Haar, Alfréd

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Hephthalites→White Huns.

Herceg, János (John) (Herczog) (Zombor, Hungary now Sombor, Serbia, 11 May 1909 - Doroszló now Doroslovo, Serbia, 29 January 1995) – Poet, writer, journalist, translator of literary works. Initially he studied in his hometown, then in Budapest. In the 1920s he appeared with his poems and reports. In the 1930s he was journalist and book publisher in Budapest. Between 1941 and 1944 he was a librarian at the City Library of Zombor, and editor of the periodical, Kalangya. From 1955 till 1957 he was editor of the periodical Bridge (Híd), and later literary editor of the Novi Sad Radio in Serbia. He retired to Doroszló. He wrote 47 major works, among them: In the Storm (Viharban) short stories (1933); Pepper and Cinnamon (Bors és fahéj) short stories (1951); Paper Ship (Papírhajó) studies (1953); Sky and Earth (Ég és föld) novel (1959); Shout from the Fog (Kiáltás a ködből) poems (1970); One Plus One (Egy meg egy) portraits (1968); Two Worlds (Két világ) studies (1972); Iketánia, novel (1987), and Gogoland, novel, (1992). – B: 1169, 1257, T: 7103.

Hercegszöllős, Canons of (Hercegszöllősi Kánonok) (Hercegszöllős, now Kneževi Vinogradi, Croatia) – The founder of the Hercegszöllős Reformed Congregation was Péter Kákony (11544-1549). The Synod took place under Bishop and Pastor Illés (Elias) Veresmarti. The Canons were accepted by the Synod of the Reformed Congregations held at Hercegszöllős on 16 and 17 August 1576. At the Synod 40 ministers of the local churches along the Danube attended. During their discussions they itemized (arranged into canons) all those issues, which characterized them as Reformed Christians and all the people they represented. It also set out what is expected of them as Reformed faithful, as ministers, and as a congregation according to the standards of the times. These Canons of Hercegszöllős summarized in Latin in 47 points the first organizational and theological principles and rules of the Reformed Christians of the regions adjoining the Danube, as well as those of Transdanubia including the Baranya area. These Canons determined for a long time the life of the Reformed Christian Congregations. István (Stephen) Szegedi Kis was the author of the Canons, and later Máté (Matthew) Skaricza revised and translated them into Hungarian. With some of these Canons the Reformed Church distinguished herself from the Lutheran Church. The laws appeared in print in the printing press of Gál Huszár at Pápa a year later. In 2007, the Canons were published in archaic and modern Hungarian, as well as in Latin and Croatian. – B: 1105, 1613, 0940, T: 7456.→Szegedi Kis, István; Skaricza, Máté; Huszár, Gál; Reformed Church in Hungary, History of; Reformed Church in Yugoslavia.

Herczeg, Ferenc (Francis) (Versec, Hungary, now Vršac, Serbia, 22 September 1863 - Budapest, 24 February 1954) – Writer. He was born into a wealthy Schwabian family. He attended high school at Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania) and Szeged. He learned Hungarian at Fehértemplom, Hungary (now Bela Crkva, Serbia); completed Law School in Budapest (1881-1884), and worked at Budapest, Versec and Temesvár. His first short stories appeared in the Pest Journal (Pesti Hirlap) in 1886. His first novel, Up and Down (Fenn és lenn) of 1890 was a success and established his popularity. In 1894 he founded a literary weekly, entitled New Times (Új Idők) and edited it till 1944. He was detained during the communist-led Council (Soviet) Republic in 1919. He was the principal contributor of the Pesti Hírlap (Pest Newspaper), and emphasized the need for national unity. He had a strong role in the Irredentist Movement, but was always against Nazism, and advocated for Hungary’s withdrawal from World War II. His major works include Gyurkovics Sisters, Gyurkovics Boys (Gyurkovics lányok, Gyrkovics fiúk) (1893), its adaptation for stage was a world success in 1899; as was Blue Fox (Kék Róka) (1917). His novels are Pagans (Pogányok) (1902); Byzantium (Bizánc) (1904); The Seven Schwabs (A hét sváb) (1916, 1983); The Gate of Life (Az élet kapuja) (1920), and Northern Light (Északi fény). He was the representative of the conservative-patriotic ideology in Hungarian literature at the beginning of the 20th century. He was a member of the Kisfaludy Society (Kisfaludy Társaság), president of the Petőfi Society (Petőfi Társaság), and vice president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His academic office and membership were abolished in 1949; his banned works were again published in 1980 and his historical novels were republished in 1983. – B: 0881, 0883, 0887, 1257, T: 7103.

