Department of History
Prof. Benjamin Kaplan
University College London
25 Gordon Square, Room 307
Office Hours: Mon 16.00-17.30
Tues 13.15 – 15.00
and by appointment
25 Gordon Square, room 307
Phone: 020 7679 1338 (x 31338)
The Dutch call the 17th century their country’s “Golden Age,” and with good reason: the Netherlands (referred to colloquially as Holland) was then among the most important countries in Europe. An economic superpower, it built a far-flung colonial empire and achieved unmatched prosperity. Socially, it saw the rise of what is often called the first “bourgeois” society, heavily urbanized and dominated by merchants and professionals, not prelates and noblemen. Politically it was an anomaly, a republic, and as such reveals especially clearly the tension between centralizing and particularistic tendencies in 17th-century European politics. Religiously, the Netherlands was the first land in Europe to practice religious toleration on a large scale. The home of Rembrandt, Vermeer, Frans Hals, and scores of other famous painters, it produced artistic riches still treasured, while in philosophy it provided a congenial environment for the rise of rationalism. This unique society was shaped in part by very long-term factors, among them the distinctive topography and geographic position of the Netherlands. More immediately, it emerged from the extraordinary turmoil of the Protestant Reformation and Revolt against Spain in the sixteenth century.
This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of Dutch history in the period ca. 1555-1747. In addition to primary source texts, art (paintings, prints, illustrations, architecture) is used as a source of historical understanding, especially for insights into Dutch culture. Students will not be expected to have any background in Dutch history or any training in art history. They will find it very helpful, though, if they have previously taken a survey course that covered early modern Europe. Students who feel a need for additional background knowledge of the period should consult the instructor.
II. Format & Requirements
We will meet once a week over the autumn and spring terms. Our discussions will focus on the weekly assignments. For each meeting you will need to have read (a) the week’s “core readings” and (b) your own selection from the list of “recommended readings.” All core readings are available for short-term loan from the UCL Main Library, unless noted otherwise below; recommended readings may be available at UCL, Senate House, or elsewhere. For students competent in the Dutch language, the instructor will suggest in class some key works they might wish to read. In addition to readings, most weekly assignments include (c) works of art to be studied in preparation for class. A list will be distributed of the relevant works of art, and images of them will normally be posted on the course’s website. A link to those images is provided below (see the Link to Visual Assignments in Section IV below).
Written requirements will be two assessed essays of approximately 4000 words each. While the instructor will suggest some possible topics for these essays, students are free and encouraged to develop, in consultation with the instructor, their own topics.
III. General Readings
The following is a list of some general works on Dutch history and Dutch art history. All are available in the UCL Main Library for short-term loan. If you have little background in the history of the Low Countries, you should read carefully the relevant sections of at least a couple of them, and even if you do have such background, you may wish to consult them for orientation or reference:
Arblaster, Paul. A History of the Low Countries
Blom, J.C.H. & E. Lamberts, eds., History of the Low Countries
Davids, Karl and Jan Lucassen, eds., A Miracle Mirrored: The Dutch Republic in European Perspective
Deursen, Arie van. Plain Lives in a Golden Age
Frijhoff, Willem and Marijke Spies, 1650: Hard-Won Unity
Geyl, Pieter. The Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols.
Haley, K.H. The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century
Huizinga, J.H. Dutch Civilization in the Seventeenth Century
Kistemaker, Renee. Amsterdam: The Golden Age, 1275-1795
Price, J.L. Culture and Society in the Dutch Republic during the Seventeenth Century
Price, J.L. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century
Price, J. L. Dutch society, 1588-1713
Regin, Deric. Traders, Artists, Burghers: A Cultural History of Amsterdam in the 17th Century
Wilson, Charles. The Dutch Republic and the Civilization of the Seventeenth Century
Alpers, Svetlana. The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century
Fuchs, R. H. Dutch Painting
Haak, Bob. The Golden Age: Dutch Painters of the 17th Century
Slive, Seymour, et. al. Dutch Art and Architecture 1600-1800
Westermann, Mariet. A worldly art the Dutch Republic, 1585-1718
You may wish to consider purchasing the following general books, which we will use extensively and which are widely available in paperback (e.g. through Amazon):
Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477-1806
Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age
In addition, there is a very extensive bibliography of works on Dutch history written in English, with a few additional items in French or German, available online. To access it, follow the link to Bibliography of Works in English in Section IV below.
