History of journalism in america



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HISTORY OF JOURNALISM IN AMERICA


  • 1690: The first American newspaper, _______________________ , was published in ______________ by ________________________.

    • This newspaper was discontinued after only one issue because:




  • 1704: The colonies had their first continuously published newspaper, __________________________ , started by ______________________ .

    • This newspaper was published “_________________,” meaning that it had the government’s approval.

    • As the pioneers moved to the south and west, more newspapers began appearing.

    • Most were closely supervised by the British government.




  • _______________ : the stirring of rebellion.

    • In the early days newspapers that criticized the government were guilty of this.

    • The __________ of statements was no defense (as it is today).

    • The basic principle then was, “The greater the truth, the greater the libel.”

      • The government figured that false criticism was easier to turn aside than true criticism.




  • 1735: articles were printed in the New York Weekly Journal by _______________________ that were critical of Governor William Cosby.

    • ________________ wrote few of the articles himself, but he was arrested and jailed because he was the ________________ of the paper.

    • _________________________ , of Philadelphia, considered to be the finest attorney of the period, defended him.

    • The judge denied Hamilton the right to prove the facts printed in the papers, so he appealed to the jury. Then:



  • 1775: The Revolution has begun – there are now approximately ______ papers being published.

    • These papers generally took the side of the patriots because of their outrage over the _________________________ . (This imposed a tax on periodicals.)

    • The papers backed the Revolution and printed the battle cries of the rebels.

    • These were the days of the _________________________ .

      • Readers who supported the fight for independence bought a ___________ newspaper.

      • Readers who remained loyal to the British crown bought a ___________ newspaper.



  • 1777: The first student newspaper, _________________________ , was started at the Friends Latin School in Pennsylvania.




  • 1783: The first daily newspaper, ___________________________ , was started.




  • 1791: The First Amendment to the Constitution is ratified.

    • This guarantees a ________________ .

    • “Congress shall make no law … abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.”




  • 1793: Editorials first appear in a separate column in the American Minerva, published by Noah Webster




  • Most papers were published by printers who had to set the type by hand (letter by letter), then print them on clumsy, bulky presses.

    • The ___________________________ was just around the corner, and soon newspapers joined in the never-ending race for better technology.

  • The Penny Press:

    • Reached a mass audience because it was so inexpensive and was distributed by street sales rather than by ___________________.

    • The audience was mainly the new working class of the_____________________.

    • Because of the larger audience, ___________________ took on a major role.




  • 1833: ______________________ founded the New York Sun.

    • While most earlier newspapers carried little actual news, instead filling the pages with opinions, essays, letters, and a few advertisements, Day filled the Sun with news and sold it for a _______________.

    • Thus, the __________________ was born.




  • 1841: Horace Greeley, a social reformer, founded the New York Tribune.

    • Its weekly edition had more than _________________ subscribers.




  • 1848: The _______________________ , providing the first wire service, was founded.

    • Originally, the AP served 6 newspapers.




  • 1849: The Harbor News Association, a news gathering service, is founded.

    • This service takes advantage of the newest technology, the _______________ , to sell news to papers that subscribed to it.

    • This service became known as a ___________________.




  • 1851: The New York Times was founded by ___________________.

    • The Times is considered by many professional journalists to still be the best newspaper in the country.

    • From the beginning it set a standard for fairness and accuracy in reporting.




  • 1861: Newswriting and news coverage began to change once reporters at ______________________ battlesites made use of the ________________ , which had been invented 18 years earlier.

    • To make sure that the outcome of a battle got into a story in case the telegraph broke down during transmission, reporters became more concise and developed the _____________________________ format of writing: giving the most important facts in the first few sentences.




  • _____________________________: an unethical, irresponsible brand of journalism involving hoaxes, altered photographs, screaming headlines, frauds, and endless self-promotions by the papers.

    • The most notable of the yellow journalists were ________________________ , publisher of the New York Journal, and _______________________ , publisher of the New York World.

    • Competition between these two men was fierce.

    • Both attracted huge audiences, and with the competition, their circulations both rose dramatically.

    • Characteristics of Yellow Journalism:

      • _________________ – excessively large type, in red or black, screaming excitement

      • Lavish use of __________ -- some without significance, some faked

      • Fraudulent stories – faked ______________ and stories, misleading headlines

      • Sunday supplement – color comics and sensational articles

      • Sympathy with the ______________ -- campaigns against abuses suffered by the common people




  • 1895: Yellow journalism and the Spanish – American War

    • A group of Cuban nationalists sought independence from Spain

    • The World and the Journal whipped up a war climate in support of the Cuban nationalists and tried to lure the United States into the conflict

    • “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.” – Hearst




  • 1898: U.S.S. Maine (a battleship) was blown up in Havana harbor

    • Hearst’s Journal ran the head: DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY

    • Congress demanded that Spain leave the island – war resulted

    • While yellow journalism is not solely to blame for this war, it certainly contributed




  • 1901: Pulitzer changes his policies

    • He now emphasized the World’s responsibility to the public as both a crusader and an accurate reporter.

    • He established 8 annual Pulitzer Prizes for Journalism




  • 1910: By 1910, there were more than ___________ daily newspapers in the United States.




  • Elizabeth Cochrane: better known as ___________________ , she worked for Pulitzer’s World and was noted for her “stunts,” or stories where she made the news herself.

    • She once pretended to be mentally ill, was committed to an Asylum for 10 days, then wrote a story exposing the asylum’s poor conditions.

      • This sparked reform throughout the country.

    • Her most famous story is about her trip around the world.

      • She set out to mimic the Jules Verne story Around the World in 80 Days , and made it in ______.




  • _____________________: term used for journalists who crusaded for reform in a variety of areas such as child labor laws, public corruption, etc.

    • Critics used this term in a negative manner.

    • Journalists took this as a compliment.




  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MINORITY MEDIA

    • 1905: _______________________ , one of the nation’s largest and most influential African American newspapers was founded by _________________.

    • His parents had been slaves.

    • The Defender took the lead in encouraging Southern blacks to move to the North in search of better jobs in that region’s growing industries.

    • The Defender became a daily newspaper in 1956.




    • 1945: ____________ , an African American magazine is first published.




  • MAGAZINES

    • This new medium came into its own during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    • Such publications as ______________ , ____________ , and the ________________________ joined the newspapers in their fight for social justice.

    • They had circulations in the hundreds of thousands.




  • RADIO

    • 1906: _________________ made improvements in the vacuum tube that made possible the new medium of radio.

    • 1920: ______ in Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox presidential election returns, considered a milestone in radio journalism.

    • 1926: The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) was formed.

    • 1927: The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) was formed.

    • 1927: Federal Radio Commission was formed.

      • It became obvious that some form of regulation was needed because the airwaves legally belong to the public, but stations were saturating them and interfering with each others broadcasts.

      • This later became known as the _________________________ (FCC).

    • 1945: Part of NBC’s network was sold – it was renamed the American Broadcasting Company (ABC).




  • TELEVISION

    • 1940: The first television newscast took place.

    • Because of television, newspapers deemphasized _____________ news.

      • It makes no sense for a newspaper to announce dramatically that an event occurred when most readers probably saw an account of it earlier on TV.


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