History of England 1 Dr. A velich elte seas/dete 2004/2005/i I. From the Romans to Anglo-Norman England



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History of England 1

Dr. A Velich

ELTE SEAS/DETE

2004/2005/I
I. From the Romans to Anglo-Norman England
-- the Island

--the Celts

--the Celtic languages: the British and Gaelic

--henges and Druids
55 BC -- J. Caesar’s first attempt (Commius)

54 BC -- his second attempt, Cassivellaunus

AD 43 -- Claudius, Aulus Plautius,

-- the Fosse Way, „divide and rule“, Colchester, Gloucester, Lincoln & York

-- Scapula, fortress at Caerlon

AD 59 Suetonius Paulinus, the rebellion of Boedicca

AD 78-79 Agricola

AD 117 northern rising

AD 122 Hadrian’s wall

AD 143 Antonine’s wall

AD 209-11 Severus

Roman influence: tows , roads, Latin, Christianity

(St Ninian --Whithorn, St Patrick, St Illtyd--Glamorgan)

-- the Count of the Saxon Shores

-- Diocletian’s reforms

-- the fall of Rome

AD 450 the Anglo-Saxon conquest (the Jutes) -- , the Isle of Thanet, Procopius

AD 584 Aethelberht m. Bertha

AD 596 Augustine

AD 601 first archbishop of Canterbury

AD 613 the Northumbrians defeated the British at Chester -- consequences

AD 627 Paulinus -- at York

AD 663 the synod of Whitby

AD 668 Theodore of Tarsus --- Synod of Hertford

-- the dominance of Northumbria, (Edwin), Mercia(Penda, Offa) and Wessex(Egbert, Alfred)

AD 878 Edington

--- schools, the fleet, translations, burgs

Edward the Elder, Ethelflead against the Danes, Danelaw, Danegeld

AD 937 Brunanburg

AD 959 Edgar the Peacable

AD 978 Ethelred

AD 1016 Edmund the Ironside

AD 1035 Cnut

AD 1042 end of the Danish line

AD 1042-66 Edward the Confessor, the beginning of the Anglo-Norman line, Westminster AbbeyHistory of England 1

Dr. A Velich

ELTE SEAS/DETE

2004/2005/I
ANGLO-NORMAN ENGLAND
Dubious succession of Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwin vs. Harold Hardrada

William the Bastard

the Battle of Hastings /14 Oct,1066/, London capitulated --- William the Conqureror crowned as William I /1066-87/
Anti-Norman rebellions --- cc. 200 Norman barons replace Anglo-Saxon nobility

--- systematic feudalisation /subinfeudation, aids & incidents, relief, wardship, primogeniture/

--- the Domesday Book

Norman abbots appointed & introduce continental church reforms

-- elaboration of the territorial structure of the church: diocese, parish, chapter

-- bishop-nomination debated
William I dies /1087/ : his domain split: Normandy for Robert

England for William II /1087-1100/
third son, Henry played both sides in brothers' struggle, after William II' s hunting accident crowned as Henry II /1100-35/
--- by 1106 /Tenchebrai/ reunites England and Normandy

--- compromise with Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury over conferring spiritual offices

--- ''Lion of Justice'', ie. the government's judicial & administrative power expands, Roger of Salisbury & the Exchequer

Norman Castles for defence /motte & bailey/

Norman style churches & cathedrals, new monastic fervor /eg. Fountain Abbey/

12th century Renaissance /John of Salisbury/
Henry II' s problems with the succession, son drowned, Matilda to succeed, but
Stephen /1135-54/ seized the thrown & crowned
civil war : Stephen vs. Matilda & Geoffrey of Anjou, succession settled by 1153
Henry II /1154-89/ -- m. Eleanor of Aquitaine --- the Angevin/Plantagenet/ Empire

--- end of civil war

--- effective royal administration /Glanville/, Common Law, itinerant assizes /Grand & Petty Assize/ and the jury

--- debate with the church, with Thomas Becket /the Constitution of Clarendon of 1164/, after Becket's murder had to compromise
Richard I /1189-1199/ -- brave & successful crusader, '' Lion Heart'', but ransomed

-- attacked by Philip II/Augustus/
John /Sans Terre, 1199--1216/ -- swore fealty to Philip II, but alienated the Norman barons by killing Arthur of Britanny, so lost their support & Normandy /1204/
Further Reading: M.T. Clanchy. England and its Rulers 1066-1272. /Fontana, 1983/BRITISH HISTORY I / Velich / 2.