To Visual Assignments: R:\html.pub\Dutch Golden Age\Visual Assignments.htm
To Bibliography of Works in English: R:\html.pub\Dutch Golden Age\Bibliography in English.rtf
V. Schedule of Classes & Readings
Week 1 Introduction & Background
Week 2 Between Land and Sea
Core readings: Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, 15-50
Vries, Jan de. The Dutch Rural Economy in the Golden Age, 1500-1700, chs. 1-2
Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic, pp. 1-20
Recommended: Temple, Sir William. Observations upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands, ch. 3
Blom & Lamberts, History of the Low Countries, pp. 1-121
S.J. Fockema Andreae, “Embanking and Drainage Authorities in the Netherlands during the Middle Ages,” Speculum 27/2 (Apr. 1952), 158-67 [JSTOR]
C. Dekker, “The Representation of the Freeholders in the Drainage Districts of Zeeland West of the Scheldt during the Middle Ages,” Acta Historica Neerlandica 8 (1975): 1-29
Prevenier, W., and W. Blockmans, The Burgundian Netherlands, pp. 11-46, 127-87, 313-32, 351-60
Prevenier, W., and W. Blockmans. "Alternatives to monarchical centralisation: the great tradition of revolt in Flanders and Brabant." In Republiken und Republikanismus im Europa des frühen Neuzeit, ed. H. Koenigsberger, 145-54. Munich, 1988. [WARB]
Ven, G. P. van de, ed. Man-made lowlands: history of water management and land reclamation in the Netherlands (4th ed., 2004) [BL]
Week 3 The Heyday of Antwerp
Core readings: Murray, Antwerp in the Age of Plantin and Bruegel, chs. 1 & 3
Stock, Jan van der, ed., Antwerp: Story of a Metropolis, articles by Van der Wee and Materné, and by Soly [WEBSITE]
Lodovico Guicciardini, Description of the Low Countreys, 21-40 [EEBO]
Recommended: Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System, vol. 1
Voet, Léon. Antwerp, the golden age: The rise and glory of the metropolis in the sixteenth century [WARB]
Isacker, Karel van, Raymond van Uytven, and J Andriessen. Antwerp: twelve centuries of history and culture [BL]
Marnef, Guido. Antwerp in the Age of Reformation: Underground Protestantism in a Commercial Metropolis, 1550-1577, Part One
Brulez, W. "Bruges and Antwerp in the 15th and 16th Centuries: an Antithesis?", Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 6 (1973)
Uytven, R. van. "What is New Socially and Economically in the Sixteenth-Century Netherlands," Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 7 (1974)
Wee, Herman van der. The Growth of the Antwerp Market and the European Economy (14th - 16th Centuries)
Vermeylen, Filip. Painting for the Market. Commercialization of Art in Antwerp's Golden Age. Turnhout, 2003. [WARB]
Week 4 Erasmus and Northern Humanism
Core readings: Paul O. Kristeller, Renaissance Thought: the Classic, Scholastic, and Humanistic Strains, chs. 1 and 4
Erasmus, Enchiridion Militis Christiani [The Handbook of the Militant Christian] – abridged version available in John P. Dolan, ed., The Essential Erasmus
Recommended: Augustijn, Cornelis. Erasmus: His Life, Works, and Influence
Tracy, James D. Erasmus of the Low Countries
Post, R.R. The Modern Devotion
Gelder, H. Enno van. The Two Reformations of the 16th Century [ULL]
Mout, M. E. H. N., H. Smolinsky, and J. Trapman. Erasmianism: Idea and Reality
Voet, Leon. The Golden Compasses. A History and Evaluation of the Printing and Publishing Activities of the `Officina Plantiniana' at Antwerp [SCIENCE]
IJsewijn, Jozef. "The Coming of Humanism to the Low Countries," in Itinerarium Italicum, ed. H.A. Oberman and T.A. Brady, Jr. (Leiden, 1975), 193-301.
Jardine, Lisa. Erasmus, Man of Letters. Princeton, 1993.
Van Engen, John, ed. Devotio moderna: basic writings [WARB]
Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ
Erasmus, The Colloquies of Erasmus, ed. Craig R. Thompson [WARB]
Week 5 Artists and Rhetoricians
Core readings: Walter Gibson, Bruegel, pp. 9-26, 44-89
Walter Gibson, “Artists and Rederijkers in the Age of Bruegel,” Art Bulletin 63 (1981): 426-46 [WEBSITE]
Murray, Antwerp in the Age of Plantin and Bruegel, chs. 4-5
Recommended: Murray, Antwerp in the Age of Plantin and Bruegel, chs. 6-7
Waite, Gary K.. "Reformers on stage: Rhetorician drama and Reformation propaganda in the Netherlands of Charles V, 1519-1555." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 83 (1992): 209-39. [WARB, IHR]
Ibid., Reformers on Stage
Kavaler, Ethan, Pieter Bruegel: Parables of Order and Enterprise
Mark Meadow, Peter Bruegel the Elder’s Netherlandish Proverbs and the Practice of Rhetoric
Strietman, Elsa, and Peter Happé, eds. Urban Theatre in the Low Countries.1400-1625 . Turnhout: Brepols, 2006.
Bruaene, Anne-Laure van. " Brotherhood and Sisterhood in the Chambers of Rhetoric in the Southern Low Countries." Sixteenth Century Journal 36, no. 1 (2005): 11-35.
Andriessoon, Symon. Duytsche Adagia Ofte Spreecwoorden: ... in Facsimile, Transcription of the Dutch Text, and English Translation , ed. Mark A. Meadow and Anneke C. Fleurkens. Hilversum, 2003.
Week 6 The Revolt against Spain (1): Inquisition and Iconoclasm
Core readings: Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt, pp. 19-117
Darby, Graham, ed. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, ch. 4
Kossmann, E.H. and A.F. Mellink, Texts Concerning the Revolt of the Netherlands, documents #2 & 3
Duke, Alastair, Gillian Lewis, & Andrew Pettegree, eds., Calvinism in Europe 1540-1610: A collection of documents, documents #37 & 38
Recommended: Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt, chs. 1-2
Duke, Alastair. Reformation and Revolt in the Low Countries, chs. 1-7
Marnef, Guido. Antwerp in the Age of Reformation: Underground Protestantism in a Commercial Metropolis, 1550-1577, Part Two
Phyllis Mack Crew, Calvinist Preaching and Iconoclasm in the Netherlands, 1544-1569
Woltjer, J.J. "Dutch Privileges, Real and Imaginary," in Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 5, ed., J.S. Bromley and E.H. Kossmann (The Hague, 1975).
Geyl, Pieter. The Revolt of the Netherlands 1555-1609
Beemon, F. E. "The Myth of the Spanish Inquisition and the Preconditions for the Dutch Revolt." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 85 (1994).
