|mate) kinship and diaspora mutual aid associations see Thornton, Africa and Africans, pp. 199 204, and p. 322 where Dutch New York African “companies” were also known; Philip A. Howard, Changing History: Afro Cuban Cabildos and Societies of Color in the Nineteenth Century (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998), pp. 21-70; Colin Palmer, Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico, 1570 1650 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976), pp. 54 55, 138 139; George Reid Andrews, "Race Versus Class Association: The Afro Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1850 1900," Journal of Latin American Studies, 2 (May 1979): 35; Maureen Warner, "Africans in Nineteenth Century Trinidad," II, African Studies Association of the West Indies Bulletin 6 (1973):20. For Jamaican shipmates, see Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1969), p. 150; Schuler, Alas, p. 63, 66, 69, 81, 149n. See Harms, River of Wealth, pp. 188-195 for Bobangi marriages, blood brotherhood and ritual prestige; Vansina, Tio Kingdom, pp. 263-264.
34. See GNA: Berbice Criminal Court Investigation, February 1814; H. W. Bentinck to Earl Bathurst, 22 February and 29 April 1814, CO 111/81; James Rodway, History of British Guiana from the Year 1668 to the Present Time
(Georgetown: J. Thompson, 1891), II: 297 298. Another factor encouraging the reorganization of African welfare companies may have been the 1807 British restriction of U.S. food imports which led to slave starvation and death. See H.W. Bentinck to William Windham, 19 January 1807, CO111/7. Possibly the Kongo had learned a hard lesson about the counterproductivity of ethnic friction during a major Berbice slave rebellion in 1762. See Monica Schuler, “Akan Slave Rebellions in the British Caribbean,” Savacou
1(1970): 18, 20. See Schuler, "Plantation Labourers,” pp. 93-94. For Guyanese friendly societies in 1847, see “British Guiana, Table A, Half Year Ending 31st
December 1847, enclosed in No. 49, Light to Grey, 1848, CO 111/151, and in 1880s, see Walter Rodney, A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881-1905
(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), pp. 162-163, 170. Compare with Trinidadian, Jamaican and African-American societies in David Trotman, Crime in Trinidad: Conflict and Control in a Plantation Society, 1838-1900
(Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1986), pp. 110-111, 313-314, n. 19; Maureen Warner-Lewis, Guinea’s Other Suns
(Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1991), pp. 32-33 and 58, n 27; Schuler, Alas
, pp. 66-83.
35. Hamilton, “Sierra Leone and the Liberated Africans,” Fisher’s Colonial Magazine and Commercial-Maritime Journal 7 (1841): 27, 34-35 and 8 (1842), 41; Peterson, Province of Freedom, pp. 190-213, 220-228, 259-271. Hamilton is also quoted in Peterson, p. 209.
36. Given the composition of the Sierra Leone liberated African population, Butts’ selection of Yoruba, Igbo, Temne, Popo and Kru delegates was understandable. R. G. Butts to Henry Light, 23 July-7 August 1844, enclosed in No. 57, Light to Lord Stanley, 19 March 1845, CO 111/221. See Peterson, Province of Freedom, p. 169, for Sierra Leone's Yoruba and Igbo majorities.
37. Sandra Barnes, Patrons and Power: Creating A Political Community in Metropolitan Lagos (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), pp. 7-9.
38. See Schuler, Alas, pp. 15 16, 19-22, 24-25, for the delegate system. Archival sources do not identify any Central African delegates for Guyana.
39. The Superior
also took 23 Kru men to Guyana where they hired themselves out primarily as boatmen. “Nominal List of Africans by the Superior
from Sierra Leone, and Estates Upon Which They Have Been Located
,” enclosure in No. 59, Henry Light to Lord John Russell, 21 August 1841, CO 111/182.
40. Henry Light to Lord Stanley, No. 78, 21 April 1842, and enclosures, “Memorandum for the Emigration Agent,” 20 April 1842, and James Hackett to H.E.F. Young,, “Report on the Arrival of the Ship Lady Rowena from St. Helena with Captured Africans,” 22 April 1842, CO 111/190; Hamilton, “Sierra Leone and the Liberated Africans,” Fisher’s Colonial Magazine and Commercial-Maritime Journal 7 (1841): 27, 34-35 and 8 (1842): 41.