HIGH MEDIEVAL ENGLAND
Under John /Sans Terre/ the loss of Normandy & its consequences; first royal fleet organised
Steven Langton' s efforts for reconciliation, but after the battle of Bouvines --- rebellion result in Magna Carta /Runnymede/
the significance of Magna Carta as the forerunner of future constitutional /though not uninterrupted!/ progress, reissued several times
John succeeded by minor HENRY III /1216--1272/, regency of earl of Pembroke

of Hubert de Burgh
growing foreign interference by the Pope

foreigners flood high offices Simon de Montfort to lead opposition

Henry III' s unrealistic foreign policy

1258 Mad Parliament at Oxford

the Provisions of Oxford
still civil war -- Montfort summons burgesses to Parliament /would be House of Commons/ but defeated & killed at Evesham /1265/
EDWARD I /1272--1307/ -- in Sicily when succeeds to the throne !

--- codifying feudal laws

--- to levy export duty on wool

--- subdued Wales: the Statute of Wales; his son' s the first Prince of Wales

--- war against France, the Scottish alliance with France under Baliol --- Scotland defeated & subdued
by 1295 Edward I had to agree to summoning the Model Parliament

& to the separate convocations to tax the clergy
EDWARD II /1307--1327/
foreign favourites like Piers Gaveston, the Despensers

problems of Scotland & Gascony

defeated at Bannockburn by Robert Bruce

his wife Isabella & Roger Mortimer make him abdicate by 1327, his son crowned as
EDWARD III /1327--1377/

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--from the 12th century intellectual revival, renaissance by Moslem intermediaries, St Thomas Aquinas to ''baptize'' Aristotle

--universities at Oxford & Cambridge, Oxford as first centre of scientific study: Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon & John Duns Scotus

--Pope Innocent III --- Franciscan & Dominican friars recognised

--the Romanesque /Norman/ architecture vs. the Gothic /pointed arch, fan vaulting/

--during the 13th century economic growth, the 3-field system

--chartered boroughs as trade centres; the wards of the boroughs & their aldermen

guild merchant & craft guilds, guildhalls

BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich / 3.

LATE MEDIEVAL ENGLAND /cc. 1327--1485/
EDWARD III /1327-- 1377/
-- started the Hundred Years' War /1337--1453/

the Salic Law & Philip VI of Valois, his determination to subordinate Edward' s ducal authority in Acquitaine; victory at Sluys, Grecy & Poitiers; the longbow

after 1377 military gains evaporate, Bertrand de Guesclin, Joan d' Arc; by 1453 only Calais left on English hands

-- no rebellion against him, principles of chivalry, the Order of the Garter,

-- Parliament' s increasing role because of taxation /House of Commons; their Speaker vs House of Lords/
-- the Black Death of 1348-49 & its impact on the population; the Statute of Labourers of 1351
-- John of Gaunt vs the Black Prince

the Good Parliament of 1376 /impeachment as a precedent/


RICHARD II /1377--1399/

-- John Wycliffe & the Lollards /Statute Heretico Comburendo/

-- Chaucer, Langland & the revival of English letters

-- the Peasants' Rising of 1381, Wat Tyler

-- centralizing efforts /JPs/ vs the Lords Appellant of the Merciless Parliament

John of Gaunt's son, Henry Bolinbroke in exile, his Lancastrian lands confiscated

seized the crown, made Richard II abdicate, crowned as
HENRY IV /1399--1413/

-- used parliamentary support to keep his crown & to tax people for the war

/excluding the Clarence line/

-- lost battles in France though feud of Orleanists & Burgundians

his son to make use of the feud for an offensive, grabbed power
HENRY V /1413--1422/

-- victory at Agincourt in 1415

-- allied to Burgundy, the Treaty of Troyes, but dies before the French king
HENRY VI /1422--1461/

-- long minority & illness: weak king & anarchy

-- Burgundy changing side, losses in France, only Calais left by 1453

-- economic depression

-- Clarence & York union vs Lancaster -- the Wars of the Roses /1455--1487/

/St Albans, Mortimer Cross, Towton,Tewkesbury,Bosworth, Stroke/


EDWARD IV /1461--1483/ -- Yorkist victory

-- intends to restore law & order, no foreign wars (except for the short French campaign in 1475, Treaty of Picquigny)

-- Parliament summoned less frequently, no need for tax (royal lands, new estate management, trade-boom)

-- land policy fails, in 1470-71 Warwick & Clarence remove Edward IV, but returns


RICHARD III /1483--85/

-- regent of Edward V but seized the crown, had Edward IV's sons murdered



-- this prompted resistance & rebellions, deposed & killed by Henry Tudor at Bosworth /1485/BRITISH HISTORY 1. /Velich / 4.

