Hegyalja – The lower slopes of the Hungarian Zemplén Mountains, with south and southeast aspects adjacent to the River Bodrog. The twenty-eight villages in this region are all engaged in wine production; the wines from Bodrogolaszi, Mád, Olaszliszka, Tarcal, Tállya, Tolcsva and Tokaj are world famous. The total area of vineyards is 5,500 hectar of land, producing Furmint and Hárslevelű (Linden Leaf) wines, and the famous Tokaji dessert wine. Lately, the old vineyards were renewed with new varieties of grapes. Geographically, the region extends over the border to Slovakia; but Hungary is the dominant producer. – B: 1138, 1020, T: 7656.
Hegyaljai Kiss, Géza (Mád, 21 March 1893 - Debrecen, 26 October 1966) – Minister of the Reformed Church, poet, writer. He studied Theology at The Reformed Theological Academy, Sárospatak (1912-1916), and was on study trips in Germany in 1927 and in 1935. He read Literature and Esthetics at the University of Budapest and obtained a Ph.D. in 1925. He was an assistant minister in various places (1916-1923), then Parish Minister in Monok (1924-1926); in Bőcs (1926-1938), and at the Debrecen-Árpád Square Church (1938-1952). He was a Member of Parliament from 1947 to 1949. For criticizing Church-leadership he was dismissed from the ministry. He was an editor of newspapers and a prolific writer. His output includes some thirty books. A selection of his writings: Our Love (A mi szerelmünk) poems (1914); Calvin’s Biography (Kálvin életrajza) (1917); Burning Hearts (Égő szívek) poems (1925); Spirit and Life, vols. i-ii-iii. (Lélek és élet I-II-III), sermons (1926, 1928, 1930); The Emperor and the Pastor (A császár és lelkipásztor) short novels (1926); Glory to God! (Dicsőség Istennek!) prayers (1937), and Peaceful World (Békevilág), meditations (1947). He was a member of literary societies and a recipient of prestigeous awards. – B: 0910, 1257, T: 7103.
Hegyes, Róbert (Metuchen, USA, 7 May 1951 – ) – Actor, director. His father was Stephen, an ex-Marine, and Hungarian-born, while his mother was Marie Cocozza, an Italian. It was her mother, who made Robert interested in the theater. He majored in Speech and Theater at Glassboro State College in New Jersey, USA. After receiving his B.A., he went to New York City to start working as a professional actor. He did get an acting job with a children’s theater company, called Theater in a Trunk; it was a troup of professional actors, performing plays in schools and playgrounds everywhere in New York City. Later, he received a role in a Broadway play, Don’t Call Black. After several other engagements, he was immortalized in the 1970s sitcom classic Welcome Back Kotter, as the tough guy Juan Epstein. He also played in the popular 1980s series Cagney and Lacey, and also co-starred in the famous series Law and Order. He became Associate Professor and Artist-in-Residence of Theater and Communications in Rowan University, N.J. and is currently Adjunct Professor, Brooks College of Long Beach CA, USA. – B: 1081, T: 7456.
Hegyföld – The lower, south-facing slopes of the Mecsek Mountains, bordered by the River Dráva in the south. When the Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin, the tribe of Khagan (Prince) Árpád lived in the area. During the Middle Ages, a high culture developed here. During the Reformation, a significant proportion of the population took up the Unitarian faith. The local population did not suffer greatly under the Turkish rule. After the Turkish withdrawal, the Habsburg rulers forcefully tried to convert the population to Catholicism forcing a great number of people to flee the area. Germans populated the empty villages in the 18th century. After World War II, a significant number of Germans were deported to Germany. – B: 1134, 1020, T: 7656.
Hegyi, Barnabás (Barnaby) (Zboró, now Zborov, Slovakia, 4 March 1914 - Budapest, 28 April 1966) – Cameraman. His technological and applied art training was completed in Budapest. His career in the film industry began in 1936, and from 1940 he was active as a cameraman. Following World War II, until 1947, he was programming supervisor at the Hungarian Radio; then until his death, cameraman at the Hunnia Film Studio. He produced nearly a hundred films. With the vibrant style of running commentary, his work communicated a strong sense of form and dramatic expression. He is credited with the most prominent achievements of the Hungarian film industry. His pictures include The Thirtieth (A harmincadik) (1942); Just the Two of Us (Kettesben) (1943); Somewhere in Europe (Valahol Európában) (1947); A Woman Sets Out (Egy asszony elindul) (1949); Crafty Matt the Goose-herd (Ludas Matyi) (1949); A Strange Marriage (Különös házasság) (1951); The Sea Arose Again (Feltámadott a tenger) (1953); At Midnight (Éjfélkor) (1957); Yesterday (Tegnap) (1959); Alba Regia (1961), and Dread (Iszony) (1965). He was a recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1950) and received the Outstanding Artist title (1966). – B: 0883, 1439, T: 7667.
