, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, to his dearest son in Christ, the illustrious King of England, greeting and apostolic benediction.
" Full laudably, and profitably has your magnificence conceived the design of propagating your glorious renown on earth, and of completing your reward of eternal happiness in heaven, whilst as a Catholic prince you are intent on enlarging the borders of the Church, teaching the truth of the Christian faith to the ignorant and rude, extirpating the nurseries of iniquity from the field of the Lord, and for the more convenient execution of this purpose, requiring the counsel and favor of the Apostolic See. In which the maturer your deliberation and the greater the discretion of your procedure, by, so much the happier, we trust, will be your progress, with the assistance of the Lord; because whatever has its origin in ardent faith and in love of religion always has a prosperous end and issue.
"There is indeed no doubt but that Ireland and all the islands on which Christ the Sun of Righteousness has shone, and which have received the doctrines of the Christian faith, belong to the jurisdiction of St. Peter and of the holy Roman Church, as your Excellency also acknowledges. And therefore we are the more solicitous to propagate a faithful plantation among them, and a seed pleasing to the Lord, as we have the secret conviction of conscience that a very, rigorous account must be rendered of them.
" You then, most dear son in Christ, have signified to us your desire to enter into the island of Ireland that you may reduce the people to obedience to laws, and extirpate the nurseries of vice, and that you are willing to pay from each house a yearly pension of one penny to St. Peter, and that you will preserve the rights of the churches of this land whole and inviolate. We, therefore, with that grace and acceptance suited to your pious and laudable design, and favorably assenting to your petition, hold it good and acceptable that, for extending the borders of the church, restraining the progress of vice, for the correction of manners, the planting of virtue, and the increase of the Christian religion, you enter that island, and execute therein whatever shall pertain to the honor of God and welfare of the land; and that the people of that land receive you honorably, and reverence you as their lord—the rights of their churches still remaining sacred and inviolate, and saving to St. Peter the annual pension of one penny from every house.
"If then you are resolved to carry the design you have conceived into effectual execution, study to train that nation to virtuous manners, and labor by yourself and others whom you shall judge meet for this work, in faith, word, and life, that the church may be there adorned; that the religion of the Christian faith may be planted and grow up, and that all things pertaining to the honor of God and the salvation of souls be so ordered that you may be entitled to the fulness of eternal reward in God, and obtain a glorious renown on throughout all ages."
272 Killen, I. 226 sq.
373 In Gaelic, Calyddom, land of forests, or, according to others, from Kaled, i.e hard and wild.
474 On Whittern and the Candida Casa, see Nicholson, History of Galloway, I. 115; Forbes, S. Ninian and S. Kentigern, 268, and Skene, II. 46.
575 In Welsh, Cyndeyrn means chief, Munghu dear, amiable. See Skene, II. 183.
77 See Forbes, Kalendars, p. 372, and Skene, II. 197.
878 Forbes (p. 319) gives a list of 26.
979 In the Irish calendar there are twenty saints of the name Columba, or Columbanus, Columbus, Columb. The most distinguished next to Columbcille is Columbanus, the Continental missionary, who has often been confounded with Columba. In the Continental hagiology, the name is used for female saints. See Reeves, p. 248.
080 Montalembert, III. 112. This poem strikes the key-note of father Prout’s more musical "Bells of Shandon which sound so grand on the river Lee."
181 "Pro Christo peregrinare volens," says Adamnan (p. 108), who knows nothing of his excommunication and exile from Ireland in consequence of a great battle. And yet it is difficult to account for this tradition. In one of the Irish Keltic poems ascribed to Columba, he laments to have been driven from Erin by his own fault and in consequence of the blood shed in his battles. Montalembert, III. 145.
This is not an adaptation to Columba’s Hebrew name (Neander), but a corruption of Ii-shona
. the Holy Island (from Ii
, the Keltic name for island, and hona
, sacred). So Dr. Lindsay Alexander and Cunningham. But Reeves (l.c.
Introd., p. cxxx.) regards Ioua
as the genuine form, which is the feminine adjective of Iou (to be pronounced like the English Yeo
). The island has borne no fewer than thirty names.
383 "No two objects of interest," says the Duke of Argyll (Iona, p. 1) "could be more absolutely dissimilar in kind than the two neighboring islands, Staffa and Iona:—Iona dear to Christendom for more than a thousand years;—Staffa known to the scientific and the curious only since the close of the last century. Nothing but an accident of geography could unite their names. The number of those who can thoroughly understand and enjoy them both is probably very small."
