History 101 Section I outline Demographics resources, environment & settlement patterns I. Amerindians



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History 101 Section I Outline

Demographics -- resources, environment & settlement patterns
I. Amerindians

25,000-40,000 years ago -- 1st settlers from Asia; hunter/gatherers

500BC-500AD Amerindian Renassaince in Central and South America

Central America:

Mayans: near Guatemala, Yucatán apex around 1100 A.D.

(Southern Myan culture dies out)

Toltecs: Warrior Clan takes control over Mayans 1200 A.D.

Toltects, not Aztecs, FIRST believers in Quetzalcoatl

Aztecs: War tribe takes most of central Mexico over by conquest.

1325 - Tenochtitlán

South America:

Incan Empire (Peru, Andean Mountains)



North America:

Pueblo Indians

“Mound-Builders” - Andna-Hopewell (800 BC - 600 AD)

Plains Indians

Algonquin (Blackfoot (Plains), Deleware and Powhatan (Central states, VA), Abnaki (Maine), Saux, Fox, Kickapoo, and Pottawatomi in Mid-west

Five Nations of the Iroquois

(Mohawk, Cayuga, Oneida, Seneca, Onondaga)

Hiawatha’s League

Cherokee & Sequoya

Muskhogean (Apache, Chickasaw, Chocktaw, Creek, Natchez & Seminole)


ADVANTAGES OF EUROPEANS:

1. DISEASE 2. Iron & Gunpowder 3. Horses

4. Wheeled Vehicles 5. Taking Advantage of Religious Belief

6. Political Disunity Among Amerindian Tribes


II. The first non-native Discoverers: Norse

Eric the Red / Greenland

985/6 A.D. -- Biarni Heriulfson (Bjarni Herjolfsson)

1001 A.D. -- Lief Ericsson / Newfoundland

1010-1015 -- Thorfinn Karlsefni, “Vinland the Good”

The Vinland Sagas, Skrellings
III. Development of Europe / Foundations for Exploration
1095-1291 (Period of Eight Crusades)

1095 Pope Urban II proclaims First Crusade at Council of Claremont.

1271-1295 Marco Polo journeys to China

1298 Polo’s Book of Various Experiences to become influential.

1453 -- Sultan Mohammed II, Fall of Constantinople

Desire Created to reach wealth of the Indies.

1517 -- Martin Luther / Protestant Reformation

Indulgences - 95 Theses

1534 -- Henry the VIII / Church of England

1536 -- John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion




IV. Background to Rivalry: Spainish Consolidation
1469 -- m. of Ferdinand of Aragon & Isabella of Castille

1492 -- destruction of Moors in Grenada

1494 -- TREATY OF TORDESILLAS*

1580 -- Union of Spanish and Portugese crowns*



V. PORTUGAL
Prince Henry (1394-1460) “the Navigator”

Prester John

African rivals -- Ashinti; Timbuktu and Niani

(1487-8) Bartholomew Diaz

(1497-99) 1498 Vasco da Gama

April 22, 1500: Pedro Alvares Cabral



VI. SPAIN
1492 -- Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo)

San Salvador / Guanahani; Hispaniola

1499 - Amerigo Vespucci Mundus Novus -- New World

1505 - Juan Bermudez discovers Bermuda

1507 -- Martin Waldseemuller, 1507 ed. of COSMOGRAPHY by Ptolemy.

1513 - Vasco Nunez de Balboa

Juan Ponce De Leon

1519 -- Ferdinand Magellan

Hernando Cortés & Aztecs (Montezuma)

1531 -- Francisco Pizarro (Incas)

1565 -- Saint Augustine founded

LESSONS OF THE SPANISH AND PORTUGESE MODEL

Exploration Lessons / Questions:
1. Demographics: Amerindians of North America? Central / South America? Vikings? Portugese? French? Spanish? English?
2. What was the differences in the “extractive” colonization of Spain and of England’s settlements? How was the Spanish Christian Mission (don’t forget the huacas!) different than the Christian mission of, say, the Puritans?

