History and philosophy – programme subject in programmes for specialization in general studies



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Programme for Specialization in General Studies

Languages, Social Sciences Economics Studies



HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY – PROGRAMME SUBJECT IN PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIALIZATION IN GENERAL STUDIES
Laid down as a regulation by the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training on 22 March 2006, as delegated in a letter of 26 September 2005 from the Ministry of Education and Research pursuant to the Act of 17 July 1998 no. 61 relating to primary and secondary education (Education Act) Section 3-4 first paragraph.
Applicable from: 1 August 2006
The objectives of the subject
History makes people, and people make history. This is reflected in the way they think, act and participate in various social settings. By conjoining knowledge about history and philosophy with skills in historical thinking and philosophical reflection, the programme subject History and philosophy can give rise to new perspectives on people in history and history in people.
This programme subject shall form the basis for exploring historical conditions and events from various angles, and evaluate contradictions and conflicts from a historic and contemporary perspective. In this way, the programme subject shall lead to greater insight into and understanding of the historic and philosophical background of those ideals and values that have characterized the development of culture and society. This kind of insight can also form the basis for a sophisticated and open dialogue, as well as reconciliation across historical differences.
The programme subject History and philosophy shall give pupils training in source criticism and the ability to evaluate information, and in distinguishing between information and documentation. These skills are crucial to democracy, the rule of law and science, and to an active participation in the Information Society.
This programme subject shall help develop the individual's awareness of history, and the ability to participate in philosophical discourse and wonder about how humans have lived and behaved throughout history. In working with history and philosophy, the pupil shall develop the ability to understand and make ethical and moral choices. Identifying different modes of thought and how these have influenced human beings and society can help pupils to better understand the times in which we live. The programme subject shall form the basis for a general education, increased self-awareness, and further study. Through experience, sensitivity and critical analyses, the teaching in this programme subject shall stimulate pupils to greater knowledge, wonder, reflection and interaction.
Structure
History and philosophy comprises two programme subjects: History and philosophy 1 and History and philosophy 2. History and philosophy 2 builds on History and philosophy 1.
These programme subjects have been structured into main subject areas, for which competence aims have been formulated. The main subject areas complement each other, and should be viewed in relation to one another.
Overview of the main subject areas:

Programme subject

Main subject areas

History and philosophy 1

The ancient world and myths

Classical Antiquity and the art of discourse

The Middle Ages and the use of source documents

The Renaissance and explanation

The Age of Enlightenment and perspectives

Modern times and critical thinking

History and philosophy 2

Human beings in modern times

Knowledge and the pursuit of truth

Existence and meaning

Community, production and consumption

Political ideas and ideologies

Understanding, awareness and application of history



Teaching hours
Teaching hours are given in 60-minute units:
History and philosophy 1: 140 teaching hours per year

History and philosophy 2: 140 teaching hours per year


Main subject areas
History and philosophy 1
The ancient world and myths

The main subject area The ancient world and myths is concerned with human beings, social conditions and ideas from ancient cultural societies. It deals with myths and ways of comprehending the world, as well as history as storytelling. The understanding of time and what non-written sources of information can tell us about these societies are also included in the main subject area.


Classical Antiquity and the art of discourse

The main subject area Classical Antiquity and the art of discourse is concerned with the growth of cultures around the Mediterranean. Natural and Athenian philosophies, and their views on humans and society, are included in this main subject area. This subject is concerned with the earliest historical accounts created by man, and the significance of narratives and accounts for historical research. Philosophical discourse and conceptual development are key themes of this main subject area.


The Middle Ages and the use of source documents

The main subject area The Middle Ages and the use of source documents is concerned with changes in society and in modes of thought during this period in history. The meaning and significance of religions and philosophies for the spread of culture and human thought are central to this subject. This main subject area is concerned with assessing historical sources and the significance of the "grand narratives,” the division of historical time into specific periods (periodization), continuity and change.


The Renaissance and explanation

The main subject area The Renaissance and explanation is concerned with understanding society and the development of ideas during the Renaissance. It also includes the Reformation and the importance of the art of printing for developments in Europe at the time. Important concepts of history, such as comparison, explanation, motif, cause and effect, are included in the main subject area.


