History of Global Health
History of Science 148
Tuesdays and Thursdays
, 10-11 AM
Department of the History of Science, Science Center 469
Aaron Pascal Mauck
Wednesdays 2-4 or by Appointment
Department of the History of Science, Science Center 459
A survey course exploring the interrelated histories of public health, international health, and global health from the 19th to the 21st centuries, with attention to the relationship between Western and non-Western forms of scientific practice and health systems. This course will trace the role of health and medicine in mediating the relationships between metropolis and colony, state and citizen, North and South, public welfare and private interest, research practices and human subjects, the commodification of health and the body, and human rights discourse. The course will be divided chronologically into four parts, tracing imperial health formations in the long 19th century, the nascent internationalism of the interwar period, the construction of bureaucracies of development in the postwar and postcolonial era, and configurations of public- and private- sector actors in late 20th and early 21st century global health practices. This course will meet twice weekly for lectures and once a week in small group sections. Graduate students can enroll in a separate graduate seminar section.
The following are the overall expectations for the course:
Students requiring special accommodations for papers and exams should present documentation of such at the beginning of the semester to their TF and the Head TF. Extensions on papers, in general
, are strongly discouraged.
Discussion sections are an integral part of the course and do not duplicate the lectures. Weekly response papers and primary source analysis will not be graded but will be factored in to the overall section grade. Unexcused absences from sections will be deducted from the participation grade. Students who experience a medical or family emergency can receive an excused absence by having their resident dean email their TF and the Head Teaching Fellow.
Any use of another person’s words or ideas, taken directly or paraphrased, without citing the source is plagiarism; this includes taking material from the Internet without citing the website. If you have any questions about Harvard’s policies on plagiarism, please refer to Harvard’s Writing with Sources
and Writing with Internet Sources
. If you have any questions on how to properly cite your sources please refer to the “Research Guide” page on the course website. You are also encouraged to consult either the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
or the Chicago Manual of Style
If you plan to bring a laptop to lecture to take notes, we ask that you switch off the wireless capability. Other uses during class time – from checking email, to instant messaging, to chasing up references online – can be disruptive to others and detrimental to your own learning experience.
Grades will be based on:
• Final Exam
• Section Attendance and Weekly
Dorothy Porter, Health, Civilization, and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern
Times. (Routledge, 1999)
Meaghan Vaughan, Curing Their Ills: Colonial Power and African Illness (Stanford University Press, 1991) Warwick Anderson Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines, (Duke University Press, 2006)
John Farley, Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine (Cambridge University Press, 1991) Javid Siddiqi, World Health and World Politics: The World Health Organization and the UN System
(University of North Carolina Press, 1995)
Matthew Connelly, Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. (Cambridge: Belknap
Randall Packard, The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria (Johns Hopkins University
Marcos Cueto, Cold War, Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955-1975 (Johns Hopkins
University Press, 2007)
A series of short films will accompany the course as additional primary source materials
Introduction: Histories of Global Health
I. Imperial Hygiene
Disease and empire Introduction to the Course Health and global empire
Health and the colonial state
Global and local in the emergence of public health
Quarantine, public health, and international trade
The emergence of tropical hygiene
The geography of tropical medicine
II. International Health in the Interwar Era
Public health and internationalism
The creation of international health organizations
Transnational networks of health
Science, Medicine and Transnationalism in International Health Efforts
Local Responses to Transnational Science
Reproduction and global demography Reproductive health in the interwar period Biopower and Population Control
III. World Health and Postcolonial Development
World health and world politics International health bureaucracies Health and the doctrine of development
WHO Vertical Organization Programs
WHO Disease Eradication Efforts
World Health in dispute
Alma Ata and After
Population Health, Nutrition, and Politics
IV. Contemporary Formations in Global Health
From international to global health
Investing in health: global health and globalization
Development overturned: the double burden of disease
Competing visions of global health
Biosecurity: pandemic preparedness, bioterrorism
Humanitarianism: human rights and health equity
Futures of global health
Capacity-building, training, and implementation
Essential medicines and access
Presentation of projects
COURSE OUTLINE Readings may be modified somewhat over the course of the term
WEEK 1: DISEASE AND EMPIRE
Andrew Lakoff, “Two Regimes of Global Health,” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 1, 1 (2010): 59-79.
