History 240 / Sec. 001: introduction to public history



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Dr. Michael Wm. Doyle Office: 765-285-8732; Fax: 765-285-5612

Ball State University E-mail: mwdoyle@.bsu.edu

Department of History Course Webpage: < http://mwdoyle.iweb.bsu.edu/hist_240/ >

Burkhardt Bldg. [BB] 213 Office Hours: Thurs., 2:00-4:00 P.M. and by appt.

Muncie, IN 47306-0480 [HST240SQ.W15.Rev]

HISTORY 240 / Sec. 001: INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HISTORY
Spring Semester 2012
Week 15 Reading Assignment Study Questions
Public Policy Research and Consulting; Oral History

James B. Gardner and Peter S. LaPaglia, eds., Public History: An Introduction (2nd ed.; Malabar, Fla.: Krieger, 2004), Rose T. Diaz and Andrew B. Russell, “Oral Historians: Community Oral History and the Cooperative Ideal,” 203-216.

Mike Wallace, Mickey Mouse History; and Other Essays on American Memory (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996), “The Battle of the Enola Gay,” 269-318.

David B. Mock, “History in the Public Arena,” Public History: An Introduction ed. Barbara J. Howe and Emory L. Kemp (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Pub., 1988), 410-413.

Edward Berkowitz, “History and Public Policy,” Public History: An Introduction ed. Barbara J. Howe and Emory L. Kemp (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Pub., 1988), 414-425.

John Johnston, “Making Memories Last: Companies use audio and video technology to preserve life stories as told by those who lived them,” The Enquirer (16 July, 2004).

Marilyn Gardner, “Saving Cherished Memories,” Washington Times (4 June 2008).

Oral History Association, “Oral History Evaluation Guidelines,” 1992.

John A. Neuenschwander, “Appendix C: Sample Forms: Contractual Agreement and Deed of Gift Agreement,” from his book Oral History and the Law (2nd ed.: Waco, TX: Oral History Association, 1992), 30.

Oral History Association membership letter and publications order form, 1998.

Alexander Stille, “Prospecting for Truth Amid the Distortions of Oral History, New York Times (10 March, 2001).

American Historical Association, “AHA Activities: Statement on Interviewing for Historical Documentation,” Perspectives [American Historical Association newsletter] 35:6 (September 1997), 30.

Debbie Ann Doyle, “Historians Protest New Enola Gay Exhibit,” Perspectives [American Historical Association newsletter] 41:9 (December 2003), 19-20.

Norma Greenaway, “Disputed war museum exhibit contains ‘true’ facts, historian argues,” CanWest News Service (3 May, 2007).



Robert P. Newman, “Remember the Smithsonian’s Atomic Bomb Exhibit? You Only Think You Know the Truth,” History News Network (2 August, 2004).
_________________________________________

Gardner: Rose T. Diaz and Andrew B. Russell, “Oral Historians: Community Oral History and the Cooperative Ideal,” pp. 203216:
1. In many cultures oral history has been the principal method of passing down a

group’s social memory and traditions. According to the authors, when did oral history first emerge as “a professional mode of inquiry and documentation”?
2. On what type of people did the Columbia Office initially conduct oral history

interviews?
3. According to the authors, when did historians begin studying “everyday life” or “people’s history” and come to recognize the value of nonelite as well as elite autobiographies?
4. What role do public historians typically play in oral history projects, according to the authors?
5. What deficiencies do professional historians sometimes exhibit in their practice of oral history?
6. What attributes can professional historians contribute to the practice of oral

history?
Every oral history project takes careful planning to ensure that the results provide

credible historical evidence. Answer the following questions regarding the actual

interview process:
7. Describe the three components of the first step the authors recommend for

planning a community oral history project.
8. Describe the second step and explain why it is important to the overall project.
9. The third step deals with the foundation of the interview itself. What is this

foundation, and what procedure must be initiated to ensure accurate, authoritative

interviews?

10. The fourth step takes place after the interview is completed. What processes

do the authors insist should be followed to make the interviews more accessible by

historical researchers?

