II. The Works of Damiani consist of Epistles, Sermons, Lives of Saints, ascetic tracts, and Poems. They are a mirror of the church of his age.
1. The Epistles are divided into eight books. They are addressed (a) to contemporary Roman Bishops (Gregory VI., Clement II., Leo IX., Victor II., Nicolas II., Alexander II., and the Anti-pope Cadalous or Honorius II.); (b) to the Cardinal Bishops, and to Cardinal Hildebrand in particular; (c) to Patriarchs and to the Archbishops of Ravenna and Cologne; (d) to various Bishops; (e) to Archpresbyters, Archdeacons, Presbyters and other clergy. They give a graphic picture of the corruptions of the church in his times, and are full of zeal for a moral reform. He subscribes himself "Petrus peccator monachus." The letters to the anti-pope Cadalous show his power of sarcasm; he tells him that his very name from cado, to fall, and laov", people, was ominous, that he deserved a triple deposition, that his new crime was adultery and simony of the worst sort, that he had sold his own church (Parma) and bought another, that the church was desecrated to the very top by such adulteries. He prophesied his death within one year, but Cadalous outlived it, and Damiani defended his prophecy as applying to moral death.
2. Sermons, seventy-four in number. 1537 They are short and treat of church festivals, apostles, the Virgin Mary, martyrs, saints, relics, and enjoin a churchly and ascetic piety.
3. Lives of Saints, of the Benedictine order, namely, Odilo of Cluny, Romuald, Rodulphus, and Dominicus Loricatus (the hero of self-flagellation), whose examples are held up for imitation. 1538
4. Dogmatic Discussions, De Fide Catholica; Contra Judaeos; Dialogus inter Judaeum et Christianum; De Divina Omnipotentia; De Processione Spiritus Sancti (against the Greeks), etc.9
5. Polemic and ascetic treatises. The most important is the Liber Gomorrhianus (1051), a fearless exposure of clerical immorality which appeared to him as bad as the lewdness of Sodom and Gomorrah (hence the title).0 It is addressed to Pope Leo IX. and calls on him to exercise his authority in removing the scandals. The Liber Gratissimus, addressed to Henry, archbishop of Ravenna, is directed against simony. 1541 He wrote also tracts on the contempt of the world, on monastic perfection, on the life of hermits, on sacerdotal celibacy, against intemperance, against avarice, etc. 1542
6. On Miracles and Apparitions.3
7. On the Pictures of the chief Apostles, especially Peter and Paul.4
8. Exposition of the Canon of the Mass, and other liturgical topics.5
9. Exegetical Fragments on the Old and New Testaments.6
10 Poems, satires, epigrams and Prayers.7 His best hymn is on the glory of Paradise, based on poetic prose of St. Augustin: "Ad perennis vitae fontem mens sativit arida." 1548
* Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997. This material has been carefully compared, corrected¸ and emended (according to the 1910 edition of Charles Scribner's Sons) by The Electronic Bible Society, Dallas, TX, 1998.
keltoivor Kevltai, Celtae
, Galavtai, Galatae or Galati, Galli, Gael
. Some derive it from celt
, a cover, shelter
; others from celu
) to conceal
. Herodotus first mentions them, as dwelling in the extreme northwest of Europe. On these terms see Diefenbach, Celtica
, Brandes, Kelten und Germanen
, Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois
, the art. Galli
in Pauly’s Realencyclopädie
, and the introductions to the critical Commentaries on the Galatians by Wieseler and Lightfoot (and Lightfoot’s Excursus I
). The Galatians in Asia Minor
, to whom Paul addressed his epistle, were a branch of the Keltic race, which either separated from the main current of the westward migration, or, being obstructed by the ocean, retraced their steps, and turned eastward. Wieseler (in his Com
. and in several articles in the "Studien und Kritiken, " and in the "Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte," 1877 No. 1) tries to make them Germans, a view first hinted at by Luther. But the fickleness of the Galatian Christians is characterristic of the ancient Gauls and modern French.