THE EARLY TUDORS
HENRY VII /1485--1509/ -- a Welshman with a Welsh army
-- the Battle of Bosworth /though not the last one in the Wars of Roses!/, Henry Tudor's legitimacy confirmed by ''divine judgement''
-- by marrying Elizabeth of York the fusion of the Yorkist & Lancastrian heritage, Arthur born
-- centralizing efforts hampered by the Pretenders /Lincoln, Simnel, Warbeck/

by the anarchy on the Marches /the Northern & Welsh borders/,

-- threefold intention: to pacify the country -- lands redistributed, legislation against recriting & maintenance of retinues, vagabonds & enclosures; improved jurisdiction /the Star Chamber & Court of Requests/
to boost trading -- a series of treaties signed, mercantilism, growing textile export

-- peaceful diplomacy /except for the 1489-92 conflict with France, the 1493 embargo on the Netherlands/

--- the Scottish & the Spanish marriage contracts

--- encouriging discoveries /the Cabots/

to '' heap up treasure'' /historians differ on H VII's financial policy/

/Exchequer vs Chamber, Edmund & Dudley/
HENRY VIII /1509--1547/ & his contemporary rivals: Louis XII, Francis I & Charles V
--- the English Renaissance -- e.g. Erasmus, Linacre, Thomas More
--- the ambitious & chivalric young king & his French & Scottish wars -- heavy taxation --- raised resistance: the Evil May Day of 1517 & the Amicable Grant of 1525
--- Wolsey, Thomas More & Thomas Cromwell -- the reform of bureaucracy /Prof. Elton's research/
-- H VIII as the Defender of Faith against Luther vs the English Reformation, Cranmer declares the king's marriage with Catherine of Aragon void because of Anne Boleyn /Fisher & More refused the oath/

--- the Acts of Supremacy & Succession

--- H VIII crowned King of Ireland

--- the dissolution of the monasteries in 2 steps /the Pilgrimage of Grace by Robert Aske/, the Tyndale Bible

--- the further wives: Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr

--- trouble on the Scottish border in the 1540s, the third war against FranceBRITISH HISTORY I./Velich/ 5.

THE LATER TUDORS /1547--1603/
EDWARD VI /1547--1553/

-- his minority; the councils & the protectors: Hereford /Duke of Somerset

Warwick /Duke of Northumberland

-- reformation completed, further ecclesiastical properties forfeited

-- the First & Second Prayer Books & Acts of Uniformity to enforce them

-- the succession issue: the protestant Lady Jane Grey vs the Catholic Mary Tudor
MARY I /1553--1558/
-- the inner council & the new chancellor, Stephen Gardiner

-- Parliament summoned to repeal the previous ecclesiastical laws, the religious turn

-- Cardinal Pole & Catholicism, heretics /incl. Cranmer, Latimer & Ridley/ burnt

-- the Spanish marriage, Philip II' s position in England

-- Wyatt's rising but London stands firm by the Queen

-- the consequences of the Anglo-Spanish war against France; Calais lost
ELIZABETH I /1558--1603/
--administation: the secretaries of state: William Cecil/Lord Burghley/, Walsingham & Robert Cecil
--religion: the Queen as Supreme Governor of the church; the Court of High Commission; & the archbishops: Matthew Parker, Edmund Grindal & John Whitgift, the Pope's 1570 excommunication; the reformers' split: the independents vs the presbyterians
--the Scottish issue: the Scottish reformation by John Knox vs Mary Stuart's Catholicism; the Edinburgh Agreement fails
--the Queen's marriage & succession: Mary Stuart's claim, captivity, intrigues & conspiracies /e.g.the Ridolfi plot/ & execution by 1586
--aiding the Neatherlands against Spain; Leicester's campaign is a failure
--the seafarers & the pirates /Hawkins, Raleigh,Gilbert & Drake/searching for new markets; conflict /religious & economic/ with Spain; the raids on Cadiz & the defeat of the Armada
--the Irish issue: Hugh O' Neill's rebellion by seeking Spanish help; Essex fails but Mountjoy succeeds in the pacification
--new enterprises/the Muscovy & the East India Company/& monopolies; the Queen's conflict with Parliament
--the Elizabethan Renaissance & new national coherence

BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich / 6.

