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Affection for Children? The Peacham/ Longleat Manuscript The Peacham/ Longleat Manuscript; Titus Andronicus?; 1595? A Revolution in Family Life?: Criticisms Stone’s overlapping periods make his thesis difficult to pin down, or refute; patriarchalist ideas predated the Reformation; Protestantism/ puritanism contributed little to thinking about the family; claim that people lacked affection for spouses/ children hard to sustain; romantic love in Romeo and Juliet; marriages as property transactions - applies only to rich; Stone links lack to of affection high mortality – but mortality remained high in early eighteenth century. An alternative view: Alan Macfarlane and unchanging marriage Alan Macfarlane, Marriage and Love in England: modes of reproduction 1300-1840, 1986: Parents tried to influence their children’s marriage choices, but marriages resulted from affection except among the really rich, where property was important. Economics did matter; people got married only when they could afford to (does not explain late-1600s escape from Malthusian trap). The Economy 1500s: population doubled; food prices increased fivefold. 1500-1700: London’s population increased tenfold: 50,000 to 500,000. London created a massive market for goods and food of all kinds. The London market turned the English economy from a series of regional economies into a national economy. The growth of London has cultural effects, helping to create a unified national political and cultural system. Nobles / gentry commonly bought a house in London, spent part of the year there, and visited bookshops and the theater. The printing press was overwhelmingly concentrated in London. Hollar: London 1647 Hollar: London 1647 (Note the Globe; 1599-1613; rebuilt 1614) London and Publishing Publishing on a small scale also took place in Dublin, Oxford and Cambridge; but the provincial press only became active late in the seventeenth century. Printed began in the 1620s, and circulated throughout the country. newspapers Censorship existed but was not always effective and largely broke down in the 1640s/ 50s; it was renewed at the Restoration (to 1696). John Milton, Areopagitica, 1644 London, politics and culture Gentlemen who visited and then left London sometimes kept in touch with news there by hiring people to send them manuscript newsletters (e.g. Ralph Starkey); It was difficult to censor manuscripts. The growth , and the presence there of parliament, helped create a of London national political culture (as well as a national literature and economy). Agriculture 01 Rising food prices stimulated the search for improved food production. Many innovations (or improvements; “ innovation” was generally considered bad, in contrast with today) were imported from the Netherlands. Water meadows (trenches cut from rivers). Up-and-down husbandry. Crop rotation; reduced need to leave land fallow. Water Meadow, Harnham near Salisbury, Wiltshire Agriculture 02 Introduction, or increasing use of: clover, turnips, onions, cabbages, tobacco, and potato. Tobacco smoking common by 1604, when James I violently attacked it in print; later tobacco growing was forbidden in England and confined to Virginia. The potato did not become common until the eighteenth century, though introduced earlier; Sir Walter Ralegh may have introduced it into Ireland (but not England). Agriculture 03 Improvements: burnt lime; sea sand; sea weed. Farming of marginal land. Draining of the Fens (marshy land in East Anglia) 1630s-50s; Sir Cornelius Vermuyden. Enclosure of open fields, and of common lands. Early enclosure resulted from depopulation through Black Death, and was of arable land for pasture. Drain built in 1630s in Cambridgeshire by Cornelius Vermudyen (1595-1677) Agriculture 04 Sir Thomas More ( Utopia 1516) complained that sheep were eating up men in enclosure. Sixteenth century governments tried to combat enclosure, believing it led to depopulation and military weakness. By the early seventeenth century, it was recognized that overpopulation (not underpopulation) was the problem; emigration to Virginia was encouraged. Robert Gray, A Good Speed to Virginia, 1609 Agriculture 05 By the mid-seventeenth century governments had ceased to concern themselves with enclosure. In the late-seventeenth century, England ceased to be a grain-importing country and became a grain-exporting one. Agricultural improvements stimulated economic prosperity, and helped create a large market for industrial goods, fueling the Industrial Revolution. Agriculture 06
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