41. Cruickshank, “African Immigrants, p. 82.
42. Monica Schuler, "Liberated Africans in Nineteenth Century Guyana," The 1991 Elsa Goveia Memorial Lecture (Mona, Jamaica: Department of History, University of the West Indies, 1992), pp. 2 3. See Moore, Race, Power and Social Segmentation
, pp. 140 141, for similar immigrant Portuguese mobility. Indentured Africans’ mobility contradicts the common assertion that only Portuguese indentured workers enjoyed such freedom and that employers and officials thus discriminated in their favor. Compare with South Africa, where migrant workers could "tramp" to sample the labor market; this discouraged wage cutting and other harmful labor practices. In Natal, the seasonal nature of sugar planting was also a factor
, see Harries, Work, Culture, and Identity
, especially pp. 33, 37.
43. George Bonyun, M.D. to Henry Light, 6 January 1848, enclosed in No. 10, Light to Grey, 11 January 1848. The survey was actually devised to study health and mortality conditions of all immigrant plantation laborers. What Bonyun meant by “amalgamation” is unclear. Oral traditions suggest that for some time it meant residence in or on the outskirts of Creole villages, but not necessarily co-habitation or marriage with Creoles. See Cruikshank, “Liberated Africans,” pp. 77, 83.
44. Peterson, Province of Freedom
, p. 191, observes that “the success of any one of the early Church Missionary Society missionary superintendents [of Sierra Leone’s liberated African districts] depended largely on the effective organization of the majority of the population on a tribal basis.” Compare also with Yoruba Christians in Sierra Leone in Peterson, Province
, pp. 230-234 and Ghana in Eades, Strangers and Traders
, pp. 140-141, 148-150. Stipendiary magistrates were salaried judges introduced as protectors of apprentices following emancipation and retained as protectors of immigrants. See, for instance, W. L. Burn, Emancipation and Apprenticeship in the British West Indies
(London: Jonathan Cape, 1937); Monica Schuler, "Coloured Civil Servants in Post-Emancipation Jamaica: Two Case Studies," Caribbean Quarterly
, 30 (1984): 85-86 and Schuler
, p. 50.
45 . Von Griesheim was quoted in Rev. James Aitken. "A Voice from the Past," Timehri, 3rd ser., 4 (1917): 134. See below and Schuler, Alas, pp. 45-46 for Yoruba headmen/delegates in Metcalfe parish, Jamaica.
46. Schuler, Liberated Africans, pp. 3, 15 n.10; Cruickshank, “African Immigrants,” p. 82.
47. Schuler, "Liberated Africans," pp. 3-5; Cruickshank, "Among the Aku," p. 74.
48 . Interviews, Bagotville, 1980. Although some Indians began rice farming at Vive la Force in Canal 1 in 1853, it was not until the empoldering of the canal began around 1891 that significant numbers were attracted to the area; see J.A. Veerasawmy, "Noitgedacht Murder," Timehri 3rd ser., 6 (Sep. 1919): 115; Robert James Moore, "East Indians and Negroes in British Guiana: 1838-1880," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sussex, 1970, p. 235. Kongo or other Angolan descendants were interviewed in Wakenaam as well as East Coast Demerara and West Coast Berbice in the 1980s.
49 . Elliott P. Skinner, "Ethnic Interaction in a British Guiana Rural Community: A Study in Secondary Acculturation and Group Dynamics," Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1955, p. 254. According to a missionary, certain Kru who settled in Canal No. 1 in the early 1850s were also consulted as obeahmen; see Schuler
, "Kru Emigration to British and French Guiana, 1841-1857,” Africans in Bondage: Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade
," ed. Paul E. Lovejoy (Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin, 1986), pp. 179, 180.
