This course has three goals: (1) introduce you to the craft of historical argumentation and interpretation, (2) deepen your knowledge of modern U.S. history, and (3) sharpen your critical reading and writing skills. With the exception of two sessions devoted to exam preparation, each recitation session will feature a major controversy in American history. The weekly debates and dialogues will help you gain a working knowledge of seminal social, economic, and political developments in American society from the end of the Civil War to the present. Although the lectures coincide with topics covered in your textbook, they interpret historical developments in a way uniquely suited for the weekly discussions, debates, and writing assignments. The exams will primarily test your knowledge and understanding of the material covered in the lectures and assigned readings. You will get much more out of the course if you read the textbook and the primary documents BEFORE attending the weekly lectures. The weekly recitations feature debates and discussions of controversial issues in modern U.S. history. The debates are listed on the syllabus along with the primary sources that you will find at an online database provided by the textbook publisher. This arrangement has been chosen to spare you the cost of an additional book or course reader. You are encouraged to print a copy of every document required for the course as soon as possible.
Unless otherwise specified on the syllabus, the historical documents can be found at http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/doclinks/Click on American Promise, 2nd edition where you will find the documents listed by time period and topic. All documents listed on the syllabus as “class handouts” will be distributed at the lectures. If you are absent, please make an arrangement with a classmate to make a copy of these handouts. The midterm and final exams will consist of three parts: 1) identifications of names, terms, concepts, and events; 2) short-answer questions or a map quiz; 3) essays. The essays may ask you to interpret specific historical documents. A study guide, distributed approximately ten days before each exam, will specify the material for parts 1 and 3 of the exam. Part two will be familiar if you have attended the lectures. Strive to understand the origins, development, and legacy of the controversies featured in this course. Papers: This course provides a unique opportunity for you to influence the written work of your peers and to receive peer feedback on your own. You will write a 6-8 page typewritten essay on one of the debate topics featured in the course. Your paper will be graded by 5 or 6 of your fellow students. You will submit two drafts of the paper, and both drafts will be graded by your peers. Papers submitted late will be penalized 10% per day (i.e., 10% for the first 24 hours late; 20% for 48 hours late). Papers submitted after 48 hours will receive a zero grade. The paper topic selection, paper submission, and feedback will all be done online. Your identity will not be known by the reviewers. Full instructions for the papers will be distributed after the add-drop period.
Here are the due dates:
Calibration exercises due Tues. Feb. 15 by 5 p.m.
First draft essay due Tues., Feb. 29 by 5 p.m.
First peer review due Mar. 15 by 5 p.m.
Second draft due Tues., Mar. 29 at 5 p.m.
Second peer review due Tues., Apr. 12 by 5 p.m. Course Grading:
Midterm and final exams=40% (20% each)
Three debates, debate outlines, and recitation participation=20%
Paper=20 % (10% for each draft)
Reviewing peers’ essays=20% (10% for each set) Words to the Wise for Mastering the Material and Enjoying the Course
#Spend two hours for every one hour of class preparing for this course–that means six hours a week for reading the assignments and writing the debate outlines.
#Complete the week's reading by Monday’s lecture so you can listen and take notes selectively.
#Pace your reading carefully. A reading assignment may be too long or demanding to finish in one sitting.
#Read critically for the main ideas and evidence. Excessive underlining makes studying difficult because you will have to re-read everything you’ve highlighted to find the main ideas and evidence. Read an entire section of the textbook before taking notes or highlighting. Learn to read for the important ideas from the start. It is much easier to review reading notes than a heavily marked text.
#Review your lecture notes within twenty-four hours of class. Make certain your notes make sense to you. Fill in missing terms, ideas, and information. Bring your questions to recitation, email them, or see one of the teaching team during office hours.
#Poor reading and/or lecture note-taking can handicap your performance. If you have trouble understanding the reading assignments or taking notes in or out of class, please seek help early.
At the University of Pittsburgh Bookstore buy:
James L. Roark, et. al., The American Promise: A History of the United States, Volume II: From 1865, Third Edition
Diane Hacker, A Pocket Style Manual, Fourth Edition
The publisher packaged these two books together and discounted each ten percent. Instructions for the Debates
Each student will debate three times during the term. Students must choose their debates from both kinds of debates. The debate schedule for each student will be arranged at the beginning of the term. Students should stagger their debate selections for best performance. Scheduling debates involves many complications. Students' preferences will be honored whenever possible, but the teaching assistants may have to assign debaters in some instances. Debaters have four obligations:
(1) Each team should meet to discuss the debate arguments for both sides of the debate and decide which argument(s) each will person will present at the debate.