Hegyi-Füstös, István (Stephen) (Gyömrő, 19 June 1919 - ) – Minister of the Reformed Church, writer. His higher studies were at the Reformed Theological Academy, Budapest (1938-1944), and at the Reformed Law Academy, Kecskemét (1944-1947). In 1942 he was trained as military chaplain at the Royal Ludovika Academy. Between 1942 and 1972 he served as assistant minister in Gyömrő, as a teacher of religion and an assistant minister in Budapest; YMCA (KIE) secretary (1946-1972). He was ordained in 1969, and became Parish Minister in Rákosfalva (1972-1979). He was on the editorial board of the Reformed periodical, Confessio from 1977, and the newspaper, Presbiter from 1992. In 1996-1997 he was Editor-in-Chief of the weekly, Paper of the Presbyterians (Reformed) (Reformátusok Lapja). From 1948, he was an external member of the Hungarian Radio. From 1948 to 1956, he was Editor of the program One Village, One Song (Egy falu egy nóta). He wrote a number of articles on artistic, ethnographic, folk music and popularizing themes, wrote plays and scenes for broadcasts, and also dramatized festival and Biblical scenes. His works appeared on the radio, in cultural and religious media: Reformátusok Lapja, Evangélikus Élet, (Lutheran Life), Új Ember (New Man), Békehirnök (Herald of Peace); Theológiai Szemle (Theological Review), and other periodicals; also in daily newspapers. His research work is outstanding: he discovered the recorded voice of Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (1802-1894), the daguerreotype picture of Poet Laureate Sándor (Alexandedr) Petőfi (1823-1849); found and preserved recordings of outstanding people, such as László (Ladislas) Ravasz, Imre (Emeric) Révész, etc. He wrote the first juvenile studio play for Hungarian TV, The Seven-times Tested Lad (A hétpróbás legény) for the commemoration of the great King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490). His books include religious textbooks for high schools (140,000 copies), Biographies (Albert Schweitzer, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King); and puppet-show plays. He is recipient of the Medal for Country and Freedom (1991), Commemorative Medal of 1956 (1991), the Pro Urbe Gyömrő Award received together with his wife (2002). – B: 0874, 1630, T: 7103.→Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy; Christian Youth Association; Kossuth, Lajos; Petőfi, Sándor; Ravasz, László; Révész, Imre; Mátyás I, King (Mathias Corvinus).
Heim, Pál (Paul) (Budapest, 30 November 1875 - Budapest, 23 October 1929) – Pediatrician. He received his Medical Degree in 1897. At the start of his career, he was at the Pediatric Clinic of Budapest as an intern; later became an assistant professor in Breslau (then Germany, now Wroclaw, Poland). From 1901 he was Head Physician at the Hospital of the Order of Mercy in Budapest. He became a university lecturer in 1907. From 1918 on, he was Professor at the Universities of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) and Pécs, and from 1929 he was Professor in the Pediatric Department of the University of Budapest. He was particularly interested in the detrimental effects of inadequate nutrition in infancy, as well as in premature infant care. His work on child protection is significant. His main works are General Haemotology (Általános haemotológia) (1908), and Child Nutrition (A gyermek táplálkozása) (1926). Today the Pediatric Hospital bears his name in Budapest. – B: 0883, 1105, T: 7667.
Held, József (Joseph) (Budapest, 14 October 1930 - ) – Historian. His higher studies were mainly in the USA, at Rutgers State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick between 1958-1962, and 1963-1968. At Rutgers, he was a professor (1966-1980), and then he held the Chair of the Department of History (1974-1980), where he was also Deputy Dean, later Dean (1980-1992). From 1988-1989 he was President of the Mid-Atlantic Slavic Association. He is an external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His books include The Cult of Power: Dictators in the 20th century (1983); The Hunyadi Legend and Reality (1985); The Columbian History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century (1992); Dictionary of East European History since 1945 (1994), and Populism in Eastern Europe (1995). – B: 0874, T: 7103.
Helicon - A Mountain peak in Boeotia in Central Greece in the vicinity of Mount Parnassos, home of the Nine Muses, where the god of poetry, Apollo, resided. It was the sacred place of the arts; the ascent of the mountain was the ultimate ambition of all poets. In a figurative sense, the name is used for gatherings, societies, etc., such as the Helicon of Keszthely (Keszthelyi Helikon), founded at the beginning of the 19th century by Count György (George) Festetics. Also the journal Transylvanian Helicon (Erdélyi Helikon), founded in the 20th century, which provided exposure for Hungarian writers in Romanian occupied Transylvania (Erdély). – B: 1150, 1020, T: 7617.→Festetics, György.