"Hither came holy men from Erin to take counsel with the Saint on the troubles of clans and monasteries which were still dear to him. Hither came also bad men red-handed from blood and sacrilege to make confession and do penance at Columba’s feet. Hither, too, came chieftains to be blessed, and even kings to be ordained—for it is curious that on this lonely spot, so far distant from the ancient centres of Christendom, took place the first recorded case of a temporal sovereign seeking from a minister of the Church what appears to have been very like formal consecration. Adamnan, as usual, connects his narrative of this event, which took place in 547, with miraculous circumstances, and with Divine direction to Columba, in his selection of Aidan
, one of the early kings of the Irish Dalriadic colony in Scotland.
" The fame of Columba’s supernatural powers attracted many and strange visitors to the shores on which we are now looking. Nor can we fail to remember, with the Reilig Odhrain at our feet, how often the beautiful galleys of that olden time came up the sound laden with the dead,—’their dark freight a vanished life.’ A grassy mound not far from the present landing place is known as the spot on which bodies were laid when they were first carried to the shore. We know from the account of Columba’s own burial that the custom is to wake the body with the singing of psalms during three days and nights before laying it to its final rest. It was then home in solemn procession to the grave. How many of such processions must have wound along the path that leads to the Reilig Odhrain! How many fleets of galley must have ridden at anchor on that bay below us, with all those expressive signs of mourning which belong to ships, when kings and chiefs who had died in distant lands were carried hither to be buried in this holy Isle! From Ireland, from Scotland, and from distant Norway there came, during many centuries, many royal funerals to its shores. And at this day by far the most interesting remains upon the Island are the curious and beautiful tombstones and crosses which lie in the Reilig Odhrain. They belong indeed, even the most ancient of them, to, in age removed by many hundred years from Columba’s time. But they represent the lasting reverence which his name has inspired during so many generations and the desire of a long succession of chiefs and warriors through the Middle Ages and down almost to our own time, to be buried in the soil he trod." The Duke of Argyll, l.c., pp. 95-98.
See a list of churches in Reeves, p. xlix. lxxi., and Forbes
, Kalendar, etc
. p. 306, 307; comp. also Skene, II. 127 sqq.
686 Montalembert’s delineation of Columba’s character assumes, apparently, the truth of these biographies, and is more eloquent than true. See Skene, II. 145.
787 On the regula Columbani, see Ebrard, 147 sqq.
88 Bede, H. E., III. 4; V. 9.
989 For a very full account of the economy and constitution of Iona, see Reeves, Introduction to Life of Saint Columba, pp. c.-cxxxii.
090 H. E. III. 4.
191 To Adamnan and to Bede, the name was entirely unknown. Skene (II. 226) says: "In the whole range of ecclesiastical history there is nothing more entirely destitute of authority than the application of this name to the Columban monks of the sixth and seventh centuries, or more utterly baseless than the fabric which has been raised upon that assumption." The most learned and ingenious construction of an imaginary Protestant Culdee Church was furnished by Ebrard and McLauchlan.
The word Culdee
is variously derived from the Gaelic Gille De
, servant of God; from the Keltic Cuil
, retreat, recess, and Cuildich
, men of the recess (Jamieson, McLauchlan, Cunningham); from the Irish Ceile De
, the spouse of God (Ebrard), or the servant of God (Reeves); from the Irish Culla
, cowl, i.e
. the black monk; from the Latin Deicola, cultores Dei
), worshippers of God the Father, in distinction from Christicolae
in Irish), or ordinary Christians (Skene); from the Greek kellew'tai, men of the cells (Goodall). The earliest Latin form is Kaledei
. in Irish Keile
as a substantive means socius maritus
, also servus
. On the name, see Braun
, De Culdeis
, Bonn, 1840, McLauchlan pp. 175 sq.; Ebrard pp. 2 sq., and Skene, II. 238.
The Duke of Argyll who is a Scotch Presbyterian, remarks (l.c.
p. 41): "It is vain to look, in the peculiarities of the Scoto-Irish Church, for the model either of primitive practice, or of any particular system. As regards the theology of Columba’s time, although it was not what we now understand as Roman, neither assuredly was it what we understand as Protestant. Montalembert boasts, and I think with truth, that in Columba’s life we have proof of the practice of the auricular confession, of the invocation of saints, of confidence in their protection, of belief in transubstantiation [?], of the practices of fasting and of penance, of prayers for the dead, of the sign of the crow in familiar—and it must be added—in most superstitious use. On the other hand there is no symptom of the worship or ’cultus’ of the Virgin, and not even an allusion to such an idea as the universal bishopric of Rome
, or to any special authority as seated there."
494 Cunningham, Church Hist. of Scotland, p. 100.
595 Skene, II. 418.
696 The usual spelling. Better: Wulfila, i.e. Wölflein, Little Wolf.
797 In his testamentary creed, which he always held (semper sic credidi), he confesses faith "in God the Father and in his only begotten Son our Lord and God, and in the Holy Spirit as virtutem illuminantem et sanctificantem nec Deum nec Dominum sed ministrum Christi." Comp. Krafft, l.c. 328 sqq.
