Historical thinking skill

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..PERIOD 5 FRAMEWORK (1844-77)

Chapters 13, 14, 15


  1. Long Essay – Evaluate the effects of the growing sectional crisis of the mid 1800s on the nation’s major political parties. Support your evaluation with specific historical evidence.

  2. 2010 DBQ - The issue of territorial expansion sparked considerable debate in the period 1800–1855. Analyze this debate and evaluate the influence of both supporters and opponents of territorial expansion in shaping federal government policy. Use the documents and your knowledge of the years 1800–1855 in your answer

  3. Long Essay - While most Americans believed Manifest Destiny was a positive and progressive movement, it should be more factually described as aggressive imperialism that was pursued at the expense of many people. Support, refute or modify this interpretation

  4. Long Essay Drill- In the early nineteenth century, Americans sought to resolve their political disputes through compromise, yet by 1860 this no longer seemed possible. Analyze the reasons for this change.

  5. Long Essay – Causation: Analyze the impact of territorial expansion in the mid-1800s on sectionalism that led to the Civil War. Use historical evidence to support your argument.

  6. 2013 DBQ Drill- Analyze the causes of growing opposition to slavery in the United States from 1776 to 1852. In your response, consider both underlying forces and specific events that contributed to the growing opposition.

  7. Long Essay - The South never had a chance to win the Civil War. Support, refute or modify this interpretation.

  8. 2009 DBQ - In what ways did African Americans shape the course and consequences of the Civil War? Confine your answer to the years from 1861 to 1870.

  9. Long Essay Drill– Comparison: Compare the resources available to the Union and Confederacy during the Civil War. Use historical evidence to support your comparison.

  10. Long Essay – Assess the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the power relationship between the states and the federal government. Use specific historical evidence to support your assessment.

  11. Long Essay - Assess to what extent Reconstruction was a failure. Support your assertion with specific historical evidence.

  12. Long Essay – Analyze ways that philosophical and moral ideas were used to defend and challenge the dominant economic and social order of the South from the antebellum era through Reconstruction. Support your assertion with specific historical evidence.

  13. Long Essay – Comparison: Compare the effects of Reconstruction on blacks and whites in the South. Use historical evidence to support your comparison

  14. 1987 DBQ – Sectionalism - "By the 1850's the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it had created." Using the documents and your knowledge of the period 1850-1861, assess the validity of this statement.

  15. 1992 DBQ - To what extent did the natural environment shape the development of the West beyond the Mississippi and the lives of those who lived and settled there? How important were other factors? Use BOTH evidence from the documents AND your knowledge of the period from the 1840's through the 1890's to compose your answer.

  16. DBQ - Analyze the political issues and debates, in the period between the writing of the Constitution and 1860, that led to the Civil War.

AP THEME: WXT-4 and ID-4

  1. Frames: Manifest Destiny; Rising Sectionalism – Crisis of the 1850s; Sectionalism - Rise of the Republicans; Civil War 1 and 2, Presidential Reconstruction, Rise of Radical Reconstruction, Congressional Reconstruction, Abandonment of Reconstruction

  2. CTJ including vocab, short answer, 5 minute Long Essay Drills and 15 minute DBQ Drills

  3. Homework Journal

  4. Multiple Choice test (chapters 13, 14, 15)

  5. Long Essay and DBQ Essay


  1. Manifest Destiny – Period 5 ppt part 1- Acquiring Texas, Oregon, California, Mexican War and Mexican Session

    1. Frames: Manifest Destiny Frame

    2. CTJ Vocab entry on “54, 40 of Fight”, Wilmont Proviso

    3. CTJ 15 minute drill and debate - DBQ – 2010 Territorial Expansion

    4. Homework Journal – Chapter 13 The Sectional Debate

  2. Rising Sectionalism – Period 5 ppt part 1- Free Soil Party, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Controversy, Know Nothing Party, Rise of Lincoln