Tracy, James. "Heresy Law and Centralization in Habsburg Holland: Conflicts Between the Council of Holland and the Central Government under Mary of Hungary," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 73 (1982): 284-308. [WARB, IHR]
Tracy, James. Holland Under Habsburg Rule, esp. ch. 6
Duke, Alastair. "The `Inquisition' and the repression of religious dissent in the Habsburg Netherlands (1521-1566)." In L'inquisizione. Atti del Simposio internazionale, Cittŕ del Vaticano, 29-31 ottobre 1998, Agostino Borromeo, 419-43. Cittŕ del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 2003. [SH, WARB, BL]
Duke, A. C.. "Posters, Pamphlets and Prints: The Ways and Means of Disseminating Dissident Opinions on the Eve of the Dutch Revolt." Dutch Crossing 27 (2003).
Fühner, Jochen A. Die Kirchen- und die antireformatorische Religionspolitik Kaiser Karls V. in den siebzehn Provinzen der Niederlande 1515-1555. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
Week 7 The Revolt against Spain (2): “Haec libertatis ergo”
Core readings: Parker, Dutch Revolt, 118-224
Israel, Dutch Republic, 155-220
Kossmann and Mellink, Texts Concerning the Revolt of the Netherlands, documents #23, 49
Recommended: Darby, Graham, ed. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, esp. ch. 2
Arnade, Peter, and Henk van Nierop. "The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt: Introduction." Journal of Early Modern History 11 (2007): 253-61.
Benedict, Philip, et al., ed. Reformation, Revolt and Civil War in France and the Netherlands, 1555-1585. Amsterdam: KNAW, 1995.
Duke, Alastair. "The Elusive Netherlands. The question of national identity in the Early Modern Low Countries on the Eve of the Revolt." Bijdragen en Mededelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 119, no. 1 (2004): 10-38.
Parker, Geoffrey. The Army of Flanders and the Spanish Road
----------. "Mutiny and Discontent in the Spanish Army in Flanders, 1572-1607," Past and Present 58 (1973): 38-52.
Parker, Geoffrey. The grand strategy of Philip II (New Haven, 1998), ch. 4
Swart, K. W. William of Orange and the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1572-84. Abingdon: Ashgate, 2003. [SH]
Hibben, C. C. Gouda in revolt particularism and pacifism in the revolt of the Netherlands 1572-1588. Utrecht: HES, 1983.
Martin van Gelderen, The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt, 1555-1590
Martin van Gelderen. "Conceptions of Liberty during the Dutch Revolt 1555-1590." Parliaments, Estates, and Representations 2 (1989).
Monica Stensland. "Not as bad as all that: the strategies and effectiveness of loyalist propaganda in the early years of Alexander Farnese's governorship." Dutch Crossings 31, no. 1 (2007): 91-112.
Pollmann, Judith, and Andrew Spicer, eds. Public Opinion and Changing Identities in the Early Modern Netherlands. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Chs.4, 5, 9
Week 8 The New Polity in the North
Core reading: Israel, Dutch Republic, 220-40, 276-306
Parker, Dutch Revolt, 225-266
Kossmann and Mellink, Texts Concerning the Revolt of the Netherlands, documents #37, 64-66
Recommended: Tex, Jan den. Oldenbarnevelt. 2 vols. (condensed English version of his 5-volume definitive biography), vol. 1
Marjolein C. 't Hart. The making of a bourgeois state. War, politics and finance during the Dutch revolt. Manchester, 1993.
Jong, O.J. de. "Union and religion," Acta Historiae Neerlandicae XIV (1981)
Adams, Simon. "Elizabeth I and the Sovereignty of the Netherlands 1576-1585." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 14 (2004): 309-19.
Kaplan, Benjamin J. Calvinists and Libertines: Confession and Community in Utrecht, 1578-1620. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Chapter 4.
Oosterhoff, F. G. Leicester and the Netherlands 1586-1587. Utrecht: HES, 1988.
Deursen, A. Th. van. "Between unity and independence: the application of the Union as a fundamental law." Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 14 (1981).
Wansink, Hans. "Holland and Six Allies: The Republic of the Seven United Provinces." In Britain and the Netherlands, ed. J. S Bromley, and E. H Kossmann,Vol. 4. The Hague, 1971.
Reitsma, R. Centrifugal and centripetal forces in the early Dutch Republic: The States of Overyssel 1566-1600. Amsterdam, 1982.
Price, J.L. Holland and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Politics of Particularism (Oxford, 1994)
Week 9 Calvinists & Libertines
Core readings: Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, 51-68, 93-125
Andrew Pettegree, “The politics of toleration in the Free Netherlands, 1572-1620,” in Ole Peter Grell & Bob Scribner, eds., Tolerance and intolerance in the European Reformation, pp. 182-98
Benjamin Kaplan, “`Remnants of the Papal Yoke’: Apathy and Opposition in the Dutch Reformation,” Sixteenth Century Journal 25 (1994): 653-69 [JSTOR]
Israel, Dutch Republic, pp. 361-398
Recommended: Kaplan, Benjamin J. Calvinists and Libertines: Confession and Community in Utrecht, 1578-1620
Kooi, Christine. Liberty and religion church and state in Leiden's Reformation, 1572-1620, through p. 131
———. "Pharisees and Hypocrites: A Public Debate over Church Discipline in Leiden, 1586." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 88 (1997): 1-21.
Parker, Charles H. The Reformation of Community: Social Welfare and Calvinist Charity in Holland, 1572-1620
Parker, Charles H.. "Public Church and Household of Faith: Competing Visions of the Church in Post-Reformation Delft, 1572-1617." Journal of Religious History 17 (1993): 418-28.