50. See W. B. Wolseley, Circuit Stipendiary Magistrate’s Journal, 22 June to 1 July 1841 inclusive, in Gazette and General Advertiser, 36, 5530(16 November 1841): 3-4. See also William Walker to Earl Grey, No. 20, 13 June 1848, CO111/254, for the date of the likely purchase of Overwinning plots by liberated Africans. The letter records the sale in 1847 of two three acre tracts on Plantation Overwinning, each tract divided into 47 lots, for a total of $2,124.67 for each tract. The names are primarily English, therefore the ethnicity of the purchasers cannot be determined. See Crookall, British Guiana, pp. 108 109, for the Kongo of Overwinning.
51. Schuler, Alas, pp. 66, 70-71, 151-152 n. 26. Guyanese information from interviews in Guyana, especially Mrs. Mavis Morrison of Annandale and her friends, 1985. Compare with liberated Africans in the Bahamas in Johnson, “Friendly Societies,” pp. 186, 190.
52. Bonyun, “Remarks to Accompany Table A,” enclosed in No. 10, Light to Grey, 11 January 1848.
53. “Peculiar Native Wedding Ceremony,” Daily Chronicle
(Wed. 19 June 1901). I am grateful to Sister Noel Menezes, R.S.M. for providing me with a copy of this article. Compare with Yoruba marriages in Hastings
, Sierra Leone in Peterson, Province of Freedom
, p. 265; and with the large attendance of shipmates at each others’ family weddings and funerals in William Hamilton, "Sierra Leone and the Liberated Africans," Fisher's Colonial Magazine and Commercial-Maritime Journal,
8 (June 1842): 41.
54. For Jamaica and Trinidad, see Schuler, Alas, pp. 82-83; Bilby and Bunseki,”Kumina,” pp. 63-92, Warner Lewis, Guinea's Other Suns, pp. 27-29; Warner-Lewis, Trinidad Yoruba: From Mother Tongue to Memory (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996).
55. The Brethren sect, for instance, had ties with liberated Africans in Guyana. A liberated African, James Nott, probably a Mende, was a Brethren minister, although he does not seem to have worked in Africa. See Case
, Henry W, On Sea and Land, On Creek and River: Being an Account of Experiences in the Visitation of Assemblies of Christians in the West Indies and British Guiana; with Reminiscences of Pioneer Missionaries and the Slave Trade Formerly Carried on from Bristol
(London: Morgan and Scott, Ltd., office of The Christian
See the previously mentioned Brethren missionary Murrain, who was acquainted with Ovimbundu in Guyana and worked in Angola early in the twentieth century.
56. Mbanza Kongo traded with Boma; see Hilton, Kingdom of Kongo, p. 222. My thanks to Wyatt MacGaffey for translation and notes supplied September 26, 1999.
57 Cruickshank, “Liberated Africans,” p. 78.
58. John Thornton, “Central African Names and African-American Naming Patterns,” The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 50, 4(October 1993): 728, 730, 733-739. Among the KiKongo, at least, distinctions were made between female and male names. Customarily, gender was noted in liberated African registers and immigrant ship lists, therefore names are identified in my list as female or male.
59. Roger Stewart-I
: William Munro
, M.D. to William Humphrys, 25 January 1845, enclosed in No. 30, Light to Stanley, 15 February 1845, CO 111/220; Roger Stewart-III
: “Register of Africans Landed from the Unknown Brigantine, Condemned in the Vice Admiralty Court of the Colony, and Slaves Emancipated on the 28th
Day of May 1845;” Rufus
: John K. Cameron to John M. Johnstone, M.D., 14 November 1845, enclosed in No. 255, Light to Stanley, 18 December 1845, CO 111/226; Arabian-IX, Helena, & Una
: “Register of Africans Landed from the Brazilian Brigantine Name Unknown (Alias Libessu
) on the 29th
Day of September 1847 and Emancipated in the Vice Admiralty Court on the 14th
Day of October 1847;” “Register of Africans Landed from the Brazilian Brigantine Graca
on the 12th
August 1847 and Condemned in the Vice Admiralty Court on the 26th
August 1847;” “Register of Africans Landed from the Brazilian Brig Malaga
on the 28th
Day of December 1847 and Condemned in the “Register of Africans Landed from the Brazilian Brigice Admiralty Court on the 11th
Day of January 1848; all in Liberated African Register, Nos. 81,946-82,688, Vol. 15, 1845-1848, Sierra Leone Archives (SLA).