(2) Each team should prepare a TYPED sentence outline of all arguments for BOTH sides of the debate with every team member's name listed at the top left of the first page. This sentence outline should be in the students’ own words. This outline should not exceed two pages and should be given to the teaching assistant before the debate. Each team will receive a grade for this outline.
(3) Each debater should compose a one-page outline of a specific argument with supporting evidence. This outline should be in the student's own words with the argument and evidence based on the assigned readings. Bring TWO copies of this outline to the debate. Before the debate give the outline to the teaching assistant who will use it to follow and comment on each student’s performance.
(4) Debate on the scheduled day, relying only on the outline(s). Students may not read a prepared statement during the debate. Quote sparingly and accurately.
The debate questions are listed on the syllabus. Homework Assignments When You Are Not Debating
Every student must turn in a sentence outline for each side of each debate every time a debate is scheduled in recitation. Think of these outlines as you would science laboratory reports or math problems that build your conversance with the course material and help prepare you for the exams. Students will evaluate their own outlines during the debates and turn the outlines into the teaching assistant who will give credit ( a check mark) for this homework. These outlines are due every week at the end of the recitation. They will be returned to you the following week in recitation. Keep them as study guides for the exams. If you miss a recitation due to illness or other extenuating circumstance, turn in the outline the first class (either lecture or recitation) after you return to school. Debate grades: Each debate will involve a group grade for the outline preparation worth 50 percent and an individual grade for each student's oral performance and individual outline worth 50 percent. Students' recitation grade will be based on three factors a) three debate preparations and performances; b) weekly homework; c) participation in the recitation when NOT debating. Students who miss two recitations without a valid excuse will be downgraded at least one-half grade (from C to C-) and three or more recitations as much as an entire letter grade (from A to B). In addition, the homework for the missed sessions will not be accepted, thereby lowering the recitation grade further. Students who do not regularly attend the recitation sessions may not take the midterm or final examination. Only students in good standing, with legitimate excuses for their absences, will have their examinations graded. Makeup examinations are available by special arrangement for students with legitimate excuses. "G" grades will be awarded only to students who are in good standing in the course and contact Professor Greenwald to explain their inability to complete the assigned work. Students who do not complete the assigned work will receive an "F" for the incomplete work. Cheating or plagiarism on the midterm or final examination, the homework assignments, debate outlines, or take-home essays will result in an "F" for the course and a report to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.
Students with validated learning disabilities who need special arrangements for their in-class exams must alert Professor Greenwald at least two weeks before the first exam. Students with disabilities must arrange to take their in-class exams at Disability Resources and Service at 216 William Pitt Union. Schedule of Lectures, Readings, and Debates
Jan. 7Scheduling the Debates and Interpreting Historical Documents
Read the syllabus carefully. Come to recitation prepared to sign up for three debates. Read the two historical documents distributed in lecture. Jan. 10 A Selective Overview of US History, 1800-1865
Jan. 12 The Failure of Reconstruction
Read: Roark, 559-593
Discuss: Why did Reconstruction only guarantee African Americans “one kind of freedom”-- their legal emancipation from enslavement? Jan. 17 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s birthday–no class, think about the reasons for this national holiday.
Jan. 19 African-Americans Respond to Reconstruction
Read: Roark: 559-593; 617-621; 781-784
Booker T. Washington Delivers the 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech
Booker T. Washington, “Industrial Education for the Negro,” 1903
W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Talented Tenth,” 1903
W. E. B. Du Bois Critiques Booker T. Washington, 1903
Debate: From the vantage point of 1910, did Booker T. Washington or W. E. B. Du Bois design the better strategy to help African Americans cope with the failures of Reconstruction?