Arthur Kleinman, “Four Social Theories for Global Health,” Lancet 375 (9725):1518-9.
Rudyard Kipling, “The white man’s burden” McClure’s 1899. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/Kipling.html
William C. Gorgas, “The conquest of the tropics for the white race,” Journal of the American Medical Association, June 19,
1909, 52 (25): 1967-1969.
WEEK 2: HEALTH AND THE COLONIAL STATE
Dorothy Porter, “Epidemics and social dislocation in the nineteenth century,” in Health, Civilization, and the State: A History of
Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times. (New York: Routledge, 1999): 79-96.
Randall M. Packard, “Introduction: Industrialization and the political economy of tuberculosis,” in White Plague, Black Labor: Tuberculosis and the Political Economy of Health and Disease in South Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989): 1-21
William F. Bynum, “Policing hearts of darkness: aspects of the international sanitary conferences,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 15 (1993): 421-34.
David Arnold, “Cholera: Disease as disorder,” in Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth- Century India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993): 159-199.
Warwick Anderson, “Excremental colonialism” and “Conclusion” in Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Phillipines (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006): 104-129, 227-233.
Report to the International Sanitary Conference of a Commission from that Body, to Which Were Referred the Questions
Relative to the Origin, Endemicity, Transmissibility and Propagation of Asiatic Cholera (Boston: Mudge & Son, 1867): iii-iv,
WEEK 3: TROPICAL MEDICINE
Michael Worboys, “The emergence of tropical medicine” in Perspectives on the Emergence of Scientific Disciplines (London: Routledge, 1976): 75-98.
John Farley, “A declaration of war” and “Another war, another continent,” in Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical
Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001): 13-44.
Julyan G. Peard, “Race, climate, and medicine: Framing tropical disorders” in Race, Place, and Medicine: The Idea of the
Tropics in Nineteenth-Century Brazilian Medicine (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000): 81-108.
WEEK 4: PUBLIC HEALTH AND INTERNATIONALISM
Paul Weindling, "Social medicine and the League of Nations Health Organization," in in Paul Weindling, ed. International Health Organizations and Movements, 1918-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 134-153.
John Farley. “Into the 1930s: Economics of Disease,” and “Empires in Transition,” in Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical
Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001): 116-156.
Warwick Anderson, “Late-Colonial public health and Filipino ‘mimicry’” in Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical
Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Phillipines (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006): 180-206.
Frantz Fanon, “The so-called dependency complex of the colonized,” Black Skin, White Masks: 64-88.
Jonathan Sadowsky, “Material Conditions and the Politics of Care,” chap. 3 in Imperial Bedlam: Institutions of Madness in
Colonial Southwest Nigeria (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999): 26-47.
Simon Flexner, "Epidemiology and Recent Epidemics," Science, Vol. 50 (October 3, 1919), 313-318. Pan American Sanitary Code, 1924 http://www.paho.org/English/D/OD_308_ch1-3.htm
Primary source assignment #1
Using library or online collections find a brief (1-4pp) account in the clinical or public health literature (e.g., Lancet is online- accessible from 1823 onwards, as are a large number of late 19th century and early 20th century medical texts from Countway’s collaboration with Google books) relevant to the definition of a tropical disease, the practice of tropical medicine, or a program of tropical hygiene written between 1860 and 1914. These should be posted to your section website and reviewed prior to section.
Patrick Manson, "On the necessity for special education in tropical medicine" Lancet, 150 (1897)3866: 842-845
Patrick Manson, Tropical Medicine (1st ed., 1898) [selections] “Introduction”, “Table of contents” “Beri-Beri”, v-vii, xi-xvi,
WEEK 5: TRANSNATIONAL NETWORKS AND HEALTH
Anne Marie Moulin, "The Pasteur Institutes between the two World Wars: The transformation of the international sanitary order," in Paul Weindling, International Health Organizations and Movements 1918-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 244-265.
