Other kinds of tenure included copyhold (entry fine, plus annual rent), leasehold, and tenancy-at-will.
Villeinage (serfdom) no longer existed; Pigge’s Case 1618.
Social Structure: Realities 11
Not a caste society; social mobility possible – e.g. by moving to London and writing plays;
More common was being a yeoman, farming efficiently, saving money, buying land, and getting recognition as a gentleman;
Or getting a university (Inns of Court) education, entering the church (or the legal profession) and working your way up; or entering royal administration (members of the Privy Council automatically counted as nobles).
Social Structure: Towns 01
Merchants in towns (especially London) could get very rich, though their status remained ambiguous (theory was based on the countryside).
Sir Edward Coke upheld the will; it founded Charterhouse school (a public = private school).
The London Charterhouse (Sutton’s Hospital); now a charitable retirement home (the school moved to the countryside)
Towns. Rural variations.
Immigrants to London had a good chance of qualifying as a trader or skilled industrial producer (30-50% of male population did so); new suburbs arose in the East end (Stepney; Whitechapel); but disease struck.
Countryside: southeast more prosperous and hierarchical than northwest; local variations: many gentlemen in Lancashire; few in Lincolnshire. Society hierarchical in arable areas but not in wood-pasturedistricts, which were much more egalitarian (and poorer).
Idea of a link between puritanism, parliamentarianism, and wood-pasture areas.
Idea that as population grew, and economic problems increased, women were forced into privateroles in family, and out of public/ economic roles.
Brewers. Problems with the theory.
Women in power: Matilda (1100s); Mary I; Elizabeth I; Mary II; Anne.
Women often exercised power informally rather than as office-holders.
Ladies-in-waiting under Elizabeth.
Elizabeth Hardwick (Bess of Hardwick; c. 1527-1608); 4 husbands (including Sir William Cavendish, and George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury); great wealth (annual income in 1560s has been calculated as about $20 million at modern values).
Women in business: Jacqueline Vautrollier: took over husband’s business as printer/ publisher on his death; later married an apprentice from Stratford - Richard Field.
Bess of Hardwick (Elizabeth Hardwick; Barlow; Cavendish; St Loe; Talbot) (at c. 65, 1592)