Duke, Alastair. Reformation and Revolt in the Low Countries, chs. 9-11, especially 11
Pollmann, Judith. Religious choice in the Dutch Republic: The reformation of Arnoldus Buchelius (1565-1641).
Judith Pollmann. "Countering the Reformation in France and the Netherlands: Clerical Leadership and Catholic Violence 1560 –1585." Past and Present 190 (2006): 83-120.
Gerrit Voogt. Constraint on trial : Dirck Volckertsz Coornhert and religious freedom. Kirksville, Mo.
Hamilton, Alastair. The Family of Love. Cambridge: J. Clarke, 1981.
Nijenhuis, Willem. "Variants within Dutch Calvinism in the Sixteenth Century." Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 12 (1979): 48-64.
Week 10 The Remonstrant Controversy
Core reading: Israel, Jonathan I. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477-1806 (Oxford, 1995), chs. 17-20
Benjamin Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines, ch. 6
Geeraert [Gerard] Brandt, The History of the Reformation and other Ecclesiastical Transactions in and about the Low-Countries…., 4 vols. (London 1720-23), 2:282-297 [ECCO]
Recommended: Tex, Jan den. Oldenbarnevelt 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1973), vol. 2
Bangs, Carl. Arminius: a study in the Dutch Reformation. Nashville, 1971.
Milton, Anthony, ed., The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (1618-1619) (Woodbridge, 2005), introduction
Kooi, Christine. Liberty and religion church and state in Leiden's Reformation, 1572-1620, pp. 132-61
Foster, Herbert Darling. "Liberal Calvinism: The Remonstrants at the Synod of Dort in 1618." Harvard Theological Review 16 (1923): 1-37.
Geyl, Pieter. The Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. London: E. Benn, 1961-1964. Vol. 1, pp. 38-83.
Nobbs, Douglas. Theocracy and toleration: A study of the disputes in Dutch Calvinism from 1600 to 1650. Cambridge, 1938.
Hakkenberg, Michael. "The Predestinarian Controversy in the Netherlands, 1600-1620." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1989.
Muller, Richard A. God, Creation, and Providence in the Thought of Jacob Arminius: Sources and Directions of Scholastic Protestantism in the Era of Early Orthodoxy. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.
Dlugaiczyk, Martina. Der Waffenstillstand (1608-1621) als Medienereignis: politische Bildpropaganda in den Niederlanden. Münster: Waxmann, 2005.
Week 11 Visual Culture in the Golden Age – MEET AT NATIONAL GALLERY
Core readings: R. H. Fuchs, Dutch Painting, ch. 2
Eddy de Jongh, “The Interpretation of Still Life Paintings: Possibilities and Limits,” in Still Life in the Age of Rembrandt, pp. 27-37
Svetlana Alpers, The Art of Describing, introduction, chs. 1 & 4
North, Michael. “Art and commerce in the Dutch Republic,” in Karel Davids and Jan Lucassen, eds., A Miracle Mirrored, pp. 284-302
Recommended: Franits, Wayne, ed. Looking at Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art: Realism Reconsidered
Ger Luijten et al., Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandish Art, 1580-1620, article by J. Bruyn, “A Turning-Point in the History of Dutch Art”
Peter Sutton, “Masters of Dutch Genre Painting,” in Masters of Seventeenth Century Dutch Genre Painting, pp. xiii-lxv
Price, J.L. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, ch. 5
Brown, Christopher. Scenes of Everyday Life: Dutch Genre Painting in the 17th Century
Westermann, Mariet. A worldly art the Dutch Republic, 1585-1718
Mochizuki, Mia. The Netherlandish Image After Iconoclasm, 1566-1672: Material Religion in the Dutch Golden Age (Ashgate, 2008)
Freedberg, David, and Jan de Vries, ed. Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture, esp. chapters by Ad van der Woude and John Michael Montias
John M. Montias, Artists and Artisans in Delft: A Socio-Economic Study of the Seventeenth Century, esp. chs. 5 & 7
Marten Jan Bok, “The rise of Amsterdam as a cultural centre : the market for paintings, 1580-1680,” in Urban achievement in early modern Europe: golden ages in Antwerp, Amsterdam and London, ed. Patrick O’Brien et al., pp. 186-209
Rudi Ekkart, Quentin Buvelot, et al. Dutch Portraits: The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals (2007)
H. Perry Chapman et al., eds., Jan Steen: Painter and Storyteller
Gary Schwartz and Marten Jan Bok, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (1990)
Gary Schwartz, Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings (1985)
Week 12 The Dutch Economic Miracle
Core readings: Immanuel Wallerstein, “Dutch hegemony in the seventeenth-century world-economy,” in Maurice Aymard, ed., Dutch Capitalism and World Capitalism, pp. 93-123
Israel, Dutch Republic, 307-18
Vries, Jan de, and Ad van de Woude. The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500-1815, pp. 665-81, 687-99
Bob Haak, The Golden Age, sections on marine painting
Recommended: Israel, Jonathan. Dutch Primacy in World Trade
Aymard, Maurice, ed. Dutch Capitalism and World Capitalism
De Vries and Van de Woude, The First Modern Economy (the rest)
Houtte, Jan A. van. An Economic History of the Low Countries 800-1800.
Davids, Karel, and Leo Noordegraaf, ed. The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age: Nine Studies.
Vries, Jan de. Barges and Capitalism: Passenger Transportation in the Dutch Economy, 1632-1839
Zanden, J.L. van. The Rise and Decline of Holland's Economy: Merchant Capitalism and the Labour Market
Richard W. Unger, Dutch Shipbuilding Before 1800
Ormrod, David J. The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770. Cambridge, 2003
Postma, Johannes, and Victor Enthoven, eds. Riches from Atlantic Commerce: Dutch Transatlantic Trade and Shipping, 1585-1817. Leiden, 2003. [BL]
Tielhof, Milja van. The `Mother of all Trades': The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century. Leiden, 2002.