The Age of Enlightenment and perspectives

The main subject area The Age of Enlightenment and perspectives is concerned with the spread of ideas following the Scientific Revolution, and the development of the ideal of freedom. Ideas that prominent thinkers of the time had about the notion of State and Society during this period are included in this main subject area. Also dealt with is the manner in which history can be evaluated from a variety of perspectives and viewpoints and be perceived in different ways.


Modern times and critical thinking

The main subject area Modern times and critical thinking is concerned with the growth of industrial society and the meaning of industrialization for human beings and society. This subject covers ideological upheavals during this period. Also included in this main subject area are the development of history as a science and how different philosophical traditions and ways of understanding history have made their mark on human identity, culture, the individual and the collective social setting. The subject also is concerned with the reasons why critical thinking is important to the science of history and philosophy.


History and philosophy 2
Human beings in modern times

The main subject area Human beings in modern times covers modernization processes that began in the mid-19th century, and how these both form and are formed by human beings. Philosophical discussions about Modernity, Postmodernism and human thought in society are central themes in this subject. Also included are ways in which human beings gain historical experience and develop an awareness of history in modern times.


Knowledge and the pursuit of truth

The main subject area Knowledge and the pursuit of truth is concerned with the scientific method. This main subject area covers the ideas of truth and objectivity and the ways in which science has left its imprint on modern societies. The limitations and challenges in the field of the natural sciences and the development of new methods are included in this main subject area.


Existence and meaning

The main subject area Existence and meaning is concerned with how man thinks about existence and ethical questions when encountering social change in modern times. Identifying and discussing human viewpoints and historical identities is a central theme is this main subject area.


Community, production and consumption

The main subject area Community, production and consumption is concerned with how changes in production and consumption have left a mark on people’s day-to-day lives and their outlook on life. This subject is concerned with how a sense of social belonging and ethnicity has limited human beings, and how these limits have been challenged, surmounted and altered. Views on society, cultural understanding and how philosophers discuss culture and society are included in this main subject area.


Political ideas and ideologies

The main subject area Political ideas and ideologies is concerned with how ideas and modes of thought form the basis of ideologies. Also dealt with is the way in which ideologies have influenced people, political thought and social institutions in recent times. The main subject area also includes the relationship between authoritarian and democratic thinking and between ideals, goals and methods in politics.


Understanding, awareness and application of history

The main subject area Understanding, awareness and application of history is concerned with how history is understood and the use to which it is put by individuals, groups and societies. This subject is concerned with views of history and how knowledge about the past is moulded through recollection, critical enquiry and discussion.


Basic skills
Basic skills are integrated into the competence aims for this course in areas where they contribute to the development of and are a part of the basic subject competence. In the History and philosophy programme subject, basic skills are understood as follows:
Being able to express oneself orally in History and philosophy involves formulating one's own viewpoints precisely and distinctively. This means formulating narratives, participating in philosophical discourses and discussing the presentation of subject matter. Logical and relevant argumentation is a key aspect of philosophical discourse, as is giving an account of concepts and conceptual nuances, as well as substantiating one's own viewpoints when encountering other beliefs, opinions and perspectives.
Being able to express oneself in writing in History and philosophy involves presenting subject matter clearly and consistently with a varied vocabulary. Using the main concepts from this subject in one's own work is important. That is to say, one should be able to formulate problems related to this subject and elaborate on and discuss these by using different kinds of historical material. This also involves assessing the quality of one’s own presentations as well as those of others.

Being able to read in History and philosophy involves expanding one's own vocabulary and mastering concepts by reading historical and philosophical texts. This means understanding and explaining the meaning of content in relevant texts and historical material, and evaluating reasonable and unreasonable interpretations of a text. It also means interpreting and extracting information from historical material such as landscapes, objects, images, historical maps and written material. Being able to read in this subject involves comparing historical presentations and documents in a given subject, pointing out and explaining the differences and similarities, and reading historical material inquisitively and critically.
Numeracy in History and philosophy involves interpreting and creating tables and other forms of statistical material, and evaluating quantitative historic data. This means using concepts of history and philosophy to describe time, quantities and sizes, and understanding chronologies and relative chronologies. Numeracy in History and philosophy involves using timelines for the systematizing of historical information. It also includes understanding proportions in terms of time and dimensions.