Herding Dogs – Probably the first domesticated animals of the Hungarians, used as a hunting companion in the beginning. With the advent of shepherding, two types of dogs came into existence through natural selection. The big bodied, white coated, guarding and defending type komondor and kuvasz; easily distinguished from the predatos at night by its light color. The latter one was also a good herder dog. The smaller and faster herder dogs, the puli, pumi and mudi, were mostly black. Presently the mudi is the preferred dog among the Hungarian shepherds. – B: 1345, 1020, T: 3240.→Mudi; Pumi; Puli; Komondor; Kuvasz.

Herdsmen’s Runic Numerals→Hungarian Runic Script.

Herend – The oldest porcelain factory of Hungary, located in County Veszprém in Western Hungary (Transdanubia, Dunántúl) is the oldest porcelain factory of Hungary, creating porcelain objects of artistic value. It was founded by the faience and stone vessel maker Vince F. Stingl. In 1839 Mór Fischer, a porcelain painter, took over the factory and introduced the new technique of creating porcelain objects. At first his experiments were not successful as a commercial venture; but in 1841 he switched to imitating of old Chinese and 18th century European porcelain types of Meissen and Sèvres. Retaining his old fashioned style he achieved remarkable success at both home and abroad. At first his operation was restricted to the replenishment of the porcelain sets of aristocratic families; but soon after he produced independent samples. The great Hungarian families, the Esterházys, Batthyányis, Pálffys and members of foreign ruling families were his first customers. These unique creations also achieved a remarkable success both at home and abroad. In 1873, under his son’s guidance, the quality deteriorated and led to bankruptcy. However, the grandson of the founder saved it from ruin and restored it to its original level of excellence. In the millennium year of 1896, they made newer strides; and from the 1920’s its products were individualized depicting flower motives of the Bakony region. Later, the fabrication of figurines again raised the reputation of the factory. Production between the two world wars was diversified with the inclusion of the “porcelain plastic” art. The expertise of the local artists was turned to a great advantage for the factory. The achievements of the 115-year-old factory were presented in 1954 at the Museum of Industrial Arts in Budapest. This factory of world fame includes products that are hand-painted and houses a permanent exhibition and museum section. – B: 1138, 1153, T: 7680.→Fischer, Mór; Stingl, Vince Ferenc.

Heribald (10th century) – Monk at St Gallen, Switzerland, at the time when the Magyar troops appeared in the Lake Constance region. All the monks fled but Heribald, who calmly watched their searching of the place. Due to his appealing behavior, the Hungarian warriors invited him to their feast. When Heribald and another monk sang psalms, they danced to the tune of the religious songs. A few years later when Heribald heard about another sortie by the Magyars, he begged the prelate to let him visit his friends. Ekkehard, also a St Gallen monk, recorded the Hungarian adventures around St Gallen and his chronicles greatly enrich Hungarian history of the post-Conquest period (AD 896). . – B: 1078, 1510, 1020, T: 7677.

Herm - (1) A stone pillar found of the roadside, depicting the god Hermes only its head and the sex organ. Its origin is assigned to the Pelasgians, who are said to have presented Hermes without hands and feet. It may be presumed that the souvenir was of an ancient sculptural experiment in an archaic form, which retained its original form. The herm arrived from Greece to Italy, where it was used as a boundary marker. The use of herms did not stop with antiquity. In the Middle Ages it became amalgamated with ornamentation and the veneration of the saints. (2) In architecture, a herm is a whole or a half-column in the shape of a carved head, or the form of a half man. Its parts: head (possibly carved only in part), breast and arm bones. In most instances it is a square-shaped tapering shank. In the Baroque period it was a favorite decorative element of gardens. (3) A reliquary in the shape of a bust generally made of metal or precious metal. Perhaps its most beautiful example in Hungary is the herm of King László I (St Ladislas, 1077-1095), a Gothic cloisonne goldsmith’s work of art from the second half of the 14th century. – B: 0942, 1153, 1020, T: 7677.