2 Römische Geschichte, Vol. I., p. 329, 5th ed., Berlin, 1868.
3 The word is of uncertain origin. Some derive it from a Keltic root, garm or gairm, i.e. noise; some from the old German gere (guerre), a pointed weapon, spear or javelin (so that German would mean an armed man, or war-man, Wehrmann); others, from the Persian irman, erman, i.e. guest.
4 From the Gothic thiudisco, gentiles, popularis
; hence the Latin teutonicus
, and the German deutsch
(which may also be connected with diutan, deutsch deutlich
). In the English usage, the term German
is confined to the Germans proper, and Dutch to the Hollanders; but Germanic
apply to all cognate races.
The term Slav
is derived by some from slovo, word
, by others, from slava
. From it are derived the words slave
), because many Slavs were reduced to a state of slavery or serfdom by their German masters. Webster spells slave
instead of slav
, and Edward A. Freeman, in his Historical Essays
(third series, 1879), defends this spelling on three grounds: 1) No English word ends in v
. But many Russian words do, as Kiev, Yaroslav
, and some Hebrew grammars use Tav
. 2) Analogy. We write Dane, Swede, Pole
, not Dan
, etc. But the a
in Slav has the continental sound, and the tendency is to get rid of mute vowels. 3) The form Slave
perpetuates the etymology. But the etymology (slave
= dou'lo") is uncertain, and it is well to distinguish the national name from the ordinary slaves, and thus avoid offence. The Germans also distinguish between Slaven, Sclaven
6 Max Müller, Science of Language, I. 121.
The word Druid or Druidh is not from the Greek dru'", oak
(as the elder Pliny thought), but a Keltic term draiod
, meaning sage, priest
, and is equivalent to the magi in the ancient East. In the Irish Scriptures draiod
is used for magi, Matt. 2:1.
See Haddan & Stubbs, Counc. and Eccles
. I. 22-26, and Pryce, 31 sqq. Haddan says, that "statements respecting (a) British Christians at Rome, (b) British Christians in Britain, (c) Apostles or apostolic men preaching in Britain, in the first century
—rest upon either guess, mistake or fable;" and that "evidence alleged for the existence of a Christian church in Britain during the second century
is simply unhistorical." Pryce calls these early agencies "gratuitons assumptions, plausible guesses, or legendary fables." Eusebius, Dem. Ev
. III. 5, speaks as if some of the Twelve or of the Seventy had "crossed the ocean to the isles called British
;" but the passage is rhetorical and indefinite. In his Church History
he omits Britain from the apostolic mission-field.
9 It is merely an inference from the well-known passage of Clement of Rome, Ep. ad Corinth. c. 5, that Paul carried the gospel "to the end of the West" (ejpi;to;tevrmath'"duvsew"). But this is far more naturally understood of a visit to Spain which Paul intended (Rom. xv. 28), and which seems confirmed by a passage in the Muratorian Fragment about 170 ("Profectionem Pauli ab urbe ad Spaniam proficiscentis "); while there is no trace whatever of an intended or actual visit to Britain. Canon Bright calls this merely a "pious fancy" (p. 1), and Bishop Lightfoot remarks: "For the patriotic belief of some English writers, who have included Britain in the Apostle’s travels, there is neither evidence nor probability" (St. Clement of Rome p. 50). It is barely possible however, that some Galatian converts of Paul, visiting the far West to barter the hair-cloths of their native land for the useful metal of Britain, may have first made known the gospel to the Britons in their kindred Keltic tongue. See Lightfoot, Com. on Gal., p. 246.
Book I., ch. 4: "Lucius, king of the Britons, sent a letter to Eleutherus, entreating that by his command he might be made a Christian. He soon obtained his pious request, and the Britons preserved the faith, which they had received, uncorrupted and entire, in peace and tranquillity, until the time of the Emperor Diocletian." Comp. the footnote of Giles in loc
. Haddan says (I. 25): "The story of Lucius rests solely upon the later form of the Catalogus Pontificum Romanorum
which was written c. a. d.