Bulut, Mehmet. Ottoman-Dutch economic relations in the early modern period, 1571-1699. Hilversum: Verloren, 2001.
Engels, Marie-Christine. Merchants, Interlopers, Seamen and Corsairs: The `Flemish' Community in Livorno and Genoa (1615-1635). Hilversum: Verloren, 1997.
Faber, J. A.. "The Decline of the Baltic grain-trade in the second half of the 17th century." Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 1 (1966).
———. "Population Changes and Economic Developments in the Netherlands: A Historical Survey." AAG Bijdragen 12 (1965).
Goslinga, Cornelis Ch. The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast 1580-1680. xvi, 647 p., 15 p. of photos., 7 fold. l vols. Anjerpublikaties, 12. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1971.
Hart, Marjolein 't, Joost Jonker, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, ed. A Financial History of the Netherlands . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Hoppenbrouwers, P. C. M., and Jan Luiten van Zanden, eds. Peasants into farmers? The transformation of rural economy and society in the Low Countries (Middle Ages-19th century) in light of the Brenner debate. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001.
Israel, J. I.. "England's Mercantilist Response to Dutch World Trade Primacy." BN 10 (1992): 50-61.
———. "The "New History" versus "Traditional History" in Interpreting Dutch World Trade Primacy." BMGN 106 (199): 469-79.
———. The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic world, 1606-1661. xvi, 478 p vols. Oxford Oxfordshire, New York: Clarendon Press. Oxford University Press, 1982.
Jones, J. R. The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century. London: Longman, 1996.
Klein, P. W.. "The Trip family in the 17th Century: A study of the behaviour of the entrepreneur on the Dutch staple market." Acta Historica Neerlandica 1 (1966): 187-2111.
Lesger, C., and L. Noordegraf, eds. Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Early Modern Times: Merchants and Industrialists within the Orbit of the Dutch Staple Market. Den Haag: Stichting Hollandse Historische Reeks, 1995.
Lesger, Clé. The Rise of the Amsterdam Market and Information Exchange. Merchants, Commercial Expansion and Change in the Spatial Economy of the Low Countries, c. 1550-1630. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.
Nusteling, H. P. H. "The Netherlands and the Huguenot Emigres." In La Revocation de l'Edit de Nantes et les Provinces-Unies 1685, J.A.H. Bots and G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes, 17-34. Amsterdam, 1986.
———. "Periods and Caesurae in the Demoegraphic and Economic History of the Netherlands, 1600-1900." Economic and Social History in the Netherlands 1 (1989): 87-111.
Smith, W. D.. "The Function of Commerical Centres in the Modernization of European Capitalism: Amsterdam as an Information Exchange in the Seventeenth Century." Journal of Economic History 44 (1984): 985-1005.
Unger, R. W. "Energy sources for the Dutch Golden Age: peat, wind and coal." Research in Economic History 9 (1984): 221-53.
Zanden, J. L. van. The Rise and Decline of Holland's Economy: merchant capitalism and the labour market. xii, 186 p vols. Manchester, UK, New York: Manchester University Press. Distributed exclusively in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 1993.
Week 13 A Seaborne Empire
Core readings: Israel, Dutch Republic, pp. 318-27, 610-19, 934-56
Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, pp. 323-71
Schmidt, Benjamin. “Exotic Allies: The Dutch-Chilean Encounter and the (Failed) Conquest of America.” Renaissance Quarterly 52 (1999): 440-73. [JSTOR]
Recommended: Tracy, James, ed. The Rise of Merchant Empires, chs. 3, 5, 6, 9
Schmidt, Benjamin. Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570-1670
Michiel van Groesen, The Representations of the Overseas World in the De Bry Collection of Voyages (1590-1634) (Brill, 2008)
Boxer, Charles R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire 1600-1800
Israel, Jonathan. Dutch Primacy in World Trade
Emmer, Pieter. The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580-1880.
Boxer, Charles R. The Dutch in Brazil: 1624-54
Rink, Oliver A. Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York [ULL]
Postma, Johannes M. The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade
Klooster, Wim. The Dutch in the Americas, 1600-1800
———. Illicit Riches: Dutch Trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795. Leiden: KLTV Press, 1998.
Otto, Paul. The Dutch-Munsee Encounter: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. New York, 2006. [BL]
Lunsford-Poe, Virginia. Piracy and Privateering in the Golden Age Netherlands. Basingstoke, 2005. [BL]
Jacobs, Jaap. New Netherland: A Dutch colony in seventeenth-century America. Leiden, 2005.
Gaastra, Femme S. The Dutch East India Company: Expansion and Decline. Zutphen, 2003.
Zandvliet et al., Kees, eds. The Dutch Encounter With Asia, 1600-1950 . Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2002. [WARB]
Bruijn, J. R., and F. S. Gaastra, ed. Ships, Sailors and Spices: East India Companies and their shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries . Amsterdam: Netherlands Economic History Archives, 1993.
Bruijn, Jaap R. The Dutch Navy of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.
Cohen, David S.. "How Dutch Were the Dutch in New Netherland?" New York History 62 (1981): 43-60.
Emmer, P. C. "The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580-1880." In Trade, Slavery and Emancipation, Aldershot.
———. "The West India Company, 1621-1791." In Companies and Trade, L. Blusse and F. Gaastra, 71-96. Leiden, 1981.