    1. CTJ 15 minute Drill - 2013 DBQ – Opposition to Slavery – Chapter 11

    2. Frames: Rising Sectionalism – Crisis of the 1850s; Sectionalism – Rise of the Republicans

    3. CTJ Short Answer #1

    4. CTJ Vocab Entry – Kansas Nebraska Act, Free Soil Party

    5. CTJ 5 minute drill on Long Essay – major political parties

    6. CTJ 5 minute drill on Long Essay – aggressive imperialism

    7. Homework Journal – Chapter 13 Crisis of the 1850s

  3. Civil War – mobilization of the North and South, Road to Emancipation

    1. CTJ 15 minute drill on 2009 Civil War DBQ

    2. CTJ 5 minute Long Essay on South never had a chance to win the war

    3. CTJ Vocab Entry – Crittenden Compromise

    4. Frames: 1. Civil War Frame and Civil War – Northern Victory

    5. Homework Journal – Chapter 14 sections 1-3

  4. Reconstruction – Causes and Consequences – Period 5 ppt part 2

    1. Frames: Presidential Reconstruction, Rise of Radical Reconstruction, Congressional Reconstruction, Abandonment of Reconstruction

    2. CTJ Short Answer #2

    3. Homework Journal – Chapter 15 sections 1-4

    4. Long Essay Impart of the Civil War and Reconstruction


Chapter 13 - The Impending Crisis

  1. The Sectional Debate

  2. Crisis of the 1850s

Chapter 14 – The Civil War

  1. The Secession Crisis

  2. Mobilization of the North

  3. Mobilization of the South

Chapter 15 – Reconstruction and the New South

  1. The Problems of Peacemaking

  2. Radical Reconstruction

  3. Abandonment of Reconstruction

  4. The New South



Chapter 13 – Road to Civil War

  1. Manifest destiny

  2. Texas Independence

  3. Mexican experiment

  4. American Intermediaries

  5. Stephen Austin

  6. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  7. Battle of the Alamo

  8. Sam Houston

  9. Battle of San Jacinto

  10. Oregon

  11. Conestoga wagons

  12. Oregon Trail

  13. James K. Polk

  14. 54’40 or fight!

  15. Mexican American War

  16. California

  17. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  18. The Mexican Cession

  19. Wilmont Proviso

  20. Popular sovereignty

  21. Free Soil Party

  22. California Gold Rush

  23. Forty-Niners

  24. Chinese migrants

  25. Omnibus Bill

  26. Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster

  27. Compromise of 1850

  28. Stephen Douglas, William Seward, Jefferson Davis

  29. Fugitive Slave Laws

  30. Transcontinental Railroad

  31. Gadsden Purchase

  32. Kansas Nebraska Controversy

  33. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

  34. Know Nothing Party

  35. Republican Party

  36. Lawrence, KS vs. Lecompton, KS

  37. John Brown

  38. Bleeding Kansas

  39. Charles Sumner vs. Preston Brooks

  40. “The Crimes Against Kansas”