THE EARLY STUARTS /1603--1642/

JAMES I /1603--1625/
--the most powerful protestant ruler in Europe

--the joint foreign policy of England & Scotland: peaceful but anti-Catholic; got involved in the Thirty Years' War /1618--1648/

--the Hampton Court conference in 1604: '' no bishop, no kingdom''

--the Gunpowder Plot by Guy Fawkes in 1605

--the King James Bible of 1611

--Robert Cecil/Salisbury/; Robert Carr & George Villiers /Buckingham/

--Virginia founded by 1607; the Pilgrim Fathers & the Mayflower, New England founded by 1620 --- free worship, still no major drain on the British population

--James & his 4 Parliaments: conflicts over taxation, religion, monopolies & common law /Edward Coke/

--after 1609 Amsterdam's growing financial & commercial dominance; rivalry with London;

--the colonization of Ulster; the London Council to run Londonderry

--instead of the Anglo-Spanish marriage, an Anglo-French one signed
CHARLES I /1625--1649/
--his belief in the divine right of kings & in the unlimited duty of obedience

--Buckingham still dominant & causes conflicts

--the wrestling with Parliament over taxation & the impeachment of Buckingham

--Charles I is forced to accept the Petition of Rights in return for subsidies, but then unparliamentary rule for 11 years /1629--1640/

--Strafford' s & Laud' s role; ruling through the prerogative courts

--the Ship Money debate, Hampden' s resistance

--economic progress within Britain, In Ireland /the linen industry/ & in America; Laud' s proposals to regulate divine services abroad /ie. in Scotland & in America/

--the debate with Scotland over religion & the ensuing war; taxation badly needed
Charles I had to summon Parliament by 1640
the Short & the Long Parliaments: agreed about personal & political issues /e.g.to abolish absolutist institutions/, but disagreed about religion /Pym, the Presbyterians & the Independents divided/ -- the road to the civil war /the Grand Remonstrance/BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich/ 7.
THE CIVIL WAR & THE COMMONWEALTH /1642--1660/
-- Europe locked up in the Thirty Years War, thus no interference

-- the opposing sides: Charles I /in Oxford/ vs Parliament /the Cavaliers vs the Roundheads/
-- the first civil war: 1642--46

-- Ireland takes the king's side, while Scotland supports the Roundheads

-- the battles of Marston Moor & Naseby; Ruppert vs Fairfax

--the New Model Army formed after 1645 with some 22000 soldiers, paid by Parliament & officers selected according to merit

--Parliament's Self-Denying Ordinance

-- Charles I surrendered to the Scots, but still disagreed about episcopacy, so handed over to Parliament

--new negotiations between the king & Parliament

--the split within Parliament: the Grandees vs the Levellers
--the second civil war: 1647--49

--Oliver Cromwell defeats the Scots near Preston

--the Rump

--the prosecution & execution of Charles I in 1649
--the Commonwealth /1649--1660/ & the executive role of the council of state

--first Ireland defeated /the Drogheda massacre/, pacified & further colonized

--in Scotland Charles II crowned & signed the Covenant, prepared to put the king on the English throne, but defeated at Dunbar & at Worcester; the conquest of Scotland completed by George Monck, Scotland incorporated

--the Navigation Acts lead to the Anglo-Dutch commercial war at sea /1652--1654/; Robert Blake vs Admiral Tromp
--the purge of Parliament & Cromwell's protectorate /1653--58/

--the first written English constitution

--the war with Spain & the Treaty of the Pyrenees

--the military government; the 11 major-generals to run large districts

--the Humble Petition & Advice wanted Cromwell to be crowned, but he refused the crown,
--the succession of Cromwell's son, Richard /1658--59/

--Richard's inefficient governance

--Richard in a year dissolved Parliament, restored the Rump & resigned;

no alternative left but Charles II

BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich / 8.
RESTORATION BRITAIN

CHARLES II /1660--1685/ restored
two major advantages: no foreign debt

Clarendon based the restoration settlement on respect of law
-- army & navy disbanded /only a 19000 strong standing force left/

-- lands reallocated; tax reform

-- bishops restored; some of the parish clergy forced to leave; church courts revived

-- the Savoy Hospital Conference of 1660

-- the 1662 Declaration of Indulgence

-- the Clarendon Code /1662--65/ against nonconformists

-- in Scotland & Ireland further repression & colonisation

-- further overseas ventures /A. Cooper/; advisory councils for trade & foreign plantations; the conquest of Jamaica completed; the Royal Adventurers trading in Africa chartered;

--foreign policy: against Spain the French alliance /Dunkirk sold/

the Portugese /Catherine Braganza' s dowry/

-- the second Anglo-Dutch war /1665--67/

financial problems, the Plague, the Great Fire & Dutch intruders on the Thames
the Treaty of Breda signed in 1667 --- New York gained

Surinam & Indonesia abandoned
-- in 1670 the Anglo-French Treaty of Dover signed against the Dutch