Jacobs, Jaap. `A Blessed Country': New Netherland in the Seventeenth Century. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
Kley, Edwin J. van. "The Effect of the Discoveries on Seventeenth-Century Dutch Popular Culture." Terrae Incognitae 8 (1976): 29-42.
Zandvliet et al., Kees, eds. The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600-1950. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2002.
Week 14 Republican Politics (1): States and Stadholders
Core readings: J. L. Price, The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, ch. 3
J. L. Price, Holland and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, part I, ch. 4; part II, ch. 4 (pp. 57-69, 154-71)
Israel, Dutch Republic, pp. 276-306, 421-60, 700-13
Recommended: Israel, Dutch Republic, chs. 17-22, 25, 29-32
Wansink, Hans. "Holland and Six Allies: The Republic of the Seven United Provinces," in Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 4, ed. J.S. Bromley and E.H. Kossmann (The Hague, 1971)
Roorda, J. "Party and Faction," Acta Historiae Neerlandicae II (1967), pp. 188-222.
Dijk, H. van, and D.J. Roorda, "Social Mobility under the Regents of the Republic," Acta Historiae Neerlandicae IX (1976): 76-102
Price, J.I. Holland and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century (the rest)
Rowen, Herbert H. The Princes of Orange: the Stadholders in the Dutch Republic
Rowen, Herbert. John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1625-1672
Hart, Marjolein ‘t. The Making of a Bourgeois State
Israel, Jonathan. The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic World
Herbert H. Rowen, “The Revolution That Wasn’t: The Coup d’État of 1650 in Holland,” European Studies Review 4 (1974): 99-117
Dillen, J. G. van. "Amsterdam’s Role in Seventeenth Century Dutch Politics and its Economic Background." In Britain and the Netherlands, J.S. Bromley and E.H. Kossmann, 137-48. Vol. 2. Groningen, 1964.
Grever, J. H.. "The Structure of Decision-Making in the States General of the Dutch Republic 1660-1668." PER 2 (1982): 125-52.
Israel, J.I. "Frederick Henry and the Dutch Political Factions, 1625-1642." English Historical Review 98 (1983): 1-27.
Reitsma, R. Centrifugal and centripetal forces in the early Dutch Republic: The States of Overyssel 1566-1600. Amsterdam, 1982.
Week 15 Republican Politics (2): Ideologies and Myths
Core readings: Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, pp. 69-93, 221-57
Schöffer, Ivo, "The Batavian Myth during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," in Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 5, ed. J.S. Bromley and E.H. Kossmann (The Hague, 1975)
Beatrijs Brenninkmeyer-de Rooij, “To Behold is to be Aware: History Painting in Public Buildings and the Residences of the Stadtholders,” in Albert Blankert et al., eds., Gods, Saints & Heroes, pp. 65-77 [WEBSITE]
Recommended: Fremantle, Katherine. The Baroque Town Hall of Amsterdam
Haverkamp-Begemann, E. Rembrandt, the Night Watch of Rembrandt [ULL]
Kossmann, E. H. Political Thought in the Dutch Republic: Three Studies
Haitsma Mulier, E. O. G. The Myth of Venice and Dutch Republican Thought in the Seventeenth Century
Haitsma Mulier, Eco. “The Language of Seventeenth-Century Republicanism in the United Provinces: Dutch or European?” In Pagden, Anthony, ed., The Languages of Political Theory in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 179-95.
Eyffinger, Arthur. "`How Wondrously Moses Goes Along With The House of Orange!' Hugo Grotius' `De Republica Emendanda' in the Context of the Dutch Revolt." Hebraic Political Studies 1, no. 1 (2005): 71-109. [WARB]
Stern, Jill. "The Rhetoric of Popular Orangism, 1650-72." Historical Research 77, no. 196 (2004): 202-24.
Adams, A. Jensen. "Civic guard portraits: private interests and the public sphere." In Beeld en zelfbeeld in de Nederlandse kunst, 1550-1750, ed. R. Falkenberg, J. de Jong, H. Roodenburg, and F. Scholtens, 169-97. Zwolle: Waanders, 1995.
Haitsma Mulier, E. O. G. "Grotius, Hooft and the Writing of History in the Dutch Republic." In Clio's Mirror, A. C. Duke, and C. A. Tamse, 54-72. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1985.
———. "The Language of Seventeenth-Century Republicanism in the United Provinces: Dutch or European?" In The Languages of Political Theory in Early Modern Europe, Anthony Pagden, 179-95. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 .
Week 16 Gender Roles and the Ideology of the Family
Core readings: Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, ch. 6 (pp. 375-480)
Frima Fox-Hofrichter, “Judith Leyster’s Proposition – Between Virtue and Vice,” Feminist Art Journal 1975: 22-26 [WEBSITE]
Recommended: Franits, Wayne E. Paragons of Virtue: Women and Domesticity in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art.
Dekker, Rudolf. Childhood, Memory and Autobiography in Holland: From the Golden Age to Romanticism.
David Smith, Masks of Wedlock: Dutch Marriage Pair Portraiture [ULL]
Roodenburg, Herman W. "The Autobiography of Isabella de Moerloose: Sex, Childrearing and Popular Belief in Seventeenth-Century Holland," Journal of Social History 18 (1985): 517-39.
Nevitt, H. Rodney. Art and the Culture of Love in Seventeenth-Century Holland . Cambridge, 2003. [WARB]
Thoen, Irma. Strategic affection? Gift exchange in seventeenth-century Holland. Amsterdam, 2007. [BL]
Adams, Anne Jensen. "Money and the Regulation of Desire: The Prostitute and the Marketplace in Seventeenth-Century Holland." In Renaissance Culture and the Everyday, Patricia Fumerton, and Simon Hunt,Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.