Herman, Ottó (Breznóbánya, now Brezno, Slovakia, 26 June 1835 - Budapest, 27 December 1914) - Naturalist, ethnographer, politician. He obtained his higher education at the Polytechnic of Vienna; joined the Polish Freedom Fighters in 1863, then returned to Hungary to open a photographic studio at Kőszeg. He became associated with museology while a conservationist in 1864, and established the zoological collection at Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), which later gained considerable acclaim. In 1875 he obtained a position in the Zoological Depository of the Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, and started and edited the Natural Science Pamphlets (Természettudományi Füzetek) for ten years. In the meantime he also assumed roles in political movements. Between the years 1879 and 1886, and later between 1888 and 1891, he was a Member of Parliament. Besides his progressive opinions he also adhered to patriotic views. Subsequently he wrote a series of important works reflecting his vast interests in the areas of ethnography, linguistics and archeology. In 1893, the founding of the Hungarian Ornithological Center is associated with his name, as is the launching of the fishing periodical Aquila. The style of his works is diversified, colourful and descriptive. Numerous textbooks and popularizing works all show his excellent style in Hungarian, with admirable command of the language. – B: 1150, 0883, 1257, T: 7675.→Fenichel, Sámuel; Bíró, Lajos; Pungur, Gyula.

Hermann, Imre (Emeric) (Budapest, 13 November 1889 - Budapest, 22 February 1984)Neurologist, psychoanalyst. His higher studies were at the University of Budapest, where he earned an M.D. in 1914. During the Great War he served as a military doctor on various fronts. In 1919 he worked at the Psychological Laboratory of the University of Budapest. From 1919 until his death he worked as a psychoanalyst. Between 1949 and 1957 he worked at the Maros Street Clinic, Budapest. From 1919 he was Secretary of the International Psychoanalytic Society, later its Deputy President, and its President in 1945-1946. His research field included the world of instincts, perception, thinking and talent. His outstanding findings were the Clambering Theory and the Congruent Model concepts in the area of artistic creativity. His main works include Introduction to the World of Psychoanalysis (Bevezetés a psychoanalízis gondolatkörébe) (1923); Psychoanalyse und Logik (1924); Das Ich und das Denken (The I and the thinking) (1929); The Ancient Instincts of Man (Az ember ősi ösztönei (1943, 1984), and The Psychology of Anti-Semitism (Az antiszemitizmus lélektana (1945, 1990, in French 1989). – B: 0883, 1419, T: 7103.→Ferenczy, Sándor; Buda, Béla; Bodrog, Miklós; Gyökössy, Endre.

Hernádi, Gyula (Julius) (Oroszvár, now Bratislava-Rusovce, Slovakia, 23 August 1926 - Budapest, 20 July 2005) – Writer, scipt-writer, poet, dramaturgist. He completed his secondary education at the Benedictine High School, Győr (1944). He started studying Medical School, later switched to Economics at the University of Budapest. During World War II he was a young army-trainee (levente) and later POW in the Soviet Union (1945-1947). Aftert his return to Hungary he worked as a clerk. Soon his writings appeared in the periodicals Star (Csillag), Transdanubia (Dunántúl), and in the Present Age (Jelenkor). He became the scriptwriter for film director Miklós Jancsó. He was a dramaturgist of the Folk Theater (Népszínház) (1983-1985) and the József Katona Theater (Katona József Színház) Kecskemét (1989-1991); editorial Board member of the New Time (Új Idő); president of the editorial board of the periodical Third Eye (Harmadik Szem), and President of the Alliance of Independent Hungarian Writers (1991-1996); President of the Happiness Party from 1992. His 34-volume oeuvre includes: On Friday’s Stairs (Péntek lépcsőin) novel (1959); Highwaymen (Szegénylegények) filscript (1965); Corridors (Folyosók) novel (1966); Sirocco (Sirokkó) novel (1969); The Fortress (Az erőd) novel (1971); Red Requiem (Vörös rekviem) novel (1975); Vitam et sanguinem (My Life and My Blood) film-novel (1978); The Osteoporosis of Stupidity (A hülyeség csontritkulása) dramas (1981) Frankenstein, novel (1984); The Royal Hunt (A királyi vadászat) dramas (1989), and God Bleeding in the Kitchen (Isten a konyhában vérzik) poems (1991). Sixteen of his novels were translated into ten Europen languages. He was recipient of the Attila József Prize (1976), the Ernő Szép Prize (1996) and the Kossuth Prize (1999). – B: 0874, 1257, T: 7103.→Jancsó, Miklós.