The French & The Dutch
France
Jacques Cartier 1534-1541

1608 Quebec Founded

Robert, Sieur La Salle -- “Louisiana”
Holland
1609 -- Henry Hudson / The Half Moon

1624 -- New Netherland / New Amsterdam




Rise of England / English Colonization




The First Wave of Colonization: Spanish Model


1497-8 John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) 1508-9 Sebastian Cabot (under Henry VII)

1578 Martin Frobisher, Sir Humphrey Gilbert (d. 1583)

1584 Sir Walter Raliegh names Virginia - search for El Dorado

1585 ROANOKE (try #1) rescue by Sir Francis Drake

1587 -- John White -- Virginia Dare -- CROATOAN

The Second Wave: FOUR REASONS FOR EXPLORATION


Economics • Land (Re-create Feudalism)

Religion • Labour (Population Movement)

I> ECONOMICS


MERCANTILISM: Scarcity, Balance of Trade, Hard Currency
A> PRIVATEERS / Sea Dogs -- Sir Francis Drake, The Golden Hind

1588 -- Destruction of Spanish Armada


B> Joint-Stock Companies: Colonial Charters

Bristol Company (Massachusetts Bay Company)

London Company (Virginia Company)

1607 -- JAMESTOWN

1608 -- Captain John Smith

1613 -- John Rolfe -- tobacco


C> Promoters, Propaganda: Convincing Royalty and Investors

Richard Hakluyt (the Elder, the Junior) & Theodor de Bry

1. Jobs

2. New Markets:



Raw Materials EXTRACTED to Mother Country

Closed market for IMPORT of finished goods to colonies

3. Taxation

4. Military Bases


II> LAND (Feudal Domains & Catholicism)

Lord Baltimore (Senior and Junior) of the Calvert family

1643 -- MARYLAND

1649 -- “Act Concerning Religion”


III> RELIGION

Death of Elisabeth I (1603)

Stewart King Ascension: James I & Charles I (1625)

1640s: The English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell, Roundheads (1641-1653)


Puritans: Pilgrim and Puritan Religion

PILGRIMS: Separatists -- Holland (1608) Sir Edwyn Sands.

1620 -- Plymouth Colony / Cpt. John Smith / “Mayflower Compact”



PURITANS: Congregationalists

“City on a Hill.” Visible Saints. Halfway Covenant.



Massachusetts Bay Company: (1629) John Winthrop 1630 -- Boston.

Historiography: PERRY MILLER, The New England Mind and

Errand into the Wilderness
Discord Among Puritans: Connecticut and Rhode Island

Connecticut


1636-- Rev. Thomas Hooker -- Hartford

1639 -- Theophilus Eaton, Rev. John Davenport -- New Haven



Rhode Island


1638 -- Anne Hutchinson -- Portsmouth -- 1639 -- New Port

1644 Rev. Roger Williams -- Providence

TWO HERESIES: ANTINOMIAN / ARMENIAN

Pennsylvania: The Special Case of the Quakers


1681 -- William Penn / Quaker / Plurality
IV> LABOUR (POPULATION MOVEMENT)
Historiography: Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West and The Peopling of British North America

Tradition in England: Rural ==> Rural

Rural ==> Urban (LONDON)

London ==> NEW WORLD


Adapt old Master / Apprentice contracts to Indentured Servants

1733 -- James Oglethorpe / Georgia



Patterns of Colonial Settlement and Development



Historiography: JACK GREENE, Pursuits of Happiness

(Declension v Developmental)


Southern: Secular/Anglican, Indentured Servants, “Development” Model
First Slaves to Yoeman Farmers; Rise with Rice & Tobacco of large plantations

*Bacon’s Rebellion, Rice Demographics -- Rise of Plantation Slavery


Tie to Bailyn’s Population Movements, Small town studies of Grevin, Lockridge
Northern: Religion, Families, “Declension” Model

Historiography: Grevin / Kenneth Lockridge

Trade: Merchants, Diversification: Fur, Lumber, Fishing, Farming, Mining

Success leads to SECULARIZATION

Early on: The tradition of the Puritan JEREMIAD

1662 - Half-Way Covenant

1684 - Uniting of Puritan Colonies and New York under Gov. Edmund Andrews

1688 - Glorious Revolution, Overthrow of Andrews

1692 - The Salem Witch Trials, last gasp at Jeremiads / City on the Hill




Jahnel History 101 p. Outline Section I


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