Jan. 24 Americans Respond to Industrialization
Jan. 26 Capital-Labor Relations in the Gilded Age
Read: Roark, 597-730 (note the reading ends mid-chapter)
Yale Professor William Graham Sumner Prescribes Laissez-Faire for Depression Woes, 1878
The Gospel According to Andrew: Carnegie’s Hymn to Wealth, 1889
Henry Demarest Lloyd, “The Lords of Industry,” 1884
Henry George, “The Crime of Poverty,” 1885
The Omaha Platform: Launching the Populist Party, 1892
Debate: Individuals must be responsible for their own well-being regardless of major economic downturns and the power of big business to set wages, working conditions, and prices OR the government and economic elites must aid distressed farmers, wage earners, and small businessmen who suffer through no fault of their own. Jan. 31 Imperialism in International Perspective
Feb. 2 Patterns of U.S. Foreign Policy in the Early Twentieth Century
Read: Roark, 731-743http://www.loc.gov
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/ At this website you will find a detailed chronology of the Spanish-American-Cuban-Philippine War from the point of view of the different countries involved as well as some of the first movies of American troops ever made during wartime. As the website indicates, the special section entitled “The Motion Picture Camera Goes to War” documents “how Americans experienced the war and how the media’s coverage of the war influenced national identity during and after the conflict.” Since our textbook provides only a capsule history of this war, deepen your knowledge by consulting this government website.
Josiah Strong on Anglo-Saxon Predominance, 1891 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/protected/strong.htm
“The White Man’s Burden”: Kipling’s Hymn to U.S. Imperialism, 1899
Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, 1900
American Soldiers in the Philippines Write Home about the War, 1899
Carl Schurz against American Imperialism, 1899 http://www.wadsworth.com/history_d/special_features/ext/ap/chapter19/19.4.antiimp.html
Debate: Was formal control of the Philippines at the turn of the twentieth century necessary for the United States to become a leading economic and military power in the world? Feb. 7 Immigrants: “Scientific” Views of “the Other”: Women, Indians, and Exotic Peoples
Feb. 9 Immigration: Social Customs and Laws
Read: Review Roark, 671-693
Eyes on the East: Labor Calls for Ban on Chinese Immigration, 1901
Dr. Albert Allemann, “Immigration and the Future of the American Race,” 1909 (class handout)
Mary Antin, They Who Knock at Our Gates, 1914, excerpt (class handout)
Theodore A. Bingham, “Foreign Criminals in New York,”1908 (class handout)
E.A. Goldenweiser, “Immigrants in Cities,” 1911 (class handout)
Edward A. Ross, “Immigrants in Politics,” 1914 (class handout)
Brander Matthews, “American of the Future,”1907 (class handout)
William Bennet, “Effect of Immigration on Municipal Politics,” 1909 (class handout)
This recitation will be devoted to preparing for the midterm. Before this class each student should prepare answers to the identifications. Each notecard should include the item, its definition, date, and significance. Write full-sentence outlines, and, if possible, a first draft of an essay. The midterm exam will cover all the readings andlectures through Feb. 16. Calibration exercises due Tues. Feb. 15 by 5 p.m. Feb. 21 The Great War and the Crisis in Civil Liberties
Read: Roark, 789-825
Woodrow Wilson, War Message, 1917 Please note that the website listed for this document on the Roark site does not respond. Instead use the web address below to get a copy of Wilson’s speech. http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1917/wilswarm.html
War Is “a Blessing, Not a Curse”: The Case for Why We Must Fight, 1917
Samuel Gompers, “Labor’s Service to Freedom,” 1917
Robert La Follette, “Free Speech and the Right of Congress to Declare the Objects of War,” 1917
Eugene Debs lashes out against World War I and Calls on the Crowd to Join the Socialist Party, 1918
www.pitt.edu/~pugachev/greatwar/ww1.html includes valuable documents about the Great War from the vantage point of the Europeans. Consulting this site is optional.
Feb. 23 Midterm Exam
Debate U.S. entrance into the Great War from the perspectives of its supporters and its opponents? Feb. 28 Business and Labor in the 1920s
Mar. 2 Advertising the American Way
Read: Roark, 829-863 Debate: Did the forces for human liberation or the organized backlash against change have a stronger effect on the quality of Americans’ lives in the 1920s? Consider major developments during this decade such as prohibition, immigration restriction, the red scare, race riots, the rebirth of the KKK and religious fundamentalism, woman suffrage, birth control, the Harlem renaissance, consumer culture, and mass production. First draft essay due Tues., Feb. 29 by 5 p.m. Mar. 7-11 Spring vacation Mar. 14The Great Depression: International Crisis and Reactions
Mar. 16 The New Deal: Politics and Policies
Read: Roark, 867-903
“Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?” 1931
Franklin Roosevelt, Radio Address on a Program of Assistance for the Crippled (1931)
Herbert Hoover, “The Challenge to Liberty,” 1937 Please read the textbook chapter carefully for information pertaining to the following debate statement. Then use the historical documents for insights into the philosophical differences between the supporters and the opponents of the New Deal. The documents DO NOT directly address each side of the debate. Debate: It’s indisputable that the New Deal did not end the Great Depression. What was its lasting legacy then: a new, permanent and mostly beneficial role for the presidency and federal government in protecting the welfare of the majority of Americans ora hodge-podge of legislative changes that left racial and economic inequalities intact? First peer review due Mar. 15 by 5 p.m. Mar. 21 World War II Abroad: Japanese and American Perceptions of Each Other
Mar. 23 World War II At Home: Focus on the Internment of Japanese-Americans
Yamahata, Photographs of Nagasaki, 1945 The website for these photographs also includes a history of the bombs and survivors’ accounts of their experiences.