  41. Young America

  42. Ostend Manifesto

  43. Free Soil Ideology

  44. Slave Power Conspiracy

  45. Nat Turner

  46. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  47. Abolitionists

  48. The Pro-Slavery Argument

  49. Dred Scott v. Sanford

  50. Roger Taney

  51. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

  52. John Brown’s Raid (Harper’s Ferry, VA)

  53. 1860 Presidential Election

  54. Republican Party Platform 1860

Chapter 14 - Civil War

  1. South Carolina

  2. First Wave of Succession

  3. Confederate States of America

  4. Fort Sumter, SC

  5. Crittenden Compromise

  6. Second Wave of Succession

  7. Five Civilized Tribes

  8. Union Advantages

  9. Border States

  10. Southern Advantages

  11. Homestead Act of 1862

  12. Morrill Land Grant Act

  13. High tariffs

  14. Union Pacific and Central Pacific

  15. National Bank Acts of 1863-64

  16. National Draft Law

  17. Peace Democrats

  18. NYC Draft Riots

  19. Ex parte Merryman and Ex Parte Milligan

  20. Jefferson Davis

  21. Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest

  22. Federal income tax

  23. Food draft

  24. Emancipation Proclamation

  25. Confiscation Acts

  26. Antietam

  27. 13th Amendment

  28. Appomattox court house

  29. George McClellan

  30. Gettysburg

  31. Greenbacks

  32. March to the sea

  33. Ulysses s. grant

  34. William Tecumseh Sherman

Chapter 15 - Reconstruction

  1. Republican Party: conservative, radical and moderates

  2. 10% Plan

  3. Wade-Davis Bill and Manifesto

  4. Johnson’s Plan - Restoration

  5. Alexander Stephens

  6. Black Codes

  7. Joint Committee on Reconstruction

  8. Freedmen’s Bureau

  9. 1866 Civil Rights Act

  10. Civil War Amendments 13, 14, 15th

  11. Carpetbagger

  12. Scalawags

  13. Redeemers

  14. KKK

  15. Swing Around the Circle – 1866

  16. Reconstruction Act of 1867

  17. Military Reconstruction Act

  18. Command of Army Act

  19. Tenure of Office Act

  20. Johnson’s Impeachment

  21. The Enforcement Act of 1860

  22. Panic of 1873

  23. The Greenback Party

  24. Specie Redemption Act 1875

  25. Seward’s Folly

  26. Midway Islands

  27. Ulysses S. Grant

  28. Hamilton Fish

  29. Treaty Washington

  30. Slaughterhouse Cases

  31. Bradwell v. Illinois

  32. US v. Reese, et al

  33. US v. Cruickshank

  34. Compromise of 1877

  35. Readjuster Movement

  36. Redeemer/Bourbons

  37. Lost Couse Theory

  38. Uncle Remus

  39. American Tobacco Company

  40. The New South

  41. Crop-lien system and Sharecropping

  42. Booker T. Washington vs. WEB Dubois

  43. Atlanta Compromise

  44. Civil Rights Act of 1875

  45. Ida b. wells

  46. Jim crow laws: poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clause

  47. Plessy v. Ferguson

  48. Cummings v. County Board of Ed


  1. A) Choose ONE of the events listed below, and explain why your choice best represents a growing division between North and South. Provide at least ONE piece of evidence to support your explanation.

  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act & “Bleeding Kansas”

  • The Dred Scott Decision

  • John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry

  • The Election of 1860

B) Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.

2. Use this image and your knowledge of the history of the United States to answer questions A and B

This 1852 advertisement is announcing publication of the "American Citizen," a short-lived newspaper

A) Explain the point of view in the image in the context of ONE of the following:

  • Changes to urban life due to international migration

  • Cultural developments as a result of international migration

  • Labor issues and international migration

B) Compare the point of view you identified in (A) above to an alternative point of view about immigrants during this time period. Use ONE piece of evidence to support this comparison.


As the nation expanded and its population grew, regional tensions, especially over slavery, led to a civil war — the course and aftermath of which transformed American society.

Key Concept 5.1: The United States became more connected with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries.

  1. Enthusiasm for U.S. territorial expansion, fueled by economic and national security interests and supported by claims of U.S. racial and cultural superiority, resulted in war, the opening of new markets, acquisition of new territory, and increased ideological conflicts.

    1. The idea of Manifest Destiny, which asserted U.S. power in the Western Hemisphere and supported U.S. expansion westward, was built on a belief in white racial superiority and a sense of American cultural superiority, and helped to shape the era’s political debates.

    2. The acquisition of new territory in the West and the U.S. victory in the Mexican - American War were accompanied by a heated controversy over allowing or forbidding slavery in newly acquired territories.

    3. The desire for access to western resources led to the environmental transformation of the region, new economic activities, and increased settlement in areas forcibly taken from American Indians. PERIOD 6

    4. U.S. interest in expanding trade led to economic, diplomatic, and cultural initiatives westward to Asia. (clipper ships, Commodore Matthew Perry’s expedition to Japan, missionaries)

  2. Westward expansion, migration to and within the United States, and the end of slavery reshaped North American boundaries and caused conflicts over American cultural identities, citizenship, and the question of extending and protecting rights for various groups of U.S. inhabitants.