60. Hamilla Mitchell and Reward: Cruickshank, “African Immigrants,” pp. 77-78; Dominick Daly: John M. Johnstone, M.D., “Health Officer’s Report of Immigrants by Brig Dominick Daly,” enclosed in No. 47, William Walker to Lord Stanley, 6 May 1858, CO 386/162; David Malcolm: James Crosby to William Walker, 15 August 1862, enclosed in No. 156, Hincks to Duke of Newcastle, 10 August 1862, CO 111/336.
61. See, for instance,
Miller, Way of Death
, pp. 158-159, 106, 234-236, for drought, debt, and the slave trade, also Harms, River of Wealth
, p. 102, for a description of the Bobangi sale of children for debt, and Vansina, Tio Kingdom
, p. 366.
62. See Crookall, British Guiana, pp. 108 109. Compare the deacon’s metaphor “like bags of rice” with Jungu’s “packed like sardines” (see below) and Gullah Joe’s “pack in there wuss dan hog in a car,” quoted in Michael A. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: the Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998), p. 203.
63. See Cruickshank, “African Immigrants,” p. 77n, and Henry Light to Lord Stanley, No. 80, 29 April 1842, CO111/190. The drifting schooner was discovered in February 1842.
64. See Jan Vansina, Oral Tradition as History (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), pp. 20-21.
65. This section draws upon the analysis of Church Missionary Society Yoruba catechists’ journals and their “discourses of contemporary identity” in J. D. Y. Peel, "For Who Hath Despised the Day of Small Things? Missionary Narratives and Historical Anthropology," Comparative Studies in Society and History
, 37, 3 (1995): 585-591. See also Richard Price
, First-Time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People
(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), p. 6. I wish to thank my colleague, Osumaka Likaka, for clarifying the notion of Jungu’s enslavement as a deliberately preserved family record guarded from obfuscating symbolic discourse because it was probably the only valuable possession he and his daughter might have had to pass on to posterity.
66. These misinterpretations of Gomez have emerged recently in group discussions at scholarly meetings. For a discussion of stereotypical narratives of enslavement which emphasize entrapment of Africans by white slavers, see Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks, pp. 199-210. See pp. 206-207 for slaves’ familiarity with the kidnapping of children or pawning by uncles and their surrender for unpaid debts and sale as slaves. See Vansina, Oral Tradition, pp. 21-22, 89-90, 126, 139-146, and Joseph C. Miller, "Introduction," The African Past Speaks, ed. Joseph C. Miller, pp. 7-8, 32, and 33-52 (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1980), for definition and types of clichés and questions of interpretation and historicity.
67. The more common pattern in Central Africa was for a maternal uncle to handle the transaction. Jungu or Mrs. Morrison might have mistaken the mother’s brother for the father’s brother.
68. Compare Jungu’s experience with the account of a boy sold by his mother’s brother, and who “was not supposed to know that he was to be sold and tricked to go to the market,” in Vansina, Tio Kingdom, p. 366. See also Harms, River of Wealth, p. 102.
69. Tar, available for caulking, was also burned to fumigate slave holds. Miller, Way of Death, pp. 409, 412, 413. According to Postma Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, p. 165, most shipboard revolts occurred close to the African coast because chances of escape were better.
70. See “Report of the Liberated African Establishment
, St. Helena, Dr. Vowell’s Report and Collector’s Observations, and Extract of a Report of Dr. Rawlins, 25 May 1849, enclosed in No. 7, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 12 June 1849, “Papers Relative to Emigration from Africa and the West Indies,” PP 1850 (643.) XL, pp. 361-377, 381-386.
71. Estate schools were not unusual. Missionaries ran other schools. See Schuler, “Liberated Africans,” p. 5, and also George Bonyun, M.D., “Remarks to Accompany Table A,” enclosed in No. 19, Light to Grey, 11 January 1848, CO 111/250 for the school on Skeldon estate in Berbice which had a resident schoolmaster paid by the manager. “Many of the [African] boys and girls can read well,” Dr. Bonyun noted.
