102 Ahmad Seyf, "Despotism and the Disintegration of the Iranian Economy, 1500-1800," in Elie Kedourie & Sylvia Haim, (eds.), Essays on the Economic History of the Middle East, Frank Cass, London, 1988, p.15; Thomas M. Ricks, "Slaves and Slave Traders...", pp.62-63; John Perry, Karim Khan Zand..., passim.
103 In Charles Issawi, The Economic History of Iran..., p.86.
104 MSA, Bussora Factory Diaries nos.199-203.
105 See, for example, BA, DBSM, BSH-3, sira 106.
106 Ahmad Mustafa Abu-Hakima, "Banu Kacb", in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol.6, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1978, p.314.
107 For more on the Kacb tribe see cAbdul-Amir Amin, al-Qiwa al-Bahriyyah...; and cAla' Musa Kazim Nawras & cImad cAbdul-Salam Ra'uf, 'Imarat Kacb al-cArabiyyah fi al-Qirn al-Thamin cAshar, al-Rashid Publishers, Baghdad, 1982.
c BA, DBSM, BSH-3, sira 106.
108 Stephen R. Grummon, “The Rise and Fall”, p.120.
109 Ann Lambton, Qajar Persia, pp.111-112.
110 The Shaykhas were ships of around 35 tons and the Takanahs were smaller ships distinguished by their flat hull. For the former see NAI, Home Department, Public Branch, O.C. 31 Jul, 1797, no.2. For the latter see cAbdul-Amir Amin, al-Qiwa al-Bahriyyah..., , p.31.
115 Information on the copper trade was taken from two independent reports in 1797 by W. Page, "Custom Master at Bombay", and Samuel Manesty the English Resident at Basra. For the former see NAI, Home Department, Public Branch, O.C. 24 Feb, 1797, no.3. For the latter see NAI, Home Department, Public Branch, O.C. 31 Jul, 1797, no.2.
116 A single "attaree maund" or man-i attar, was the most common unit of weight prevalent in the west Indian Ocean and can be traced back as far as the Babylonian mana. Though its value varied over time and place, in eighteenth century Basra it equaled some 28 pounds. For its origins see Henry Yule & A.C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindered Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive, Humanities Press, New York, 1968, pp.563-565. For its value at Basra in the late eighteenth century, see NAI, Home Department, Public Branch, O.C. 24 Feb, 1797, no.3.
117 NAI, Home Department, Public Branch, O.C. 31 Jul, 1797, no.2. These figures should not be taken literally since the English Resident had no way of knowing the exact amount being exported. They do, however, point to a significant increase in the export of copper to India.
119 IOR, Letters from Basra, G/29/22, letter dated 17 Oct, 1787, folio 401.
120 IOR, Letters from Basra, G/29/22, letter dated 16 Dec, 1787, folios 417-422.
121 For references to the problems caused by the Khazacil to the riverain trade see Khawaja Abdul Qadir, Waqai-i Manazil-i Rum..., p.45; and Samuel Manesty & Harvard Jones, Report on the British Trade..., folio 230.
122 For information on al-Shawi's rebellion, see Stephen Hemsley Longrigg, Four Centuries..., pp.203-204; and cAbdul-Rahman al-Suwaydi, Tarikh Hawadith..., pp.131-138, and passim.
123 Willem Floor, "La Revolte des Muntafiqs en 1787 - une Nouvelle Source," Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol.135, no.1, 1985, p.56.
124 Abraham Marcus, The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century, Columbia University Press, New York, 1989, p.338-339.
125 BA, DBSM, BSH-3, sira 106; and IOR, Letters from Basra, G/29/21, letter dated 23 Jan, 1781, folios 396-397.
126 Samuel Manesty & Harvard Jones, Report on the British Trade..., folio 230.
128 Ahmad Mustafa Abu Hakima, History of Eastern Arabia..., p.172.
129 The following description of the caravans is based on Christina P. Grant, The Syrian Desert, Caravans, Travel and Exploration, A.&C. Black Ltd., London, 1937, pp.125-156; Ahmad Mustafa Abu Hakima, History of Eastern Arabia..., pp.169-175; and the travellers' accounts printed in Douglas Carruthers, (ed.), The Desert Route to India, Being the Journals of Four Travellers by the Great Desert Caravan Route Between Aleppo and Basra, 1745-1751, London, 1929.
131 Christina P. Grant, The Syrian Desert..., p.134.
132 Ahmad Mustafa Abu Hakima, History of Eastern Arabia..., p.170.
133 Yilmaz mentions that in the 1760s merchants usually paid a total of 80 ghurush (about 80 rupees) for each camel load. See Serap Yilmaz, “Osmanli Imparatorlugu’nun Dogu...”, p.43.
134 One who calls the Muslims to prayer.
135 William Beawes, "Remarks and Occurrences in a Journey from Aleppo to Bassora by the Way of the Desert," in Douglas Carruthers, (ed.), The Desert Route..., p.38; Bartholomew Plaisted, "Narrative of a Journey...", p.62.
136 William Beawes, "Remarks and Occurrences...", p.33.
137 IOR, Letters from Basra, G/29/19, letter dated 20 Oct, 1739.
143 Murphey, using Ottoman sources, mentions that the volume of trade from the Aleppo-Basra route declined after the second half of the eighteenth century, but he attributes this solely to the conflict with Persia. See R. Murphey, “Conditions of Trade In the Eastern Mediterranean: An Appraisal of Eighteenth Century Ottoman Documents from Aleppo”, JESHO, vol.33, 1990, p.46.
144 For a discussion of the causes behind the decline of Aleppo's caravan trade and the rise of Damascus see Bruce Masters, The Origins of Western..., pp.30-33 and passim.