----- the third Anglo-Dutch war /also overland campaigns/ does not succeed

& its secret clause for Catholicism

-- the second Declaration of Indulgence of 1672 fails --- reaction: the Test Act of 1673
-- the CABAL ministry /Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley & Lauderdale/

--in 1677 the marriage of Mary (daughter of the Duke of York, the future James II) to William III of Orange

--the Titus Oates Plot & the anti-Catholic campaign

--the Habeas Corpus Act passed in 1679 /imprisonment now impossible without a trial/

--crown lawyers to undermine municipal liberties

--whigs vs tories
JAMES II /1685--1688/
--his smooth accession in spite of his Catholic leanings
--but Parliament refused to vote extra money, a standing force & tolerance for the Catholics; the king's army at Hounslow Heath, high offices went to the Catholics
--in 1688 an heir born & a Declaration of Indulgence issued
the bishops refused to read it out;

William III & Mary invited to the throne, the Glorious Revolution

BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich/ 9.

BRITAIN FROM 1689 TO 1763
Home policy:
--the succession of Mary & William III & the Bill of Rights

--the Toleration Act to reward the noncomformists

--the constitutional settlement in the 1701 Act of Settlement -- protestant succession ensured; a separate civil service founded; efficient taxation

-- the Bank of England founded in 1694

-- increasing political split along the tory vs whig line

-- John Locke's significance; royal mail & the first newspapers; freemasonry
--Queen Anne /1702--1714/ -- England & Scotland united in 1707

--the Hanoverian succession, the Georgian period /George I-- IV; 1714-- 183O/
--George I /1714--1727/
--George II /1727--1760/
-- Sir Robert Walpole, the first English PM & his cabinet /1721--42: peace, tax reforms & free trade elements/
--the Jacobites & their efforts also in Scotland & Ireland; the Old & the Young Pretender /1715 & 1745/

--John Wesley' s Methodist church from the 1730s
Diplomacy:
Britain involved in four successive wars:

--the Nine Years War /1688-1697/ -- ended by the Treaty of Ryswick
--the War of the Spanish Succession /1702--1713/ --the Blenheim & Ramilles victories by John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough; war ended by the Treaty of Utrecht(1713--15), with an advanced technique of diplomacy; Gibraltar & Minorca left on British hands
--the War of the Austrian Succession /1740--1748/ -- Britain vs Spain for commercial advantages in America; War of Jenkins' Ear
--the Seven Years War /1756--1763/ -- the military skills of William Pitt, the Elder; war ended by the Treaty of Paris
--with international mercenaries & bayonets emloyed; Britain emerged as a sea power; Britain fights France; damaging commerce, but colonial gains
--the Balance of Power

BRITISH HISTORY I. /Velich/ 10.

BRITAIN FROM 1763 TO 1815
India -- the priority of the East India Company /Warren Hastings/

-- after 1773 a governor-general nominated

-- from 1784 a new board of 7 commissioners

--autocracy in India while Parliamentary oversight in Britain
the Industrial Revolution & its impact /fuel & rising population boost production/
--- improved farming methods result in rural unemployment & in accelerated urbanization

--- British commerce doubled because of trading with America & Asia

--- better transportation & financial facilities

--- the cyclical fluctuations of the economy

--- the social consequences
George III /1760--1820, but the regency of the future George IV from 1810/

-- the first popular Hanoverian monarch

-- the rise of radicalism /John Wilkes & John Dunning/

-- demonstrations lead to reforms:

-- the survey of all government offices & sinecures

-- forerunners of movements for further financial, administrative & electoral reforms

-- Catholics in the army after 1778

-- the significance of William Pitt, the Elder & William Pitt, the Younger

/an independent whig to dominate English politics 1784-1805/



-- abolitionism /William Wilberforce/

-- the unification Britain & Ireland in 1801
Diplomacy: -- wars to overshadow the period
-- the consequences of the American War of Independence

-- the dilemmas caused by the French Revolution & the wars with France/1793--1801; 1802--1815/

-- the zenith of the British navy; Nelson' s victory at Trafalgar

-- difficulties overland; changing alliances; Britain' s allies preoccupied elsewhere, e.g. with the partition of Poland; Britain often left alone against France; the French threat on British commercial interests

-- Napoleon's miscalculations with Egypt & Russia

-- Napoleon' s return from Elba; the importance of the Waterloo victory by Wellington to end the ' 100 days'

-- the Vienna Settlement of 1815 /Lord Castlereagh for the balance of power & the Concert of Europe, but against the 'Holy Alliance' /

& the British war gains: Heligoland, Malta & the Ionian islands & further overseas possessions /the Cape Colony, Mauritius & Ceylon/


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