Herbert Hoover vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt



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Herbert Hoover vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt

The Great Depression



Use the provided PowerPoint to complete the questions below. While some are objective, factual questions, others are analytical questions that will not be found directly in the slides.

  1. In what year was Hoover elected President? ___1928_____



    1. Under whose leadership did he have experience as “Secretary of Commerce”?

Harding and Coolidge

    1. What might this predict about his own economic policies?

They would be similar to the two former presidents, as in he would favor less government intervention; “Laissez Faire” economics would persist

  1. Why did Hoover believe the economic future should be trusted?

Economic cycles natural go through “boom” and “bust” periods; If given time, the economy would recover

  1. What was Hoover unwilling to provide the American people and why?

Direct relief- He believed it would reduce one’s self-respect and wok ethic

    1. This was based on the idea of “__Rugged__ Individualism”



    1. Anti-Hoover sentiment was demonstrated in both the __mid-term elections__ of 1930, as well as some clever nicknames that people created to describe their struggles like:

Hoovervilles, Hoover flags, Hoover blankets

    1. Hoover did support the “National Credit Corps” and the “Reconstruction Finance Corps”. What idea was both of these programs based on?
      “Trickle Down” Economics- Providing the wealthier corporations with a financial stimulus would allow money to trickle down to laborers



    1. Why was there an additional push for reform from Hoover in 1932?

Election year

  1. Hoover’s reputation was tarnished as a result of the Bonus Army incident. Briefly describe it:

Veterans from WWI wanted bonus early (Patman Bill). It was rejected and the veterans and their families were asked to clear the site on which they settled. When they didn’t, General Mac Arthur used tear gas which ended up killing a small child and blinding another.

  1. In what month/year was FDR elected? _November 1932______Inaugurated? March 1933__



    1. This extended lame duck period would end with the ___20th______ amendment.

    2. What did FDR combat as an NY Governor that might help with his term as president?

Unemployment and poverty

  1. FDR’s three goals were: ____Relief_____, ______Recovery_______, and ___Reform _____.

In the chart below, place the programs from the PowerPoints where you believe they fit. In other words, which programs satisfied which of these “goals”? Do this as you go along. In the meantime, continue answering the questions beneath the chart.

Relief

Recovery

Reform












  1. The nickname for the period of intense activity beginning immediately after his inauguration was: ____The First Hundred Days____.



  1. Why did he call for a “National Banking Holiday”?

    1. Reason #1: ______Prevent further withdrawals__________________________

    2. Reason #2: ______Inspect banks for safe financial practices_______________



  1. What method did FDR use to communicate to the American people?: ___Radio: Fireside chats



  1. In your opinion, what was the most important “Banking and Finance” regulation? Why?

FDIC (Glass- Steagall Act)- Insurance on deposits

SEC- Regulated Stock Market

  1. What programs did the government adopt to put people back to work? What sort of tasks did people complete within these programs?

Direct relief programs- CCC, PWA, WPA, TVA

Building dams, parks, roads, post offices; Painting murals; photography (Dorothea Lange)

  1. What were the intentions and criticisms of the National Recovery Administration?

Intention: promote fair competition within labor

Criticism: Government was attempting to seize too much control over private industry

  1. Why do you think the government provided relief specifically to homeowners in the forms of loans?

Allow people to keep their homes and avoid foreclosure- Keep the housing industry afloat

  1. How are programs like the ones above funded? Why did FDR receive criticism for these programs?

Government; Engaged in deficit spending which led the government into debt

  1. What did the Supreme Court do to the NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act)? Why?

Struck it down- Judges felt that the control it provided the government was too much

    1. What did FDR do in response? How does this challenge checks and balances?

He wanted to pass a bill that would introduce 6 more judges to the Supreme Court- nicknamed the “court-packing” bill. This would’ve gained FDR more supportive judges, taking away from the “check” that the Supreme Court had over the executive branch

    1. Why was FDR able to pass several new pieces of legislation to replace what had previously been struck down? (i.e. acts to protect farmers)

7 judges retired anyway- Being that the president appoints judges, he now had the majority of judges “in his corner”.

  1. Which act from the ‘Improving Labor” slide do you feel was more beneficial to laborers during the Great Depression?

Fair Labor Standards Act- As we know, laborers had been pushing for these types of federal reforms since (and before) the progressive era. Many still exist today.

  1. Why do you think the Social Security Act of 1935 is considered to be FDR’s greatest legacy?

Still persists today

  1. What are some local products of the Great Depression relief programs?

Saddle River Borough Hall; Hohokus school; Ramsey High; Ridgewood post office, etc.

  1. How did African Americans and women fare during FDR’s presidency? Give examples.

Eleanor pushed her husband to include more people in the government, including women and African Americans. Frances Perkins was apt. the Secret of Labor- oversaw the introduction of the Social Security Act; Marian Anderson was given the opportunity to perform in front of the Lincoln Memorial when she was rejected from a concert hall. “Black Cabinet” was informal group of men with whom FDR consulted regarding racial issues. Still no Civil Rights Law yet

  1. Summarize how culture developed and/or reflected the times.

Many films depicted triumphing over hardships; People did not stop producing art and movies.

  1. Name two of the most important consequences of the Great Depression, in your opinion:

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