Hero, Order of →Vitéz, Order of.

Heroes’ Memorials - Erected for the memory of fallen soldiers, the Honvéds, thedefenders of the homeland” or “homeguard”. It was the name of those soldiers who fought in the Hungarian War of Independence against Austria (1848-1849). The first such memorial was erected by the city of Debrecen on the Square located between the Reformed College and the Great Reformed Church. It was called Honvéd emlék (Heros’ Memorial). A more artistic monument was the statue of General Bem, erected in 1880 at Marosvásárhely, (now Tirgu Mures, Romania), but later demolished by the Romanians. In the Fort of Buda the sculptor György (George) Zala created his famous Hero’s Memorial, which was followed by numerous monuments all over the country. The statue of Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, leader of the War of Independence (1848-1849), was erected at 70 different locations throughout the country and many in the western European countries and North America. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 3323.→Honvéd; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849; Kossuth, Lajos; Zala, György.

Herpály Culture - A culture dated between 3800-3200 BC. In the latter period of the new Stone Age the agricultural practices were sufficiently productive by European standards to ensure the sustenance of a larger community with the aid of advanced tools used for fishing and hunting. Archeological digs found along the River Tisza, the “Tell Settlements”, showed densely populated riverside villages in existence for many centuries that were renewed and enlarged many times. The first finds of metal and copper usage appeared, as did the first cremation burial ceremony. – B: 1230, 1020, T: 7676.

Herskó, Ferenc (Francis) (Hersho, Avram) (Karcag, 31 December 1937 - ) – Biologist. He and his family emigrated from Hungary to Israel in 1950. He studied Medicine and obtained his M.D. from the Haddassah Faculty of Medicine at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, where he also received a Ph.D. in 1969. He was a Distinguished Professor at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine at the Technion in Haifa, Israel, where he was associate professor (1972-1980) and became professor in 1980. In 2004, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. His publicatioons include Components of ubiquitin-protein ligase system…(with Heller, H., Elias, S. and Ciechanover) (1983); The Protein Substrate Binding Site of the Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase System (with Heller, H., Eytan, E. and Reiss, Y.) (1986), and A Multicomponent System that Degrades Proteins Conjugated to Ubiquitin…(with Ganoth, D., Leshinsky, E., Eytan, E.) (1988). In addition to the Nobel Prize, he is the recipient of a number of prizes, among them the Israel Prize in Biochemistry and Medicine (1994), as well as the Middle Cross with Star of Honor of Republic of Hungary (2005). – B: 1031, T: 7103.

Hertelendy, Gábor (Gabriel) (Gosztony, 7 September 1742 - Gyöngyös, 20 June 1820) – Military officer. He was educated at Kőszeg, joined the army in 1759, and became Commander of the newly formed Palatine Hussar Regiment of recruits from the ethnic dialect areas of Jász, Kun and Hajdú. He served with his regiment until he was promoted to division commander, fought in many battles of the Seven Years’ War, and also against Turkey and France. His most memorable action was during the battle of Ulm (October, 1805) where, leading his Palatine Hussars, he cut through the whole French Army. A military march was dedicated to his name. – B: 1078, 1020,T: 3233.

Hervay, Gizella (Makó, 14 October 1934 - Budapest, 2 July 1982) - Poetess. She studied at the Transylvanian University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) graduating in 1956. She was editor of the children’s magazine Sunshine (Napsugár) (1956-1957) and editor at the Young Worker (Ifjúmunkás), (1957-1959 and 1968-1971). She taught in Bucharest (1959-1961). Her volumes of poetry include Flower in the Infinite (Virág a végtelenben) (1963); From Morning to Death (Reggeltől halálig) (1966); Simple Sentences (Tőmondatok) (1968); Filing Form (Űrlap) (1973), and Dives (Zuhanások) (1977). The unveiling of her career is associated with the appearance of the first “Forrás Generation” of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). In 1976, she moved to Budapest and was the editor at the Móra Publishers. In 1977 she lost her young son in the earthquaque of Bucharest. In the same year she published his collected poems under the title Continuation of the Sentence (A mondat folytatása), followed by Sundered Bird (Kettészelt madár) (1978); Expelled Rainbow (Száműzött szivárvány) (1980), and Loden Coat on the Nail of Eastern Europe (Lódenkabát Kelet-Európa szegén) (1983). She also published poems for children, such as Book of Kobak (Kobak könyve) (1966), and Second Book of Kobak (Kobak második könyve) (1968). She translated Romanian poetry as well. Hervay’s metaphorical and visionary verses embody the drama of feminine existence. Her later works express the feeling of homelessness and personal mourning over those who perished by inhuman force. She committed suicide. In accordance with her last will, her ashes were placed next to those of her husband’s in the Házsongárd cemetery at Kolozsvár. – B: 1153, 0878, 0883, 1257, T: 7617.