The A-Bomb WWW Museum www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/index.html contains photographs of artifacts from the bomb sites, personal accounts of survivors, and other memorabilia.
Discuss: Use the Yamahata Photographs and the A-Bomb WWW Museum web sites to answer the following question: what history lessons do these web sites intend to teach? Did these sites succeed in their aims?
Mar. 28The Civil Rights Movement
Mar. 30 Change and Continuity in Race Relations
Read: Roark, 1009-1016; 1021-1023; 1031-1042
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Speeches (Click on “Letter from Birmingham City Jail,” 1963 )
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., “Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?” (Class handout)
Malcolm X, “The Ballot or the Bullet,” 1963
Malcolm X, “Message to the Grass Roots,” 1966 (Class Handout)
Malcolm X, “Whatever is necessary to protect ourselves” (Class Handout) For additional biographical information about these men, go to www.encarta.com. On the textbook web site you will also find Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954) and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, two groundbreaking developments. These readings are optional. Debate the early and late views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X for improving the stature and material conditions of African Americans. As you read their writings, look for their views of violence as a tool of social change, racial integration as a goal, and the meanings of black power. Consider how their respective viewpoints changed over time. Optional aids: Hillman Library owns excellent films on the civil rights movement. Especially pertinent is "Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: An Amazing Grace" or some episodes from the prize-winning documentary series "Eyes on the Prize." These documentaries contain extensive television footage of civil rights events. Look over the list of one-hour documentaries in the "Eyes on the Prize" series. The documentary on the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 and the one on the urban riots of 1964-67 cover two critical events in the long history of the movement. Second draft due Tues., Mar. 29 at 5 p.m. Apr. 4 The Cold War and the Liberalization of U.S. Immigration Laws
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, at a White House Press Conference, Explains “The Domino Effect in Southeast Asia, 1954
The Tonkin Gulf Incident: President Johnson’s Message to Congress, 1964
Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964
Paul Potter, Speech at the March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam, 1965
Richard Nixon, “Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam,” 1969
Bob Muller, “Vietnam Veterans against the War,” 1971
Decorated Veteran John Kerry, Testifying before the House Foreign Relations Committee Questions the War in Vietnam, Washington, D.C., 1971
Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony, 1971
War Powers Resolution, 1973
Be sure to watch the documentary film“The Fog of War,” which features Robert McNamara, a key architect of the war, who has become a major critic of the Johnson Administration. The film is in Media Services at Hillman.
Discuss: Why was the U.S. defeated in Vietnam?
Apr. 11 The New Left and the New Right
Apr. 13 The Radical Right in American Politics
Read: Roark, 1042-1058; 1103-1137
Port Huron Statement, 1962
Barry Goldwater, Acceptance Speech at the Republican National Convention, 1964
We Must Destroy the Capitalistic System Which Enslaves Us: Stokely Carmichael Advocates Black Revolution, 1970
Gloria Steinem, “‘Women Liberation’ Aims to Free Men, Too,” 1970 Debate the world views of the new right and the new left on individual freedom and government responsibility. Second peer review due Tues., Apr. 12 by 5 p.m. Apr. 18 A New Era in Capitalism
Apr. 20 Wal-Mart and the Global Marketplace
Watch the PBS film, “Is Wal-Mart Good for America?” Come to lecture prepared to discuss the issues raised by this documentary film.
Read: Roark, 1141-1175
No debate this week; you will discuss the final exam. Bring your outlines for the essays and questions about the identifications.
Final Exam is Wed., Apr. 27 from 2:00-3:50 p.m. in our lecture classroom