530, and which adds to the Vita Eleutherus
171-186) that ’Hic (Eleutherus)accepit epistolam a Lucio Britanniae Rege, ut Chrristianus efficeretur par ejus mandatum.’
But these words are not in the original Catalogus
, written shortly after a. d.
353." Beda copies the Roman account. Gildas knows nothing of Lucius. According to other accounts, Lucius ((Lever Maur, or the Great Light) sent Pagan and Dervan to Rome, who were ordained by Evaristus or Eleutherus, and on their return established the British church. See Lingard, History of England
, I. 46.
11 Adv. Judaeos 7: "Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita." Bishop Kaye (Tertull., p. 94) understands this passage as referring to the farthest extremities of Britain. So Burton (II. 207): "Parts of the island which had not been visited by the Romans." See Bright, p. 5.
212 Bede I. 7. The story of St. Alban is first narrated by Gildas in the sixth century. Milman and Bright (p. 6) admit his historic reality.
Wiltsch, Handbuch der Kirchl. Geogr. und Statistik
I. 42 and 238, Mansi, Conc
. II. 467, Haddan and Stubbs, l.c
., I. 7. Haddan identifies Colonia Londinensium with Col. Legionensium, i.e
414 See Haddan and Stubbs, I. 7-10.
515 Bede I. 21 ascribes the triumph of the Catholic faith over the Pelagian heresy to the miraculous healing of a lame youth by Germanus (St. Germain), Bishop of Auxerre. Comp. also Haddan and Stubbs, I. 15-17.
616 See Haddan and Stubbs, I. 36-40.
717 The British and Irish Christians were stigmatized by their Roman opponents as heretical Quartodecimans (Bede III. 4); but the Eastern Quartodecimans invariably celebrated Easter on the fourteenth day of the month (hence their designation), whether it fell on a Sunday or not; while the Britons and Irish celebrated it always on a Sunday between the 14th and the 20th of the month; the Romans between the 15th and 21st. Comp. Skene, l.c. II. 9 sq.; the elaborate discussion of Ebrard, Die, iro-schott. Missionskirche, 19-77, and Killen, Eccles. Hist. of Ireland, I. 57 sqq.
818 The chronology, is somewhat uncertain. See Lappenberg’s Geschichte von England, Bd. I., p. 73 sqq.
919 Quoted by Lingard
, I. 62. The picture here given corresponds closely with that given in Beowulf’s Drapa
, from the 9th century.
King Arthur (or Artus), the hero of Wales, of the Chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and the romances of the Round Table, if not entirely mythical, was one of the last Keltic chiefs, who struggled against the Saxon invaders in the sixth century. He resided in great state at Caerleon in Wales, surrounded by valorous knights, seated with him at a round table, gained twelve victories over the Saxons, and died in the battle of Mount Badon or Badon Hill near Bath (a. d.
520). The legend was afterwards Christianized, transferred to French soil, and blended with the Carlovingian Knights of the Round Table, which never existed. Arthur’s name was also connected since the Crusades with the quest of the Holy Grail or Graal (Keltic gréal
, old French san gréal
. the wonderful bowl-shaped vessel of the Lord’s Supper (used for the Paschal Lamb, or, according to another view
, for the cup of blessing), in which Joseph of Arimathaea caught the blood of the Saviour at the cross, and which appears in the Arthurian romances as the token of the visible presence of Christ, or the symbolic embodiment of the doctrine of transubstantiation. Hence the derivation of Grail from sanguis realis
, real blood, or sang royal
, the Lord’s blood. Others derive it from the Romanic greal
, cup or dish; still others from the Latin graduale.