72 . It was in order to explain why Jungu never drank that Mavis Morrison mentioned the Kongo tar-ass incident, and it was in order to explain the genesis of the expression that she recounted the story of his enslavement.
73. Another Central African drummer identified his drums as the tuta, the ja, and the base.
74. See Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks, p. 207. Compare with King Buzzard in the U.S. South in, Gomez, 210-211 and Sterling Stuckey, Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 4-7.
75. Liberated African traditions about hard work and punishment were common, and not only in the context of deliverance narratives. Schuler, Alas
, pp. 63, 93-96; Bilby and Bunseki, "Kumina,” pp. 19-20, 26-28 (for hardships experienced in St. Thomas-in-the-East
, Jamaica), and 21-25, 43-45. See also, Kempadoo, "Recordings of Folklore, “ K104. Of course it is possible that some of these tales refer to repatriation,
marronage, or death. For Maroons, see Richard Price, ed., Maroon Societies
(Baltimore: The John’s Hopkins University Press, 1979) and David M. Guss, “Hidden Histories: African-American Tales of Resistance and Arrival,” Journal of Latin American Lore
, 20, 1(1997): 161-172. In 1985, Mr. Pere of Seaforth, Berbice, related the story of a man who disappeared and was thought to have flown back to Africa. Later, they found his skeleton hanging from a tree by the waterside and concluded that he had committed suicide. For speculation about suicide as the inspiration for flight legends, see Wyatt MacGaffey, Modern Kongo Prophets: Religion in a Plural Society
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983), pp. 138, 140; Karasch, Slave Life
, p. 319; Warner Lewis, Guinea's Other Suns
, pp. 28, 57 58, note 21, p. 153, n.18; Lorna McDaniel, The Big Drum Ritual of Carriacou: Praisesongs in Rememory of Flight
(Gainesville: University of Florida Press
, 1998), pp. 4, 56-57; Gomez, Exchanging Their Country Marks
, pp. 117-134, 276-277; Esteban Montejo, Autobiography
(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970), pp. 34 35, 102 103, rejected both suicide and drowning by Afro-Cubans in favor of their magical return to Africa. For more documentation of slave owners’ belief that slave suicides were motivated by a desire to return to Africa, Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery
(Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1969), pp. 195-198; Herskovits, Myth
, pp. 36, 95; Richard Ligon, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados
(London: Parker and Guy, 1673), p. 50; Charles Leslie, A New and Exact Account of Jamaica
(Edinburgh, 1740), p. 140; George Pinckard, Notes on the West Indies
(London: 1806), p. 168; Richard Cullen Rath, "African Music in Seventeenth-Century Jamaica: Cultural Transit and Transition," The William and Mary Quarterly
, 3rd Series, 1,4(October 1993): 710. Rath connects planters’ stereotypes of slave suicide with eighteenth-century Angolans in Jamaica who were notorious runaways and committed suicide when illtreated. My thanks to Richard Rath for providing me with a copy of his article. For suicide inspired by the hope of returning home
, see Capt. William Snelgrave, A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade
ed., 1734; London: Frank Cass and Co. Ltd., 1971), pp. 173-174, 183-184. William D. Piersen, “White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Fear, Depression, and Religious Faith as Causes of Suicide among New Slaves,” Journal of Negro History
62, 2(April 1977): 147-159. But see Wyatt MacGaffey, “Oral Tradition in Central Africa,” International Journal of African Historical Studies
, 7, 3(1975): 420-421.
76. See Kempadoo, "Recordings of Folklore, Drama and Music Made in Guyana, 1971-3," University Library, University of Guyana, 1974, K104: “The drum, the drum, the drum does lift them! The drum does lift them! And when they reach, they know.”
77. A liberated African descendant in Jamaica described indenture as so much like slavery that “the men never want to work. And they hide.” Echoing folk beliefs about black birds as witch familiars and collaborators of hunters tracking prey, this man claimed that employers introduced foreign blackbirds (their witch familiars?) to hunt runaways from the sky so that “anywhere at all you de [there] now, them find you.” With no place to hide, what alternative was left but to become like those black birds and fly away? See Bilby and Bunseki, "Kumina,” p. 20. Compare with the discussion of the buzzard motif in North American slave narratives in Gomez
, Exchanging Our CountryMarks
, pp. 210-211.