898 With the oil of the miraculous cruise of oil (Ampulla Remensis) which, according to Hincmar, a dove brought from heaven at the confirmation of Clovis, and which was destroyed in 1794, but recovered in 1824.
99 Vol. I. p. 394, quoted by Montalembert.
0100 Montalembert, Vol. II. p. 230.
101 Tolbiacum Zülpich.
2102 Ozanam, Etudes Germaniques, II. 54.
3103 Montalembert II. 235. Comp. also the graphic description of the Merovingian house in Dean Milman’s Lat. Christ., Bk. III, ch.2 (Vol. I., p. 395, Am. ed.).
4104 The brotherhood of St. Maur was founded in 1618, and numbered such scholars as Mabillon, Montfaucon, and Ruinart.
6106 Also called Columba the younger, to distinguish him from the Scotch Columba. There is a second St. Columbanus, an abbot of St. Trudo (St. Troud) in France, and a poet, who died about the middle of the ninth century.
7107 The date assigned by Hertel, l.c., and Meyer von Knonau, in "Allg. Deutsche Biographie," IV. 424 (1876).
8108 The date according to the Bollandists and Smith’s Dict. of Chr. Biogr. Ebrard puts the emigration of Columbanus to Gaul in the year 594.
There is a considerable difference between his Regula Monastica
, in ten chapters, and his Regula Coenobialis Fratrum, sive, Liber de quotidianis Poenitentiis Monachorum
, in fifteen chapters. The latter is unreasonably rigorous, and imposes corporal punishments for the slightest offences
, even speaking at table, or coughing at chanting. Ebrard (l.c
., p. 148 sqq.) contends that the Regula Coenobialis
, which is found only in two codices, is of later origin. Comp. Hertel, l.c
0110 For a full account of this quarrel see Montalembert, II. 411 sqq.
111 "Roma orbis terrarum caput est ecclesiarum, salva loci Dominicae resurrectiois singulari praerogativa."
2112 Montalembert, II. 436.
3113 See the anonymous Vita S. Galli in Pertz, Monumenta II. 123, and in the Acta Sanct., Tom. VII. Octobris. Also Greith, Geschichte der altirischen Kirche … als Einleitung in die, Gesch. des Stifts St. Gallen (1857), the chapter on Gallus, pp. 333 sqq.
4114 aiJejntai'" Germanivai"iJdrumevnaiejkklhsivai. Adv. haer. I. 10, 2
Comp. besides the Letters of Boniface
, the works of Neander, Rettberg, Ebrard, Werner and Fischer, quoted below.
6116 One that wins peace. His Latin name Bonifacius, Benefactor, was probably his monastic name, or given to him by the pope on his second visit to Rome. 723.
The juramentum of Boniface, which he ever afterwards remembered and observed with painful conscientiousness deserves to be quoted in full, as it contains his whole missionary policy (see Migne, l.c
., p. 803):
"In nomine Domini Dei Salvatoris nostri Jesus Christi, imperante domino Leone Magno imperatore, anno 7 post consulatum ejus, sed et Constantini Magni imperatoris ejus filii anno 4, indictione 6. Promitto ego Bonifacius, Dei gratia episcopus, tibi, beate Petre, apostolorum princeps vicarioque tuo beato Gregorio papae et successoribus ejus, per Patrem et Filium, et Spiritum Sanctum, Trinitatem inseparabilem, et hoc sacratissimum corpus tuum, me omnem fidem et puritatem sanctae fidei catholicae exhibere, et in unitate ejusdem fidei, Deo operante, persistere in quo omnis Christianorum salus esse sine dubio comprobatur, nullo modo me contra unitatem communis et universalis Ecclesiae, quopiam consentire, sed, ut dixi, fidem et puritatem meam atque concursum, tibi et utilitatibus tiae Ecclesiae, cui a Domino Deo potestasligandi solvendique data est, et praedicto vicario tuo atque successoribus ejus, per omnia exhibere. Sed et si cognovero antistites contra instituta antiqua sanctorum patrum conversari, cum eis nullam habere communionem aut conjunctionem; sed magis, si valuero prohibere, prohibeam; si minus, hoc fideliter statim Domino meo apostolico renuntiabo. Quod si, quod absit, contra hujus professionis meae seriem aliquid facere quolibet modo, seu ingenio, vel occasione, tentavero, reus inveniar in aeterno judicio, ultionem Ananiae et Saphirae incurram, qui vorbis etiam de rebus propriis fraudem facere praesumpsit: hoc autem indiculum sacramenti ego Bonifacius exiguus episcopus manu propria, ita ut praescriptum, Deo teste et judice, feci sacramentum, quod et conservare promitto."