History Assessment Target Cards Answer Key



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History Assessment Target Cards Answer Key

Magna Carta

Created in 1215, this document limited the power of the King of England and gave free men basic rights. It is seen as the beginning of constitutional law.

Mayflower Compact

Signed aboard the Mayflower in November 1620, this document created a government for the Plymouth Colony. It is the first written plan of government in the United States.

Declaration of Independence

On July 4, 1776, this document said that the former American colonies of Great Britain are now an independent nation known as the United States of America.

Revolutionary War

The war fought between the Great Britain and her American Colonies between 1775 and 1783. The former colonies won their independence becoming the United States of America.

George Washington

The “Father of Our Country,” this man served as military leader during the Revolutionary War and was the first US President serving from 1789 – 1797.

Thomas Jefferson

Author of the Declaration of Independence, first Secretary of State, and third President of the US serving from 1801 to 1809. While President, his Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the US’s size.

Articles of Confederation

The first government of the US from 1781 to 1789. It failed because it gave too little power to the national government.

United States Constitution

Adopted in 1789, this document is the supreme law of the US. It creates the three branches of government and shares power between national and state governments.

War of 1812

A war fought between the US and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815 to secure US shipping rights and status as an independent nation.

Manifest Destiny

The belief that it should be the mission of the American people that the United States should extend all across the American continent.

Slavery

Using people as property. Practiced mostly in southern states with Africans, it was a major cause of the Civil War.

Sectionalism

Putting your state or region above the country. In the US before the Civil War, the industrial North and agricultural South both put their interests first.

Civil War Amendments

The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, the 14th Amendment gave citizenship to former slaves, and the 15th Amendment gave former slaves voting rights.

Reconstruction Policies

Policies created first by the President and then by Congress that determined how the former Confederate states would be readmitted to the US and how former slaves would be treated.

Jim Crow laws

These laws were passed by Southern states after Reconstruction and segregated public facilities like restrooms, schools, and buses.

Women’s Suffrage

The movement where women worked to gain the right to vote across the US. The 19th Amendment, passed in 1920, gave women the right to vote.

Plessy vs. Ferguson

A Supreme Court decision in 1896 that said “separate but equal” schools that segregated races were constitutional. It was later overturned by Brown vs. Board of Education.

Brown vs. Board of Education

A Supreme Court decision in 1954 that said “separate but equal” segregated schools were unconstitutional. It overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision.

Alliance System

There were 2 major ones in Europe (Triple Alliance and Triple Entente) where countries agree to help each other if they become involved in war. This helped start World War I.

Militarism

A belief in strong armed forces and being willing to use them to protect national interests. This helped cause World War I.

Imperialism

State policy supporting taking over other less developed areas and making them colonies. This was a cause of World War I.

Nationalism

A strong belief in one’s country. A desire to be free and not be controlled by another country. This helped cause World War I.

Woodrow Wilson

US President from 1913-21. He led the US during World War I, supported Progressive policies like limiting child labor, and helped create the League of Nations.

Russian Revolution

In 1917, this uprising in Russia replaced the Czar with a communist government.

Treaty of Versailles

This was the peace treaty signed in 1919 between Germany and the Allied Powers and signaled the official end of World War I.

League of Nations

Established after World War I, this international agency worked to establish world peace. It was the forerunner to the United Nations.

Isolationism

A strong belief in not getting involved in international affairs. This was popular in the US in the 1930s.

Neutrality Acts

Passed during the 1930s, these laws tried to keep the US out of any foreign wars.

Fascism

A type of totalitarian government where the nation comes first and people second. During World War II, Germany, Italy, and Spain had this type of government.


Nazism

A type of fascism practiced by Germany in the 1930s and 40s under Adolf Hitler which believed in a master race and was anti-Jewish.

Totalitarianism

A government where the state has complete control over the people and where a dictator rules.

World War II –

Allied Powers

United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union, France

World War II –

Axis Power

Germany, Italy, Japan

The Holocaust

Germany’s mass murder of 6 million Jewish people in Europe during World War II.

Japanese-American internment

During World War II, over 100,000 people of Japanese heritage were forced to live in “War Relocation Camps.” Most were US citizens.

Decolonization

After World War II, many African and Asian countries (such as Libya and India) gained independence after having been controlled by European powers.

GI Bill

Originally passed in 1944, this law helps military veterans with education and housing benefits.

The US matures as an international power

After World War II, the United States became the strongest country in the world. It had the richest economy, strongest military, and was able to influence world events.

Communism

A society where the government controls the economy and there is no private property. This was the economic system of the Soviet Union and its allies during the Cold War.

Capitalism

The people own property and have economic freedom. This was the economic system of the United States and its allies during the Cold War.

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A defensive alliance where members agree to help other members if they are attacked. The United States and its allies formed this during the Cold War.

Warsaw Pact

A defensive alliance where members agree to help other members if they are attacked. The Soviet Union and its Eastern European Allies formed this during the Cold War.

Germany Divided After World War II

After World War II, Germany was made into two countries: West Germany which was part of NATO and East Germany which was part of the Warsaw Pact.

Berlin Blockade

In June 1948, the Soviet Union tried to take over all of Berlin by cutting off the Allies’ land and water access to it. The US and its Allies responded through the Berlin Airlift.

Berlin Airlift

After the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin in June 1948, the US and its Allies supplied Berlin by air for almost a year. It was the first Cold War crisis.

Truman Doctrine

In 1947, President Truman said the United States would give military help to Greece and Turkey to keep them from being taken over by the Soviet Union. This is viewed as the start of the Cold War.

Marshall Plan

The United States helped to rebuild Europe’s economy after World War II by providing economic aid. Its goal was to strengthen European countries to prevent the spread of communism

Civil Rights Movement

A series of events from 1955 to 1968 that worked to help African Americans in the South to end racial segregation and discrimination in education, housing, jobs, and voting rights.

Martin Luther King’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail

This April 1963 open letter defends nonviolent resistance to racism and says that people have a moral responsibility to not follow unjust laws.

Lyndon B. Johnson

US President from 1963 – 69. He increased US involvement in the Vietnam War and worked to eliminate poverty and racial injustice through his Great Society programs.

Great Society

A program of reforms made by President Johnson in the 1960s which tried to eliminate poverty and racial injustice in the United States.

Richard Nixon

US President from 1969 to 1974. He was the only President to resign from office after facing impeachment during the Watergate scandal.

Watergate

This scandal caused President Nixon to resign from office in 1974. President Nixon lied about his involvement in trying to stop an investigation of a burglary at Democratic Party headquarters.

U.S.S.R Collapse

Under Mikhai Gorbachev, the U.S.S.R began political and economic reforms. In late 1991, the Soviet Union was disbanded and became 12 independent countries. This was the end of the Cold War.

Democratization of Eastern Europe

Formerly under control of the Soviet Union, former Warsaw Pact countries like the Czech Republic and Poland became politically free.

American Foreign Policy since 9/11

The United States followed the Bush Doctrine where the US has the right to protect itself against countries that support terrorists. This resulted in US invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan.


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