78. See Kempadoo, "Recordings of Folklore, Drama and Music Made in Guyana, 1971-3," University Library, University of Guyana, 1974, K104; Schuler, Alas
, pp. 93 96; Bilby and Bunseki, "Kumina,” pp. 21-23, 43-45; Robert Hill, "Leonard P. Howell and Millenarian Visions in Early Rastafari," Jamaica Journal
16, 1 (1981): 34. For related traditions from Trinidad, Carriacou, Cuba, Curaçao, Suriname, Venezuela and the United States, see Maureen Warner Lewis, Guinea's Other Suns
(Dover, Mass.: The Majority Press, 1991), pp. 28-29, 57-58 n 21; Lorna McDaniel, "The Flying Africans: Extent and Strength of the Myth in the Americas," Nieuwe West Indische Gids/New West Indian Guide
, 64 (1990): 28 40; Lorna McDaniel, The Big Drum Ritual of Carriacou: Praisesongs in Rememory of Flight
(Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1998), pp. 2, 4, 57-59; Esteban Montejo, Autobiography of a Runaway Slave
(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970), pp. 45, 102 103; Georgia Writers Project, Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies among the Georgia Coastal Negroes
(1940; reprint ed., Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1986), 7, 17 21, 28 29, 108 109, 150 151, 169, 177 178, 182 185; Kenneth Porter, "The Flying Africans," pp. 171 176, in Primer for White Folks
, ed. Bucklin Moon (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran and Co., Inc., 1945); Harold Courlander, A Treasury of Afro American Folklore
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1976), pp. 285-286; Virginia Hamilton, ed., The People Could Fly: American Black Folktales
(New York: Alfred Knopf, 1985), pp. 166 173; Guss, “Hidden Histories,” 161-172. Compare with Malagasy themes of slaves’ water immersion, salt taboos, and ability to return home in the form of water spirits in David Graeber, “Painful Memories
,” Journal of Religion in Africa
27, 4 (1997): 374-400. See also the preaching of the Namibian prophet Klaas Stuurman or Hendrik Bekeer, that following the liberation of German Namibia and British Cape Colony from white domination, the liberators would cross a large bridge to Germany where they would kill all whites. See Tilman Dedering, “The Prophet’s ‘War Against Whites’: Shepherd Stuurman in Namibia and South Africa, 1904-7,” Journal of African History
, 40 (1999): 8. Deliverance traditions collected by the author in Guyana and used in this study have not yet been published.
79. See Elliott P. Skinner, "Ethnic Interaction in a British Guiana Rural Community: A Study in Secondary Acculturation and Group Dynamics," Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1955, p. 221.
80. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks, pp. 210-211, Stuckey, Slave Culture, pp. 4-7; Hill to Glenelg, No. 41, 20 June 1837 and Glenelg to Hill, Trinidad No. 227, 1 September 1837, bound with No. 41, CO 295/114; Hill to Glenelg, No. 75, 10 November 1837, CO 295/115; Joseph, History of Trinidad, pp. 260-272.
81. See George Hill to Lord Glenelg, No. 41, 20 June 1837 and Glenelg to Hill, Trinidad No. 227, 1 September 1837, bound with No. 41, CP 295/114; Hill to Glenelg. No. 75, 10 November 1837, CO 295/115; E. L. Joseph, History of Trinidad (London: Frank Cass, 1838, 1970), pp. 260-272.
83. MacGaffey, Religion and Society, pp. 45-46, 52. According to MacGaffey, there is no KiKongo word for blue. The closest I could come is Devisch’s reference to the Yaka description of blue as the color of “the sun . . . about to rise” from the water of the underworld. See René Devisch, Weaving the Threads of Life: The Khita Gyn-Eco-Logical Healing Cult among the Yaka (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 65, 67-69; Thornton, Kongolese St. Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 82, 161; Robert Farris Thompson, Flash of the Spirit (New York: Vintage Books, 1984), pp. 6, 131; and for a West African people