History of philosophy



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HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO


FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS

PROBLEMS AND CONCEPTIONS

BY
DR. W. WINDELBAND


PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF STRASSBUI

AUTHORISED TRANSLATION BY


JAMES H. TUFTS, PH.D.,
PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

Second Edition, Revised and EnlarQ


Nefo


THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.

1914
All rights reserved

COPYRIGHT, 1893, 1901.
BY MACMILLAN AND CO.

Set up and electrotyped September, 1893. Reprinted January.

1895; January, 1896; November, 1898 ; September, 1901; July, 1905;

July. 1907; July, 1910; July, 1914.

J. S. Gushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith

Norwood Mass. U.S.A.


TRANSLATOR S PREFACE.

REGARDED simply as a historical discipline, the history of thought

might fairly claim a prominent place in education, and an equal

share of the attention now given to comparative and historical

studies. The evolution of an idea is in itself as interesting and

valuable an object of study as the evolution of a word, of an insti

tution, of a state, or of a vegetable or animal form.
But aside from this interest which it has in common with other

historical sciences, the history of philosophy has a peculiar value of

its own. For the moment we attempt any serious thinking in any

field, natural science, history, literature, ethics, theology, or any

other, we find ourselves at the outset quite at the mercy of the

words and ideas which form at once our intellectual atmosphere

and the instruments with which we must work. We cannot speak,

for example, of mind or matter, of cause or force, of species or indi

vidual, of universe or God, of freedom or necessity, of substance or

evolution, of science or law, of good or true or real, without involv

ing a host of assumptions. And the assumptions are there, even

though we may be unconscious of them, or ignore them in an effort

to dispense with metaphysics. To dispense with these conceptions

is impossible. Our only recourse, if we would not beg our questions

in advance, or remain in unconscious bondage to the instruments of

our thought, or be slaves to the thinking of the past generations

that have forged out our ideas for us, is to " criticise our categories."

And one of the most important, if not the only successful, means to

this end is a study of the origin and development of these categories.

We can free ourselves from the past only by mastering it. We

may not hope to see beyond Aristotle or Kant until we have stood

vi Translator s Preface.


on their shoulders. We study the history of philosophy, not so

much to learn what other men have thought, as to learn to think.


For an adequate study of the history of thought, the main requi

sites are a careful study of the works of the great thinkers a

requisite that need not be enlarged on here, although such study is

a comparatively recent matter in both Britain and America, with a

few notable exceptions and a text-book to aid us in singling out

the important problems, tracing their development, disentangling

their complications, and sifting out what is of permanent value. To

meet this second need is the especial aim of the present work, and,

with all the excellencies of the three chief manuals already in use,

it can scarcely be questioned that the need is a real one. Those

acquainted with the work here translated (W. Windelband s Ge-

schichte der Philosophic, Freiburg i. B., 1892) have no hesitation in

thinking that it is an extremely valuable contribution toward just

this end. The originality of its conception and treatment awaken

an interest that is greater in proportion to the reader s acquaintance

with other works on the subject. The author shows not only

historical learning and vision, but philosophical insight ; and in his

hands the comparative treatment of the history of thought proves as

suggestive and fruitful as the same method applied to other subjects

in recent times. A work like the present could only have been

written with some such preparation as has come in this case from

the previous treatment of Greek and Modern Philosophy at greater

length, and in presenting it to English readers I am confident that

it will meet the wants, not only of special students of philosophy,

but also of all who wish to understand the development of thought.

Teachers will, I think, find it very valuable in connection with

lecture courses.
As regards the work of the Translator, little need be said. He

has tried like many others to make a faithful translation into

intelligible English, and is fully conscious that it has been with

varying success. Of course translation in the strict sense is often

impossible, and I cannot hope to have adopted the happiest com

promise or found the most felicitous rendering in all cases.

"Being" (spelled with a capital) is used for " Sein." Where the

German " Form " seemed to differ enough from the ordinary English


Translator s Preface. vii


sense of the word to make "form" misleading, I have spelled it

"Form," and the same course has been taken with "Real," " Re-

alitat," where the German seemed to desire to distinguish them from

"wirklich," which has been translated sometimes by "real," some

times by "actual." " Vorstellung" is usually rendered by "idea,"

following Locke s usage, except in connection with the system of

Leibniz, where "representation " is necessary to bring out his thought.

"Idee," in the Platonic and Kantian use, is rendered "Idea" (spelled

with a capital). The convenient word "Geschehen" has no exact

counterpart, and has been variously rendered, most frequently per

haps by "cosmic processes." In the additions made to the bibliog

raphy, no attempt has been made to be exhaustive ; I have simply

tried to indicate some works that might aid the student. It is

scarcely necessary to say that any corrections or suggestions will

be gratefully received and utilised if possible. Material in square

brackets is added by the translator.


In conclusion, I desire to express my indebtedness to my col

leagues, Professors Shorey, Strong, and Cutting, and Dr. Schwill

for helpful suggestions. My chief indebtedness, however, is to the

critical taste and unwearied assistance of my wife. If I have in

any degree succeeded in avoiding German idioms, it is largely due

to her.
JAMES H. TUFTS.


UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO,

July, 1893.




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