Anne-Emanuelle Birn and Armando Solórzano, "Public Health Policy Paradoxes: Science and Politics in the Rockefeller
Foundation’s Hookworm Campaign in Mexico in the 1920s," Social Science and Medicine, 49, 9 (1999): 1197-1213.
Pauline, M. Mazumdar, “In the Silence of the Laboratory’: The League of Nations Standardizes Syphilis Tests,” Social History of Medicine, 16, 3 (200): 437-459.
Marcos Cueto, “The Cycles of Eradication: The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin American Public Health, 1918-1940,” in Paul
Weindling, ed. International Health Organizations and Movements, 1918-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 222-243.
Primary source assignment #2
Select a brief document from the online digital collections of the Richard Pearson Strong Archives. These should be posted to your section website and reviewed prior to section.
S.M. Lambert, A Yankee Doctor in Paradise (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1941): 90-94.
Victor Heiser, “Parasites Lost and Parasites Regained” in An American Doctor’s Odyssey: Adventures in Forty-five Countries
(New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1936): 358-394.
WEEK 6: REPRODUCTION AND GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY
Anne-Emanuelle Birn, “Skirting the Issue: Women and International Health In Historical Perspective,” American Journal of
Public Health 1999, 89 (3): 399-407.
Margaret Jones, “Infant and Maternal Health Services in Ceylon, 1900-1948: Imperialism or Welfare?” Social History of
Medicine 2002, 15(2): 263-89.
Matthew Connelly, “To Inherit the Earth,” and “Populations at War,” in Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World
Population (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2008): 46-114.
Margaret Sanger, My Fight for Birth Control (New York: Farrar & Rinehardt, 1931): excerpts.
Lothrop Stoddard, “The world of color,” in The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy (University Press of
Hawaii, 1920): 299-310
WEEK 7: WORLD HEALTH AND WORLD POLITICS (Initial paper proposal due 3/14) Secondary Sources
Amy L. S. Sayward, “Constructing international authority in the World Health Organization” in Birth of Development: How the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization Changed the World, 1945-1965 (Kent State University Press, 2006): 137-160.
Timothy Mitchell, "The object of development: America’s Egypt," in Jonathan Crush, Power of Development (New York, Routledge, 1995): 129-157.
Socrates Litsios, ‘Malaria control, the cold war, and the postwar reorganization of international assistance’, Medical
Anthropology, 17, 3 (1997): 255-278.
Sung Lee, ‘WHO and the developing world: The contest for ideology’, in Andrew Cunningham and Bridie Andrews (eds.), Western medicine as contested knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997). 24-45.
Brock Chisholm, “The World Health Organization,” British Medical Journal, May 6, 1950: 4661-1027.
John A. Logan, “Countering Communism Through Foreign Assistance Programs in Public Health,” American Journal of Public
Health 45 (1955): 1017-21.
Abdul Omran, “The epidemiological transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change,” The Milbank Quarterly
49 (1971): 509-38.
WEEK 8: WHO Vertical Organization Programs
Randall Packard, “Malaria Dreams” in The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2007): 150-176.
Donald Henderson, “Smallpox eradication—a cold war victory,” World Health Forum 19, 2 (1998): 113-119.
Paul Greenough, "Intimidation, coercion, and resistance in the final stages of the South Asian smallpox eradication campaign,
1973-1975," Social Science and Medicine, 41, 5 (1995): 633-645
WHO. “The Declaration of Alma-Ata” 1977
J. A. Walsh and K. S. Warren, "Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 301 (1979), 967–974.
And ONE of the following:
M. Segall , "The politics of primary health care," IDS Bulletin, Vol. 14, (1983), 27–37.
L. Stone, "Primary health care for whom: Village perspectives from Nepal," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 3 (1986), 293-302.
Carl Taylor and Richard Jolly, ‘The straw men of primary health care’, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 9, 1988, pp.
Ben Wisner, "Gobi versus PHC? Some dangers of selective primary health care," Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 26, Issue 9 (1988), 963-969.
