History 103 Study Questions for Term Exam One
1. When and where did the Black Death take place and what were its major short-term and long-term effects on European society? Why did cults emerge and in general what were the effects of the disaster on religious life?
1a. What is the basic argument of Huppert’s book? Why does he focus on the era between 1351 and 1721?
1b. What does Huppert mean by the “Eternal Village”? What does he mean about the importance of constraints and autonomies in the lives of people in Europe between 1351 and 1721? What is the importance of delaying marriage in the history of Europe at this time?
1c. What does Huppert mean by the “Freedom of the City”? Freedom from what? What were the main features of the “Urban Community”? What was the life of women like in the cities of early modern Europe? Who made up the elites in these cities and why? In what ways, according to Huppert, was this “Fourth Estate” different from the feudal elites?
1d. In what ways did rural society “evolve” between 1351 and 1721? For what reasons was there an increase in riots and rebellions and an eventual trend toward revolution? What place and where did slavery have in Europe during this period?
1e. In what ways did knowledge and education challenge religious institutions in early modern Europe?
1f. What changes occurred in the organization of warfare in early modern Europe? Why did this new organization increase the incidence of plunder?
2. In what ways did the Renaissance break with medieval tradition? Discuss the definition of the terms “early modern,” “modern,” and “postmodern.”
3. Which classical Greek and Roman ideas and ideals did the Renaissance revive?
4. Discuss the trends toward secularization, “territoriality,” and centralization of power that began during the Renaissance. In what ways did trade and commerce change during this time period and what impact did this have on the lives of Europeans?
5. Define “humanism” and “vernacular” in terms of their importance during the Renaissance and the Reformation.
6. Discuss the relationship of princes and monarchs to the Catholic Church, particularly with respect to the Great Schism. What was the Conciliar Movement?
7. Describe Luther’s contribution to the debate over faith and works in the Catholic Church. Define “indulgences” and discuss their significance in the 16th century in terms of attitudes of various individuals and groups toward the Catholic Church. What sorts of political support did Luther attract within the Holy Roman Empire and how did this affect the rule of Habsburg Charles V?
8. Why did Luther condemn the peasants’ rebellion in the Holy Roman Empire in 1525 and what effect did this have on Lutheranism?
9. What is the relationship between the two Diets of Speyer (1526, 1529), the doctrine of “cuius regio, eius religio,” and the Peace of Augsburg (1555)?
10. What were the beliefs of John Calvin and how did they differ from Catholic and Lutheran beliefs? What impact did Calvinism, and in particular the doctrine of predestination, have on the society and politics of Europe during the sixteenth century?
11. Who were the Jesuits and what role did they play in the Catholic Reformation? What was the impact of the Society of Jesus on Europe and the rest of the world? How did kings in Europe react to the presence and work of the Jesuits?
12. What approach did the Catholic Church take to reform? Who was to be in charge of reform? Which reforms would be undertaken? Which reforms would not be undertaken?
13. What role did European royal and imperial politics play in the Council of Trent? Why was the Council of Trent held in Trent? What were the religious and political outcomes of the Council of Trent?
14. On which of its own traditions and strengths could the Catholic Church rely in undertaking reform?
15. Who were the Huguenots and what is their importance in the history of France in the sixteenth century? Why was Calvinism attractive to French noble families such as the Bourbon and Montmorency and to many members of the urban bourgeoisie in France and in Europe as a whole?
16. What is the significance of the Valois and Guise families to the history of the wars of religion in France? What role did Catherine de Medici play in this struggle and why? What international dimension did Henry of Guise introduce into these wars and why? What was the Holy League and what were the causes and effects of the War of the Three Henries (1585-1589)?
17. What theory did Theodor Béza propound that was spread widely in the popular tract Vindiciae contra Tyrannos and what was its effect on the wars of religion in France? What is the “double contract”?
18. What was the purpose of the theory of the “divine right of kings” developed by the so-called politiques in response to the “double contract”?
19. What was the outcome of the wars of religion in France? What was crucial about the year 1572 during these wars? What is the long-term importance of the religious policy adopted by Henry IV that culminated in the Edict of Nantes in 1598?
20. What was the significance of Henry VIII for the development of church-state relations in England and Europe during the early modern period? In what ways did his successor Elizabeth defend and develop Henry’s policies? What was the Act of Supremacy?
21. Discuss the significance of Philip II for Spain and Europe as a whole during the sixteenth century. What role did the Spanish Inquisition play in Spain and in Europe at this time? What was the significance vis-à-vis Spain of Elizabeth I of England? What factors brought their realms into direct conflict in 1588? For what reasons did England advance in power under Elizabeth and her successors and Spain decline under Philip II and his successors?
22. Analyze the historical significance of the Peace of Westphalia (1648).