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Partly independent before Reformation; but then subordinated to state. Functions: nowadays churches are voluntary, spiritual/ religious institutions. The English church then was a public institution of which everyone was by law a member; it was wealthy; it had its own laws and system of courts. People were required to attend their local parish church on Sundays and holy days. The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, at Stratford; seen from the Avon The Church 02 Most people were illiterate; what they learned in church (from sermons/ Homilies) was of key importance in shaping opinion. The monarch ruled the church through bishops (each had a bishopric/ diocese/ see). The church acted as a state of department (dis-)information / propaganda. The church licensed the press and schoolteachers. (King Edward VI) Grammar School, Stratford. The Church 03 The church controlled education at the universities (though not at the Inns of Court). The church had courts, which punished people fro religious offenses (e.g. heresy), moral offences (drunkenness; fornication; adultery), and had jurisdiction over last wills and testaments, and marriage. The most feared church court (from Elizabeth’s time on to 1641) was the High , which had power to fine and imprison. Commission The Church 04 High Commission was especially disliked in the 1630s, under William Laud; oath ex officio. Other church courts could excommunicate (which had civil consequences). England became increasingly tolerant in religion in the 1600s; But c. 1600 most people thought toleration was foolish and immoral. William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1645). The Church 05 If you know the truth in religion, you should not tolerate false teaching. God’s Providence would inflict calamity on a people that tolerated sin and error. The alternative to religious uniformity was commonly supposed to be civil war. The experience of England’s neighbors confirmed that point of view The Church 06 There was religious in the Netherlands in the civil war Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648); this was partly a war of independence from Spain for the seven northern provinces (including Holland). There was religious civil war in France 1562-1598. Political assassinations were not uncommon; the Dutch leader William of Orange ( the Silent) was assassinated in 1584; Henry III of France in 1589; Henry IV in 1610. Assassination of Henry IV of France, May 1610. Varieties of Catholicism 01 English Catholic Colleges abroad: Douai, Rheims, Rome, Valladolid, etc. Regnans in Excelsis 1570: Pope (and later St) Pius V excommunicated and deposed Elizabeth. 1572 St Bartholomew’s in France. day Massacres 1588: Spanish Armada. The papal deposing power; direct, and indirect. A papal medal celebrates the massacres of 1572 Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) Varieties of Catholicism 02 Robert Bellarmine (Jesuit; Archbishop; Cardinal; Saint); Counter-Reformation/ Catholic Reformation; (Galileo); indirect papal deposing power; soul and body; gratia non tollit naturam sed perfecit; Robert Parsons/ Persons; William Allen . Plots against Elizabeth; John Somerville 1583 (son-in law of Edward Arden, related to Shakespeare’s mother); Somerville dies awaiting execution; Arden was executed. Varieties of Catholicism 03 Mary Queen of Scots (exec. 1587). Gunpowder Plot 1605; Guy Fawkes. Equivocation and Mental . Reservation Macbeth 2:3:8-11: “here’s an equivocator … who committed treason enough for God’s sake, yet could not equivocate to heaven”. Henry Garnet (d. 1606). Robert Southwell (d. 1595); Macbeth 1:7:21-5 (the “naked babe” and the “burning babe”). Varieties of Catholicism 04 Gallican Catholicism: rejects the papal deposing power; Wisbech; The Archpriest Controversy; the Appellants; George Blackwell and the Jesuits. The controversy over the Oath (1606); Donne; Lancelot Andrewes. of Allegiance 1623 William Bishop (c. 1554-1624) became the first post-Reformation Catholic Bishop in England; he was from Brailes, Warks., 13 miles from Stratford. Sonnets 73, 4: “bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang”: nostalgia for monastic churches closed down at the Dissolution of the Monasteries? William Shakespeare; William Shakeshafte in Lancashire 1581; the will of Alexander Hoghton. John Shakespeare’s “spiritual testament” (hidden in Shakespeare’s house; discovered 1757; copied 1784; original lost). Protestantism: conformity and dissent 01 Key Protestant doctrines: Justification ( by faith alone solifidianism) Two sacraments: baptism; eucharist ( Lord’s Supper). Communion in both kinds. Scripture alone tells us God’s will (rejection of tradition, and of pope – often seen as Antichrist). Protestantism: conformity and dissent 02
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