Herzegovina – A part of the Balkans, constituting a province within Bosnia, in the vicinity of Montenegro and Dalmatia. (Herzegovina-Neretva covers some 4,500 square kilometers. It is organized in 9 municipalities and it is populated with 270.000 inhabitants. Its capital is Mostar). In the mid-700 AD there was an infiltration of Serbs into the Bosnian-Greek population. In the 10th century it attained separate status, called Hum, and was ruled by governors. The Hungarian king András II (Andrew) took possession of it in 1197 from the Bosnian potentate Kulin. The Bulgarians recaptured it in 1382. In the 14th century it became part of a Serbo-Bulgarian-Greek state, but by 1362 it again came under Hungarian rule. The present name dates from 1440. Although occupied by Austria-Hungary in 1878, it remained under Turkish influence until 1908. Later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy absorbed ca. 12,000 km² of Herzegovina. It became part of the Serbian kingdom after the dissolution of the Monarchy. With other regions it became involved in the Balkan War in 1992. After much bloodshed and suffering, the Dayton Peace Accord of November 1995, created the Republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 7677.

Herzl, Theodor (Tivadar) (Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl) (Pest, 2 May, 1860 - Erlach, Switzerland, 3 July, 1904) – Founder of the Zionist Movement. He was educated in the spirit of the German-Jewish “Enlightenment”. The family moved to Vienna in 1878 after the death of his sister. He received a Ph.D. in law in 1884, and worked for a short while in the law courts in Vienna and Salzburg. Within a year, he left law and devoted himself to writing. In 1891 he became Paris correspondent for the liberal New Free Press (Neue Freie Presse) in Vienna. In Paris he witnessed the rise of anti-Semitism, which resulted from the court martial of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer. Herzl gradually became convinced that the only solution to the Jewish problem was the mass exodus of Jews from their places of residence. Originally he wrote that it didn't matter where Jews went. He eventually felt that a national home in Palestine was the answer. He published a pamphlet on the Jewish State in 1896, and Jewish reaction to his plan was mixed. Many Jews rejected it as too extreme, although there were those who responded with enthusiasm and asked him to head what was to become the Zionist Movement. He succeeded in convening the first Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland, August 29-31, 1897. The Congress adopted the Basle Program and established the World Zionist Organization to help create the economic foundation for the proposed Jewish state. Herzl was elected president of the organization and chaired the first six Zionist congresses. He spent much of his time in his remaining years meeting with world leaders, both Jewish and non-Jewish, trying to enlist financial and political support for his dream of a Jewish state. His works include The Ghetto, drama (1884); The Jewish State (Der Judenstaat) (1896), and Old New Land (Altneuland) (1902). He died in 1904 before his dreams were realized. In 1949, his remains were transferred to a mountain in western Jerusalem, which became Mount Herzl and is today a major military cemetery. – B: 1031, 1377, T: 1377.

Hess, András (Andrew) (1473 is the only date of his activity) - Printer, probably of German origin. During the 1460s he lived in Rome and worked as a manuscript copier at the St Eusebius Monastery and learned the printing trade. In 1472, during the reign of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) at the invitation of László (Ladislas) Karai, Vice-Chancellor and Provost of Buda, he moved to Buda, where he set up the first printing press in Hungary. The font types he used in Buda were the ones he brought with him from St Eusebius Monastery’s Lauer press. In 1473, on the evening before Pentecost, with the support of László Karai he released his first publication, the Chronica Hungarorum (Budai Krónika). He used the same font types on the following publications: De legendis poetis, by St Basil, and Apologia Socratis, by Xenophon, both condensed and arranged by Leonardus Brunus Aretinus. Hess’ printing establishment closed down soon after, probably due to his death. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7617.→Buda Chronicle.
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