Wallace: “The Battle of the Enola Gay,” pp. 269318:
1. What originally was proposed to be included in the first section of the

Smithsonian Institution's 1995 Enola Gay exhibition and what conundrum did the curators of the National Air and Space Museum face when trying to relate the first section to the following, more controversial sections?
2. Why did the exhibit script’s discussion of potential U.S. casualties resulting from

an invasion of Japan stir up controversy among critics?
3. How did the proposed exhibit explain the controversy over the Allies’ guarantee

of Emperor Hirohito’s position?
4. What did the exhibit script state about the use of the atomic bomb constituting a

possible violation of the “rules of war?”
5. How did the second section of the exhibit interpret the decision to drop the bomb?
6. What was presented in the third section, and how did it contradict criticisms that

the Air and Space Museum dishonored veterans?

7. What did critics find fault with in the fourth section of the exhibit?
8. What did the Air Force Association do with the preliminary exhibition script? How did media critics respond to the proposed exhibition?


9. What was the American Legion’s reaction to the script?
10. According to Wallace, what had the exhibition become after the final two

(October) drafts expurgated most of the controversial components?
11. What did the project's historians do when faced once again with the controversy

over the estimated American casualty numbers (resulting from an invasion of

Japan)?
12. What was the position of General Paul Tibbets, the pilot of the Enola Gay, on

the exhibition?
13. What ultimately caused the proposed exhibition to be scrapped?

14. Identify the numerous obstacles involved in getting target communities to

participate in the process of exhibit production?
15. What criticisms were spoken against the museum after its opening?
16. What structural fault lines does Wallace see in the struggle over text in the

Enola Gay exhibit?

17. Who did Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich blame for the change in attitudes

toward history in the United States? What was Gingrich’s solution to the problem of “counterculture” history?
18. What was offered in the National Standards for United States History? Why was Lynne Cheney critical of the proposed new national standards?
19. Describe the truncated version of the Enola Gay exhibition that finally opened

in June of 1995.
20. What does Wallace predict would happen if government funding to public history institutions were drastically cut? Do you agree or disagree with his position? Justify your answer.
21. In what specific ways have critics attacked the interpretation of the American

past in new history textbooks and museum displays? How do the critics of “revisionism” want history to be portrayed?
22. Explain how Wallace would design an exhibition that incorporated the curators’ point of view. Do you agree or disagree with his suggestions? Explain why.
23. How does Wallace characterize standards of professional rights and

responsibilities and their application in the design of interpretive exhibits?
24. List the four points made in the New York Times editorial which came out in

support of the Smithsonian’s Enola Gay exhibit.
25. Wallace suggests that museums form a mutual support network. How would this help “isolated institutions” and museums which want to present controversial

exhibitions like the Enola Gay show?

David B. Mock, “History in the Public Arena,” Public History: An Introduction ed. Barbara J. Howe and Emory L. Kemp (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Pub., 1988), 410-413:
1.  What two roles does Mock indicate policy historians play in the federal government?

 


 


 

2.  How does Mock characterize the planning process?




3.  According to Mock, what is the difference between tactical and strategic planning?

 


 


 

4.  Identify and briefly characterize the six steps involved in public policy planning.

 

 


 

5.  What special skills does Mock believe that historians are especially well-suited to bring to the planning process?

 

 


 

6.  Evaluation, Mock tells us, is the second facet of policy advising.  What are the two types of evaluation?

 

 


 

7.  What are the three steps involved in evaluation?

 

 


 

8.  What special skills does Mock believe that historians are especially well-suited to bring to the evaluation process?

 

9.  The third facet of policy advising, according to Mock, is analysis.  He outlines four steps that are part of this process.   Identify and briefly characterize them.

 


 


 

10.  Mock states at the bottom of p. 407 that policy analysts should not advocate the adoption of a specific policy or a series of policies.  Why not?

 

 


 

11.  Identify and briefly characterize the three components of “History-Based Policy Analysis.”

 

 


 

12.  In Mock’s conclusion, he identifies four “potential difficulties” that historians who work in the realm of policy analysis must be aware of.  Identify and briefly characterize them.