See Geoffrey of Monmouth
, Chronicon sive Historia Britonum
(1130 and 1147, translated into English by Aaron Thomson, London, 1718); Sir T. Malory
, History of Prince Arthur
(1480-1485, new ed. by, Southey, 1817); Wolfram von Eschenbach Parcival and Titurel
(about 1205, transl. by K. Simrock, Stuttg., 1842); Lachmann
, Wolfram von Eschenbach
(Berlin, 1833, 2nd ed, 1854); Göschel Die Sage von Parcival und vom Gral nach Wolfram von Eschenbach (Berlin, 1858); Paulin Paris
, Les Romans de la Table Ronde
(Paris, 1860); Tennyson
, The Idylls, of the King
(1859), and The Holy Grail
, Four Ancient Books of Wales
, Arthurian Localities
, Die Sage vom Gral
, (Leipz., 1877); and an article of Göschel
in the first ed. of Herzog’s Encykl. V. 312 (omitted in the second ed.).
121 Bede (I. 22) counts it among the most wicked acts or neglects rather, of the Britons mentioned even by their own historian Gildas, that they, never preached the faith to the Saxons who dwelt among them.
22 History of the Norman conquest of England, Vol. I., p. 22 (Oxford ed. of 1873).
Beda (B. II., ch.1 at the close) received this account "from the ancients" (ab antiquis
, or traditione majorum
), but gives it as an episode, not as a part of the English mission (which is related I. 53). The elaborate play on words excites critical suspicion of the truth of the story, which, though well told, is probably invented or embellished
, like so many legends about Gregory, ."Se non vero, e ben trovato
424 Among these books were a Bible in 2 vols., a Psalter, a book of the Gospels, a Martyrology, Apocryphal Lives of the Apostles, and some Commentaries. "These are the foundation or beginning of the library of the whole English church."
525 The first journey of Augustin, in 595, was a failure. He started finally for England July 23d, 596, wintered in Gaul, and landed in England the following year with about forty persons, including Gallic priests and interpreters. Haddan and Stubbs, III. 4.
626 Bede I. 25.
727 "Non enim omnes electi miracula faciunt, sed tamen eorum omnium nomina in caelo sunt ascripta."Greg., Ad Augustinum Anglorum Episcopum, Epp. Lib. XI. 28, and Bede I. 31.
Not AEtherius, as Bede has it
, I. 27, and in other places. AEtherius was the contemporary archbishop of Lyons.
929 Bede I. 27 sqq. gives extracts from Gregory’s answers. It is curious how the pope handles such delicate subjects as the monthly courses and the carnal intercourse between married people. A husband, he says, should not approach his wife after the birth of an infant, till the infant be weaned. Mothers should not give their children to other women to suckle. A man who has approached his wife is not to enter the church unless washed with water and till after sunset. We see here the genius of Romanism which aims to control by its legislation all the ramifications of human life, and to shackle the conscience by a subtle and minute casuistry. Barbarians, however, must be treated like children.
030 "Non enim pro locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca amanda sunt. Ex singulis ergo quibusdam ecclesiis, quae pia, quae religiosa, quae recta sunt, elige, et haec quasi in fasciculum collecta apud Anglorum mentes in consuetudinem depone." Gr. Respons. ad interrogat. Aug., Ep. XI. 64, and Bede I. 27.
"Is qui locum summum ascendere nititur, gradibus wel passibus, saltibus elevatur
. lib. XI. 76 (and Bede I. 30). This epistle of the year 601 is addressed to Mellitus on his way to England, but is intended for Augustin ad faciliorem Anglorum conversionem
. In Sardinia, where Christianity already prevailed, Gregory advised Bishop Januarius to suppress the remaining heathenism by imprisonment and corporal punishment.
232 York and London had been the first metropolitan sees among the Britons. London was even then, as Bede (II. 3) remarks, a mart of many nations resorting to it by sea and land.