    1. Substantial numbers of new international migrants — who often lived in ethnic communities and retained their religion, language, and customs — entered the country prior to the Civil War, giving rise to a major, often violent nativist movement that was strongly anti - Catholic and aimed at limiting immigrants’ cultural influence and political and economic power. (parochial schools, Know - Nothings)

    2. Asian, African American, and white peoples sought new economic opportunities or religious refuge in the West, efforts that were boosted during and after the Civil War with the passage of new legislation promoting national economic development. (Mormons, the gold rush, the Homestead Act)

    3. As the territorial boundaries of the United States expanded and the migrant population increased, U.S. government interaction and conflict with Hispanics and American Indians increased, altering these groups’ cultures and ways of life and raising questions about their status and legal rights. (Mariano Vallejo, Sand Creek Massacre, Little Big Horn) PERIOD 6

Key Concept 5.2: Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.

  1. The institution of slavery and its attendant ideological debates, along with regional economic and demographic changes, territorial expansion in the 1840s and 1850s, and cultural differences between the North and the South, all intensified sectionalism.

    1. The North’s expanding economy and its increasing reliance on a free labor manufacturing economy contrasted with the South’s dependence on an economic system characterized by slave - based agriculture and slow population growth.

    2. Abolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, adopting strategies of resistance ranging from fierce arguments against the institution and assistance in helping slaves escape to willingness to use violence to achieve their goals.

    3. States’ rights, nullification, and racist stereotyping provided the foundation for the Southern defense of slavery as a positive good. (John C. Calhoun, minstrel shows)

  2. Repeated attempts at political compromise failed to calm tensions over slavery and often made sectional tensions worse, breaking down the trust between sectional leaders and culminating in the bitter election of 1860, followed by the secession of southern states.

    1. National leaders made a variety of proposals to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories, including the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas – Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision, but these ultimately failed to reduce sectional conflict.

    2. The second party system ended when the issues of slavery and anti - immigrant nativism weakened loyalties to the two major parties and fostered the emergence of sectional parties, most notably the Republican Party in the North and the Midwest.

    3. Lincoln’s election on a free soil platform in the election of 1860 led various Southern leaders to conclude that their states must secede from the Union, precipitating civil war.

Key Concept 5.3: The Union victory in the Civil War and the contested Reconstruction of the South settled the issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.

  1. The North’s greater manpower and industrial resources, its leadership, and the decision for emancipation eventually led to the Union military victory over the Confederacy in the devastating Civil War.

    1. Both the Union and the Confederacy mobilized their economies and societies to wage the war even while facing considerable home front opposition.

    2. Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation changed the purpose of the war, enabling many African Americans to fight in the Union Army, and helping prevent the Confederacy from gaining full diplomatic support from European powers.

    3. Although Confederate leadership showed initiative and daring early in the war, the Union ultimately succeeded due to improved military leadership, more effective strategies, key victories, greater resources, and the wartime destruction of the South’s environment and infrastructure. (Gettysburg, March to the Sea)

  2. The Civil War and Reconstruction altered power relationships between the states and the federal government and among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, ending slavery and the notion of a divisible union, but leaving unresolved questions of relative power and largely unchanged social and economic patterns.

    1. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, bringing about the war’s most dramatic social and economic change, but the exploitative and soil - intensive sharecropping system endured for several generations.

    2. Efforts by radical and moderate Republicans to reconstruct the defeated South changed the balance of power between Congress and the presidency and yielded some short - term successes, reuniting the union, opening up political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves, and temporarily rearranging the relationships between white and black people in the South. (Hiram Revels, Blanche K. Bruce, Robert Smalls)

    3. Radical Republicans’ efforts to change southern racial attitudes and culture and establish a base for their party in the South ultimately failed, due both to determined southern resistance and to the North’s waning resolve.

  3. The constitutional changes of the Reconstruction period embodied a Northern idea of American identity and national purpose and led to conflicts over new definitions of citizenship, particularly regarding the rights of African Americans, women, and other minorities.

    1. Although citizenship, equal protection of the laws, and voting rights were granted to African Americans in the 14th and 15th Amendments, these rights were progressively stripped away through segregation, violence, Supreme Court decisions, and local political tactics.

    2. The women’s rights movement was both emboldened and divided over the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution.

    3. The Civil War Amendments established judicial principles that were stalled for many decades but eventually became the basis for court decisions upholding civil rights.

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