 

 

Edward Berkowitz, “History and Public Policy,” Public History: An Introduction ed. Barbara J. Howe and Emory L. Kemp (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Pub., 1988), 414-425:


1.  The author explains that the point of this essay is to propose a “common methodology” for relating history to matters of public policy.  What are the three “tasks” he undertakes in this essay in order to develop this methodology?

 


 


 

2.  Explain what Berkowitz means by his assertion on p. 417: “The historian who wishes to analyze public policy needs to take institutions more seriously and to realize that institutions have lives of their own.  These institutional lives hold important consequences; they amount to nothing less than public policy itself.”






3.  According to Berkowitz [p. 420], all historians “have a fascination with their role in history.  They want to understand how their efforts relate to previous efforts, and they wish to speculate on the validity of these previous efforts as omens of their own success or failure.  Used in this sense, history [...] becomes a means of analyzing current efforts and predicting the future.”  Explain what you think he means by this claim, then take a position that agrees or disagrees with it or qualifies it and support your point of view.

 


 


 

4.  What are the “three simple rules” or insights Berkowitz sees historians as uniquely qualified to bring to the career field of public policy research?

 

 


 
John Johnston, “Making Memories Last: Companies use audio and video technology to preserve life stories as told by those who lived them,” The Enquirer (16 July, 2004):


1. What is “Life Capsule”?
2. What does “Extraordinary Lives” do?


Marilyn Gardner, “Saving Cherished Memories,” Washington Times (4 June 2008):
1. What is “personal historian work”?


Oral History Association, “Oral History Evaluation Guidelines,” 1992:
1. What did the OHA’s “goals and guidelines,” first issued in 1968, do? What do the OHA’s “evaluation guidelines” do?
2. According to this guide, “regardless of the purpose of the interviews, oral history should be conducted” how? (page 4)
John A. Neuenschwander, “Appendix C: Sample Forms: Contractual Agreement and Deed of Gift Agreement,” from his book Oral History and the Law (2nd ed.: Waco, TX:

Oral History Association, 1992), 30:



1. When signing these forms, what exactly does the interviewee relinquish?


Oral History Association membership letter and publications order form, 1998:
1. According to this letter, what is the OHA?
2. According to this letter, what are the benefits of membership in the OHA?


Alexander Stille, “Prospecting for Truth Amid the Distortions of Oral History,
New York Times (10 March, 2001):
1. Why did Indiana University change the name of its Oral History Research Center to the Center for History and Memory?
2. What caused oral history to take off during the 1960s and early 1970s?
3. According to Mr. Portelli, what three jobs must oral historians do at the same time?


American Historical Association, “AHA Activities: Statement on Interviewing for Historical Documentation,” Perspectives [American Historical Association newsletter] 35:6

(September 1997), 30:
1. List the seven guidelines of AHA’s Statement on Interviewing for Historical Documentation.


Debbie Ann Doyle, “Historians Protest New Enola Gay Exhibit,” Perspectives [American Historical Association newsletter] 41:9 (December 2003), 19-20:
1. What does the Committee for a National Discussion of Nuclear History and Current Policy’s petition against the proposed revised Enola Gay exhibit say?

2. What did the Society for History in the Federal Government, the National Council on Public History, the Organization of American Historians, and the American Historical Association do in response to the original controversy surrounding the Enola Gay exhibit?


Norma Greenaway, “Disputed war museum exhibit contains ‘true’ facts, historian argues,” CanWest News Service (3 May, 2007):
1. Why did war historian Jack Granatstein support the Canadian War Museum and its exhibit on WWII bombing in spite of the angry complaints of the veterans?
2. What position did Dean Oliver, the museum’s director of research and exhibitions, take on the controversy?

Robert P. Newman, “Remember the Smithsonian’s Atomic Bomb Exhibit? You Only Think You Know the Truth,” History News Network (2 August, 2004):
1. What four points in new scholarship does the author argue have eroded the claims of those who argue that the atomic bomb should not have been used on Japan in 1945?
2. What new development allows us to understand what the curators of the Enola Gay exhibit did and thought as they prepared the text of the display?
3. What three things does the author accuse the curators of the Enola Gay exhibit of?
4. What does the author reveal about the sources used in preparing the Enola Gay exhibit?
5. According to the author, how could the curators have benefited from focusing on the fliers who delivered the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?



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