Honig, Elizabeth Alice. "Desire and Domestic Economy." Art Bulletin 83 (2001): 294-315.
———. "The Space of Gender in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting." In Looking at Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art: Realism Reconsidered, ed. Wayne Franits, 187-201. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Kloek, Els, Nicole Teeuwen, and Marijke Huisman. Women of the golden age an international debate on women in seventeenth-century Holland, England and Italy. Hilversum: Verloren, 1994.
Nevitt, H. Rodney. Art and the Culture of Love in Seventeenth-Century Holland . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Roberts, Benjamin. Through the Keyhole: Dutch child-rearing practices in the 17th and 18th century: three urban elite families. Hilversum: Verloren, 1998.
Schama, Simon. "Wives and Wantons: Versions of Womanhood in 17th Century Dutch Art." The Oxford Art Journal (1980).
Week 17 Confessionalism and Popular Piety
Core Readings: Deursen, Plain Lives, part 4
Kaplan, “Fictions of Privacy: House Chapels and the Spatial Accommodation of Religious Dissent in Early Modern Europe,” American Historical Review 107 (2002): 1031-64.
Kaplan, “Confessionalism and Its Limits: Religion in Utrecht, 1600-1650,” in Masters of Light: Dutch Painters in Utrecht during the Golden Age, pp. 60-71 [WEBSITE as well as UCL]
Lieburg, Fred A. van. "From Pure Church to Pious Culture: The Further Reformation in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic," in Later Calvinism: International Perspectives, ed. W. Fred Graham (Kirksville, 1994), pp. 409-30.
Recommended: Hsia, Ronnie and Henk van Nierop, eds., Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age [ULL]
Charles H. Parker. Faith on the Margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008.
———. "Two Generations of Discipline: Moral Reform in Delft Before and After the Synod of Dort." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 92 (2001): 215-31.
Willem Frijhoff, Embodied Belief: Ten Essays on Religious Culture in Dutch History
Christine Kooi. "Converts and Apostates: The Competition for Souls in Early Modern Holland." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 92 (2001): 195-214.
Schilling, Heinz. Religion, Political Culture and the Emergence of Early Modern Society, article "Religion and Society in the Northern Netherlands" [ULL]
Berkvens-Stevelinck, Christiane, Jonathan Irvine Israel, and G. H. M Posthumus Meyjes. The emergence of tolerance in the Dutch Republic
Willem Nijenhuis. "Religious Life in the Northern Netherlands Between the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the Peace of Munster (1648)." In Ecclesia Reformata. Studies on the Reformation, edited by W. Nijenhuis, 125-62. Leiden: Brill, 1994.
Israel, Dutch Republic, chs. 16, 27-28
Bergsma, Wiebe. “Church, State, and People,” in Davids and Lucassen, eds., A Miracle Mirrored, pp. 196-228
Groenhuis, G. "Calvinism and National Consciousness: the Dutch Republic as the New Israel," in Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 7, ed. A.C. Duke and C.A. Tamse
Regan, P. "Calvinism and the Dutch Israel Thesis." In Protestant History and Identity in Sixteenth Century Europe, 2. The Later Reformation, ed. Bruce Gordon, 91-107. Aldershot, 1996.
Spiertz, Mathieu G. “Priest and Layman in a Minority Church: The Roman Catholic Church in the Northern netherlands, 1592-1686,” in W.J. Sheils and Diana Wood, eds., The Ministry: Clerical and Lay
Hamilton, Alastair, et al., eds. From Martyr to Muppy
Wielema, Michiel. The March of the Libertines: Spinozists and the Dutch Reformed Church (1660-1750). Hilversum, 2004.
Kooi, Christine. "Converts and Apostates: The Competition for Souls in Early Modern Holland." Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 92 (2001): 195-214.
Lieburg, Fred A. van. "From Pure Church to Pious Culture: The Further Reformation in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic." In Later Calvinism: International Perspectives, ed. Fred W. Graham. Kirksville, Mo.: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1994.
Pollmann, Judith. "The Cleansing of the Temple: Church Space and Its Meanings in the Dutch Republic." In Religious Ceremonials and Images: Power and Social meaning (1400-1750), ed. Jose Pedro Paiva, 177-89. Coimbra, 2002.
Rogier, L. J, and Pierre Brachin. Histoire du catholicisme hollandais depuis le XVIe [i.e. seizičme] sičcle. Paris: Aubier Montaigne, 1974.
Andrew Fix, “Radical Reformation and Second Reformation in Holland: The Intellectual Consequences of the Sixteenth-Century Religious Upheaval and the Coming of a Rational World View,” Sixteenth Century Journal 18 (1987): 63-80
Fix, Andrew C. Prophecy and Reason: the Dutch Collegiants in the early Enlightenment. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1991.
Week 18 Intellectual Ferment
Core readings: H. J. Cook, “The New Philosophy in the Low Countries,” in R. Porter and M. Teich, eds., The Scientific Revolution in National Context, 115-49 [SCIENCE LIBRARY]
Israel, Dutch Republic, pp. 565-91, 889-933
David Freedberg, “Science, Commerce, and Art,” in David Freedberg and Jan de Vries, eds., Art in history, History in art, pp. 377-418
Recommended: Anne Goldgar, Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age (2007), especially chs. 1-3
Alpers, Art of Describing, ch. 2 (pp. 26-71)
Grafton, Anthony. "Civic Humanism and Scientific Scholarship at Leiden," in The University and the City, ed. Thomas Bender. [UCL Spec Coll]
Cook, Harold. Matters of exchange : commerce, medicine, and science in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven, 2007.
