Buchanan was James VI’s tutor; the King reacted violently against him and his ideas;
Buchanan wrote a standard history of Scotland, which was probably a source of Macbeth.
In the French Religious Wars, Protestants justified resistance to the crown, especially after the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres (August 24 1572).
Divine Right Theory: History 05
In 1584, a Protestant (Henry of Navarre) became heir to the French throne; Catholics (the Holy/ Catholic League) now began to argue for resistance, and Protestants against it.
The Spanish invaded France on the Catholic side; they threatened England with invasion (Armada 1588).
In France and England, national feeling fused with ideas of strong central government and non-resistance.
Divine Right Theory: History 06
1590s: John Whitgiftand Richard Bancroft mount propaganda campaign against Protestant and Catholic resistance theory;
1593 de Imperandi Authoritate of Adrian (/Hadrian) Saravia: sovereignty; Divine Right.
1598: James VI: The True of Free Monarchies; 1599: Basilicon Doron: Divine Right; non-resistance; parliaments purely advisory.
Shakespeare, Kingship and James VI & I - 01
1595: Richard II portrays the deposition and murder of a King; 1601: the Earl of Essex revoltedagainst Elizabeth I; the day before the revolt, Essex’s supporters bribed Shakespeare’s company (the Lord Chamberlain’s Men) to act the play; one of Shakespeare’s colleagues was questioned about this by the Privy Council.
1603: succession of James I: he took over patronage of Shakespeare’s Company (it became the King’s Company).
Sir John Hayward, The First Part of the Life and Raigne of King Henrie the IIII., 1599 (this one really 1629)
Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton (1573-1624)
Shakespeare, Kingship and James VI & I - 02
After 1603, Shakespeare made sure not to contradict James’s ideas;
Macbeth (1606) reflects James’s views on witchcraft, and whitewashes his ancestor Banquo’s actions (as co-murderer of King Duncan).
Shakespeare’s plays were often performed privately at court for James; twenty plays were performed at court in the Christmas season of 1612-13, eight were by Shakespeare.
An official list of plays performed at court, early in 1605; it records that “the Marchant of Venis” by “Shaxberd” was performed on 10 February, and again – by the king’s command – two days later.
French theory: indefeasible hereditary right through Salic Law.
England; idea that Providence can change dynasty and form of government; or that monarch can alter succession: Saravia; Filmer; Hobbes.
But some royalists asserted indefeasible hereditary right 1640s, 1670s-80s.
Divine Right: the last stage
1679-81: the Exclusion Crisis; James, Duke of York; James Scott, Duke of Monmouth; Exclusion parliaments; Whigs (exclusion; limited government; toleration); Tories (intolerance; Divine Right; no exclusion);
Locke v. Filmer.
1685: James II succeeds, but alienates Tories; removed 1688 by Whigs and Tories; Divine Right falls out of fashion; 1701 Succession Act: parliament makes monarchs.