W. Henry Mosler, "Is there a middle way? Categorical programs for PHC," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 9 (1988),
Lynn M. Morgan, “International politics and primary health care in Costa Rica,” Social Science and Medicine 1990, 30(2): 211-
WEEK 9: WORLD HEALTH IN DISPUTE (bibliography due 4/4)
Dmitry Venediktov, “Alma Ata and after” World Health Forum 19 (1998): 79-86
Anne Mills, “Mass campaigns versus general health services: what have we learned in 40 years about vertical versus horizontal approaches?” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, 7 83 (4):315-316.
Matthew Connelly, “Controlling nations” in Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2008):195-236.
Primary source assignment #3
Using library or online periodical collections (e.g., ProQuest historical newspapers) find a brief (1-5pp) account of conflict in world health priorities between 1945 and 1985. These should be posted to your section website and reviewed prior to section.
WHO, The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substances. Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, 118-155.
WEEK 10: FROM INTERNATIONAL TO GLOBAL HEALTH
Sudhir Anand and Kara Hansen, “Disability Adjusted Life Years: A critical perspective,” Journal of Health Economics
Kent Buse and Gill Walt, “Role conflict? The World Bank and the world’s health,” Social Science and Medicine 50, 2 (2000):
Jeffrey Sachs and Pia Malaney, “The economic and social burden of malaria” Nature 415 (2002):680-685
Alison Katz, “The Sachs Report: Investing in Health for Economic Development— or Increasing The Size of the Crumbs From the Rich Man’s Table? Part II,” International Journal of Health Services, 35, 1 (2005): 171–188.
Julio Frenk, Jose L. Bobadilla, Jaime Sepulveda, Malaquias Lopez Cervantes, “Health transition in middle-income countries:
new challenges for health care” Health Policy and Planning Health Policy and Planning 4, 1 (1989): 29-39.
JoAnne E Epping-Jordan, Gauden Galea, Colin Tukuitonga, Robert Beaglehole, “Preventing chronic diseases: taking stepwise action,” Lancet [online, Oct 5, 2005] 1-5
WEEK 11: COMPETING VISIONS OF GLOBAL HEALTH
Nicholas B. King, “Security, Disease, Commerce: Ideologies of Postcolonial Global Health.” Social Studies of Science
32, 5-6 (2002): 763-789
David P. Fidler, SARS, Governance, and the Globalization of Disease [excerpts]
Renee Fox, "Medical humanitarianism and human rights: Reflections on Doctors Without Borders and Doctors of the World," Social Science & Medicine, 4, 12 (1995): 1607-1616
Peter Redfield, “Vital Mobility and the Humanitarian Kit.” In A. Lakoff and S. Collier, eds. Biosecurity Interventions: Global
Health and Security in Question (New York: Columbia University Press): 147-171.
Adriana Petryna, “Clinical trials offshored: On private sector science and public health” BioSocieties 2, 9 (2007): 21-40
WEEK 12: FUTURES OF GLOBAL HEALTH
Ilona Kickbush, “Influence and Opportunity: Reflections on the US Role in Global Public Health’ Health Affairs (Nov/Dec
Cindy Patton, “From colonial medicine to world health” in Globalizing AIDS (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
Didier Fassin, When Bodies Remember: Experience and Politics of AIDS in South Africa (University of California Press, 2007): excerpts
Sandra Teresa Hyde, Eating Spring Rice: The Cultural Politics of AIDS in Southwest China (University of California Press,
“Delivering on Global Health,” Health Affairs 29, 4 (2009): excerpts
David Sanders and Andy Haines, “Implementation Research is needed to Achieve International Health Goals,” PLOS Medicine
3 e186: 1-4.
Bill Gates, “Address to World Health Assembly,” 2005
Anne-Emmanuelle Birn, “Gates’s Grandest Challenge: Transcending Technology as Public Health Ideology,” The Lancet
“How to Promote Global Health,” Foreign Affairs January 23, 2007 [excerpts]
Primary source assignment #4:
Find a visual representation of global health relevant to the themes of your own research project or other topics raised during this course. These should be scanned and posted to your section website and reviewed prior to section.