33 On the time and place of the two conferences see the notes in Haddan and Stubbs, III. 40 and 41.
434 Bede mentions twelve hundred, but the Saxon chronicle (a. d. 607) only two hundred.
535 Bede II., c. 3; Haddan and Stubbs, III. 53.
636 Bede III., c. 14-17; V. 24.
737 See the details of the missionary labors in the seven kingdoms in Bede; also in Milman l.c.; and the documents in Haddan and Stubbs, vol. III.
"The conversion of the heptarchic kingdom," says Professor Stubbs (Constitutional History of England
, Vol. I., p. 217), "during the seventh century not only revealed to Europe and Christendom the existence of a new nation, but may be said to have rendered the new nation conscious of its unity in a way in which, under the influence of heathenism
, community of language and custom had failed to do."
939 See a full account of this controversy in Bede, III, c. 25, 26, and in Haddan and Stubbs, III. 100-106.
040 The works of Theodore (Poenitentiale, etc.) in Migne’s Patrol., Tom. 99, p. 902. Comp. also Bede, IV. 2, Bright, p. 223, and especially Haddan and Stubbs, III. 114-227, where his Penitential is given in full. It was probably no direct work of Theodore, but drawn up under his eye and published by his authority. It presupposes a very bad state of morals among the clergy of that age.
141 See Karl Werner (R.C.), Beda und seine Zeit, 1875. Bright, l.c., pp. 326 sqq.
242 Beda, Hist. Eccl. Angl., IV. 24. Caedmonis monachi Paraphrasis poetica Genescos ac praecipuarum sacrae paginae Historiarum, ed. F. Junius, Amst., 1655; modern editions by B. Thorpe, Lond., 1832, and C. W. M. Grein, Götting., 1857. Bouterwek, Caedmon’s des Angelsachen biblische Dichtungen, Elberfeld, 1849-54, 2 Parts. F. Hammerich, AElteste christliche Epik der Angelsachsen, Deutschen und Nordländer. Transl. from the Danish by Michelsen, 1874. Comp. also the literature on the German Heliand, § 27.
343 From Bright
, p. 449, compared with the dates in Haddan and Stubbs vol. III.
44 Agricola thought of invading Ireland, and holding it by a single legion, in order to remove from Britain the dangerous sight of freedom. Tacitus, Agric., c. 24.
545 Isidore of Seville in 580 (Origines XIV. 6) was the first to call Hibernia by the name of Scotia: "Scotia eadem et Ibernia, proxima Britanniae insula."
646 Prosper Aquitan. (a. d. 455-463), Chron. ad an. 431: "Ad Scotos in Christum credentes ordinatus a Papa Coelestino Palladius primus Episcopus mittitur." Comp. Vita S. Palladii in the Book of Armagh, and the notes by Haddan and Stubbs, Vol. II., Part II., pp. 290, 291.
747 He is said to have left in Ireland, when he withdrew, some relics of St. Peter and Paul, and a copy of the Old and New Testaments, which the Pope had given him, together with the tablets on which he himself used to write. Haddan & Stubbs, p. 291.
848 Hence Montalembert says (II. 393): "The Christian faith dawned upon Ireland by means of two slaves." The slave-trade between Ireland and England flourished for many centuries.
This fact is usually, omitted by Roman Catholic writers. Butler says simply: "His father was of a good family." Even Montalembert conceals it by calling "the Gallo-Roman (?) Patrick, son of a relative of the great St. Martin of Tours" (II. 390). He also repeats
, without a shadow of proof, the legend that St. Patrick was consecrated and commissioned by Pope St. Celestine (p. 391), though he admits that "legend and history have vied in taking possession of the life of St. Patrick."
050 The dates are merely conjectural. Haddan & Stubbs (p. 295) select a. d. 440 for St. Patrick’s mission (as did Tillemont & Todd), and 493 as the year of his death. According to other accounts, his mission began much earlier, and lasted sixty years. The alleged date of the foundation of Armagh is a. d. 445.