Wall, Ernestine van der, “Orthodoxy and Scepticism in the early Dutch Enlightenment,” in R. Popkin and A. Vanderjagt, eds., Scepticism and Irreligion, pp. 121-41
G. Gibbs, “The Role of the Dutch Republic as the Intellectual Entrepot of Europe in the 17th and 18th Centuries,” Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de geschiedenis der Nederlanden 86 (1971): 323-49 [this volume IHR, WARB]
Lunsingh Scheurleer, Th.H., and G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes, eds., Leiden University in the Seventeenth Century: An Exchange of Learning
Pamela H. Smith, “Science and Taste: Painting, Passions, and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century Leiden,” Isis 90/3 (Sept. 1999): 421-61
Bell, Arthur. Christian Huygens and the Development of Science in the 17th Century. 220 p vols. London: E. Arnold, 1947.
Cerny, Gerald. Theology, Politics and Letters at the Crossroads of European Civilization. Jacques Basnage and the Baylean Huguenot Refugees in the Dutch Republic. Dordrecht, 1987.
Smith, Palema H. The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution
Fix, Andrew C.. "Angels, Devils, and Evil Spirits in Seventeenth-Century Thought: Balthasar Bekker and the Collegiants." Journal of the History of Ideas 50, no. 4 (1989 ).
Gibbs, G. C.. "Some Intellectual and Political Influences of the Huguenot Emirgre in the United Provinces, c. 1680-1730." BMGN 90 (1975): 255-87.
Israel, Jonathan I. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Lindeboom, G. A. "Surgeons and Physicians in Seventeenth Century Amsterdam." Janus 65 (1978): 143-51.
Swan, Claudia. Art, Science, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Holland: Jacques de Gheyn II (1565-1629). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Verbeek, Theo. Descartes and the Dutch: Early Reactions to Cartesian Philosophy, 1637-1650. Carbondale, 1992.
Week 19 The Strategic Triangle: England, France, and the Republic
Core readings: Israel, Dutch Republic, pp. 713-26, 766-76, 796-862
William Speck, “Britain and the Dutch Republic,” in Davids & Lucassen, eds., A Miracle Mirrored, pp. 173-95
Recommended: Symcox, Geoffrey, “Louis XIV and the Outbreak of the Nine Years’ War,” in R. Hatton, ed., Louis XIV and Europe, pp. 179-212
Jones, J.R. The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century
Pincus, Steven. Protestantism and Patriotism
Wilson, Charles, Profit and Power (2nd ed.)
Haley, Kenneth. The British and the Dutch
Israel, Jonathan I. "William III and toleration." In From Toleration to Persecution, ed. O. Grell, J. I. Israel, and N. Tyacke, 129-70.
Sonnino, Paul. Louis XIV and the Origins of the Dutch War
Geyl, Pieter. Orange and Stuart, 1641-1672
Rowen, Herbert. The Princes of Orange, esp. chs. 6-7
Rowen, Herbert. John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1625-1672
Israel, Jonathan I., ed. The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact. Cambridge, 1991.
Hoak, Dale, and Mordechai Feingold, eds. The World of William and Mary : Anglo-Dutch Perspectives on the Revolution of 1688-89 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
Veenendaal, A. J., and J. A. F. de Jongste, eds. Anthonie Heinsius and the Dutch Republic 1688-1720. The Hague, 2002.
Franken, M. A. M.. "The General Tendencies and Structural Aspects of the Foreign Policy and Diplomacy of the Dutch Republic in the Latter Half of the Seventeenth Century." Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 3 (1968): 1-42.
Gibbs, Graham. "The reception of the Huguenots in England and the Dutch Republic, 1680-1690." In From Persecution to Toleration, Grell, Israel, and Tyacke, 275-306.
Rietbergen, Pieter. "William III of Orange (1650-1702) between European Politics and European Protestantism: the case of the Huguenots." In La Revocation, Bots, and Posthumus Meyjes.
Week 20 The Question of Decline
Core readings: Israel, Dutch Republic, 610-19, 934-46, 881-8
Munt, Annette, “The Impact of the Rampjaar on Dutch Golden Age Culture,” Dutch Crossing 21 (1997): 3-51
Schama, Embarrassment of Riches, pp. 596-608
Recommended: De Vries and Van de Woude, The First Modern Economy, esp. 668-83
Roelof van Gelder and Renée Kistemaker, Amsterdam: The Golden Age, 1275-1795, part III, “A period of stagnation: Amsterdam in the 18th century”
Jacob, Margaret C. and Wijnand W. Mijnhardt, eds. The Dutch Republic in the Eighteenth Century, esp. essay by F. Grijzenhout
Kloek, Joost and Wijnand Mijnhardt, 1800: Blueprints for a Society, vol. 2 of Dutch Culture in a European Perspective (Basingstoke, 2004)
Munt, Annette, “The Impact of the Rampjaar on Dutch Golden Age Culture,” Dutch Crossing 21 (1997): 3-51
Wilson, C. Anglo-Dutch Commerce and Finance in the Eighteenth Century
Leeb, I.L. The Ideological Origins of the Batavian Revolution
Brake, Wayne te. Regents and Rebels
Velema, Wyger. Enlightenment and Conservatism in the Dutch Republic: The Political Thought of Elie Luzac 1721-1796. Assen, 1993.
Vries, Jan de. "The Rise and Decline of the Dutch Economy, 1675-1900." In Technique, spirit, and form in the making of the modern economies essays in honor of William N. Parker, ed. William Nelson Parker, Gary R Saxonhouse, and Gavin Wright. Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1984.