Being able to use digital tools in History and philosophy involves distinguishing between information and documentation and applying this to one's own outlook and in one’s own work. This means gathering relevant information from websites and critically evaluating information by applying source criticism and working independently with information. It also involves preparing personal presentations about history, as well as communicating and cooperating with others by means of digital tools.
Competence aims
History and philosophy 1
The ancient world and myths

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • compare social structures and the conditions of natural surroundings from two ancient cultures, and discuss the ideas that typify these societies

  • elaborate on and discuss how human beings in ancient cultures understood time, sought after meaning and transferred knowledge between generations

  • reflect on how myths can influence the understanding of reality and stories, and discuss how myths attempt to provide answers to fundamental questions within ancient cultures

  • give an account of what characterizes symbols, and give examples of different kinds of symbols from ancient cultures

  • form a simple historical presentation, with a point of departure in non-written artefacts from the period(s) and show how such historical remnants can be interpreted in different ways

  • reflect on the relationship between the comprehension of time and the stories told from this period where chronology, transfer of experience and the search for meaning and existence are concerned

  • discuss the meaning of oral communication applied to history in a culture


Classical Antiquity and the art of discourse

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • analyze the growth of democratic ideas in Greek city-states

  • give an account of Natural and Athenian philosophy and their influence on humanity and society

  • explain the origins of philosophical discourse, and apply these principles to this subject

  • discuss and give an account of Roman law and the meaning of Rhetoric for development of Roman society

  • discuss the difference between historical presentation through myth, fictional literature and factual prose

  • apply relevant source criticism and questioning to narratives, and show how these narratives can be used as sources of historical information from Classical Antiquity


The Middle Ages and the use of source documents

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • elaborate on and discuss the concept of Feudalism and what Feudalism meant for human beings during the Middle Ages

  • discuss the differences and similarities of political and religious thought between Scandinavia and Europe during the Middle Ages

  • give an account of how classical Greek philosophy is transmuted into Christian thought, and explain how Christian thought changed during this period

  • compare the basic features of Byzantine and Western European culture

  • elaborate on and discuss the significance of Islamic culture and thought in the Middle Ages

  • give examples of different types of periodization, and elaborate on and discuss their significance for determining what to emphasize in historical accounts

  • assess the value of selected historical artefacts and narratives as sources of knowledge about different themes in the Middle Ages

  • apply the concepts continuity and change in discussions of historical development during this period

  • discuss how Christianity and Islam functioned as "the grand narratives,” and as outlooks on history


The Renaissance and explanation

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • elaborate on and discuss the relationship between economic development and the development of art, science and philosophy during the Renaissance

  • give an account of the understanding of society during the Renaissance, and discuss the factors that influenced prominent thinkers and their comprehension of the ideas of State and Society

  • discuss the different viewpoints on the significance of the Reformation for cultural and economic development in Europe

  • give examples of the significance of the art of printing in the spread of historical writing, ideas and knowledge

  • discuss the various explanations associated with themes from the Renaissance through philosophical discourse


The Age of Enlightenment and perspectives

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • reflect on the social background of the Scientific Revolution, and on how this set the stage for new discussions about cognition and ethics

  • give examples of important scientific and technical innovations and assess their consequences for Europe and for contact across continents

  • give an account of prominent philosophical questions from this period

  • present the main features of thought from the Age of Enlightenment, including the ideas of the State and Ideals of Freedom, and elaborate on and discuss the significance these had for the Americas, Europe and Scandinavia

  • elaborate on and discuss the significance of Romanticism for thinking, art and culture

  • evaluate how historical conditions can be seen from different perspectives and points of view by giving examples from this period


Modern times and critical thinking

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • explain the differences between earlier manners of production and industrial capitalism, and assess their significance for an understanding of time and work

  • compare the ideological bases of Liberalism and Marxism

  • elaborate on and discuss how an understanding of history can be oppressive or liberating for different groups

  • elaborate on and discuss how the Sámi people's common history was significant for pan-Sámi modern identity across national borders

  • present a non-European culture, and show how a philosophical tradition or understanding of history has typified this culture

  • give an account of central themes within Norwegian and European historical writing from the early 19th century, and explain how historical writing contributed to the development of national identities

  • elaborate on and discuss the importance of critical thinking to historical research


History and philosophy 2
Human beings in modern times

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • elaborate on and discuss the meaning of modernization, and give examples of this from different parts of the world

  • elaborate on and discuss the situation of aboriginal cultures in relation to the conflict between tradition and modernity

  • explain what is meant by historical thinking, as opposed to historical knowledge, and why both of these are important for the development of historical awareness

  • reflect on what is meant by the notion that history makes people, and people make history

  • discuss the concepts Modernity and Postmodernism, and give an account of discussions of these concepts in historical and philosophical contexts

  • Present key viewpoints in three short historical texts dealing with the problems people have with modernization, and discuss the differences and similarities


Knowledge and the pursuit of truth

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give an account of how scientific thought and method have expanded to more fields in modern times

  • elaborate on and discuss problems connected with the concepts truth and objectivity

  • give an account of the development of history as a science, and elaborate on and discuss problems associated with the pursuit of truth in historical research

  • explain the concept of paradigms and discuss the most important paradigm shifts in history

  • present main viewpoints in three short historic or philosophic texts about the importance of scientific discoveries and progress in modern times, and elaborate on and discuss the differences and similarities between the authors' approaches to this theme


Existence and meaning

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give examples of problems and themes that have been the subject of human existence and religious awe and reflection in modern time, and express the characteristics of philosophic reflection through discussions

  • identify, elaborate on and discuss views of human life in different historical or philosophical texts

  • discuss events, changes and challenges from modern times that have brought about new ethical and existential questions

  • evaluate forms of historical identity in individuals and groups, and give examples of how different communities have formed, augmented and communicated historical identity

  • present main viewpoints in three short historical or philosophical texts about the search for existence and meaning in modern times, and elaborate on and discuss the differences and similarities in the approaches to this theme


Community, production and consumption

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • discuss the relationship between economic development, ideologies and philosophy, and the development of technology, architecture and creative development of form and art

  • give an account of some central economic theories, and elaborate on and discuss examples from history as to how economic activity, development or problems have substantiated or challenged these theories

  • discuss how forms of expression and communication have influenced and been influenced by historical developments in modern times

  • identify, elaborate on and discuss views of society found in different historical texts from modern times

  • elaborate on and discuss how gender, ethnicity and social and religious affiliations have limited people’s activities and opportunities, and give examples from history as to how such limitations have been surmounted or altered

  • give an account of environmental problems from a historical perspective, and elaborate on and discuss the ethical dilemmas associated with this

  • give an account of philosophical ideas about the relationship between humans, animals and nature

  • elaborate on and discuss viewpoints in three short texts related to community, production and consumption in their own form of presentation


Political ideas and ideologies

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give an account of the development of democratic ideas and institutions in modern time, and elaborate on and discuss the challenges associated with realizing a State of Law and democratic ideals

  • explain the difference between a broad and narrow comprehension of ideologies, and assess how ideology functions in relation to thought, everyday life, political mobilization and governing a state

  • identify dichotomizing thought, and elaborate on and discuss how dichotomization characterizes ideologies and movements and can conflict with democratic ideals and scientific ways of thought

  • investigate and present political ideas and manners of workings within different mass movements, and explain their historical background and significance

  • give an account of how terror and non-violence have been used and justified as means in political battles, and discuss the ethical problems associated with such means

  • present, elaborate on and discuss viewpoints in three short texts dealing with ideology and thought, everyday life and politics


Understanding, awareness and application of history

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give an account of different views of history, and analyze their own and others' historical viewpoints

  • explain the concepts identity politics and the politics of change, and discuss how history has been used in cultural and political contexts

  • explain the concept historical awareness, and evaluate how an understanding of history and knowledge about the past can influence human choices

  • use historical methods to investigate problems and create a subject-related presentation of their work

  • elaborate on and discuss the possibilities and challenges inherent in the abundance of sources created by the information Society for history as a science and arena for experience


Assessment

History and philosophy
Provisions for final assessment:
Overall achievement grades

Programme subject

Provision

History and philosophy 1

The pupils shall have an overall achievement mark.

History and philosophy 2

The pupils shall have an overall achievement mark.



Examination for pupils

Programme subject

Provision

History and philosophy 1

The pupils may be selected for an oral exam.

The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.



History and philosophy 2

The pupils may be selected for written or oral exams.

The written exam is prepared and marked centrally. The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.





Examination for external candidates

Programme subject

Provision

History and philosophy 1

The external candidates shall sit for an oral exam.

The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.



History and philosophy 2

The external candidates shall sit for a written exam.

The exam is prepared and marked centrally.


The provisions for assessment are stipulated in the regulations of the Norwegian Education Act.








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