Helicopter – A rotary-winged aircraft. The first one was built by the Frenchman Paul Cornu. His helicopter was the first to achieve free flight, while carrying a passenger (1907). It left the ground only for several seconds and its elevation was only a few centimeters. Tódor Kármán, mechanical engineer-lieutenant and Vilmos (William) Zurovecz engineer-lieutenant under the direction of Major István (Stephen) Petróczy, experimented and designed the first helicopter of practical use in the Austro-Hungarian Aircraft Research Institute’s plant at Fishcamend, in 1917. They named their ‘helikoptera’ PKZ, after the initial letters of their names. It made several successful ascents, before a sudden storm destroyed it. Oszkár (Oscar) Asbóth continued the helicopter experiments after World War I and the first flight of his helicopter near Kispest, Hungary, was a great success. István (Stephen) Hosszú, the first helicopter pilot operated Asbóth’s helicopter. This was the first sustained and controlled helicopter flight. – B: 1230, 1153, T: 7662.→Kármán, Tódor; Asbóth, Oszkár; Petróczy, Isván.
Hell, József Károly (Joseph Charles) (Selmecbánya-Szélakna, now Banska-Stiavnica, Slovakia, 15 May 1713 - Selmecbánya, 11 March 1789) – Mine master mechanic, a pioneer of mining mechanization. He was a son of Máté Kornél (Matthew Cornelius) Hell. He studied at the Mine Officers’ Training Institute in Selmecbánya. His first invention, a closed-frame, rocker arm water pump, began operation in 1738. This was the predecessor of the modem rocker arm oil pumps used all over the world. More significant was his invention operated by compressed air. In 1753 he implemented a system that used compressed air to lift water from the mines of Selmecbánya. He was the first to apply compressed air for such a purpose. This can be regarded as the forerunner of the airlift technique, used today in oil wells. In 1758 he built an improved version of the English Potter’s steam engine. He designed and put into operation a mine ventilation system in 1756, and built a crushing mill in 1766. He was also interested in weapon technology. – B: 0883, 1441, 1020, T: 7662.→Hell, Máté Kornél.
Hell, Máté Kornél (Matthew Cornelius) (Höll) (Schlakenwerth, Bohemia, now Czech Republic, 1650 - Selmecbánya, now Banská-Štiavnica, Slovakia, 1743) – Master mine mechanic. He settled in Selmecbánya in 1696. He had several inventions, such as the horse drawn water lifting mechanism. Upon his suggestion, István (Stephen) Mikovinyi designed and put into operation a water wheel pump in 1711. This mechanism was used in Sweden and in Bavaria, as the “Selmecbánya pump”. His modernized vertical shaft mine hoists were adopted all over Europe. – B: 0883, 1405, 1020,T: 7662.→Hell, József, Károly; Mine Elevator; Hell, Miksa.
Hell, Miksa S.J. (Maximilian) (Selmecbánya, now Banska Stievnica, Slovakiam 15 May 1720 - Vienna, 14 April 1792) - Astronomer, mathematician, physicist, writer, son of Máté Kornél (Matthew Cornelius) Hell. He entered the Jesuit Order, studied Philosophy at the University in Vienna, thereafter, he taught briefly at Lőcse (now Levoča, Slovakia), later, at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). In 1755 he was appointed Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Vienna, and Professor of Mechanics at the University. Although he lived mostly in Vienna, his contacts with Hungarian astronomers remained continuous. The observatories at Kolozsvár, Eger, Buda and Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia) were built under his direction. He started the internationally respected astronomical periodical, Ephemerides Astronomicae, published until 1793. Commissioned by the Danish King Christian VII, he traveled with János (John) Sajnovics to Vardo, Norway, to make observations of the passage of the planet Venus in front of the Sun on 3 June 1769. On the basis of this event, he was the first to correctly calculate the distance between the Sun and the Earth. Several contemporary astronomers doubted the correctness of his result; but later measurements vindicated him. In the same year, he developed the method of measuring geographic latitude. His diverse interests are reflected in his writings. He published several books on mathematics between 1745 and 1755, including a book about the production and practical application of artificial magnets, several papers on astronomy and, based on the Gesta Hungarorum (History of the Hungarians) by 13th century Hungarian chronicler Anonymus, the early geography of Hungary. He was put in charge of the Organization of the Academy of Sciences of Vienna. – B: 0883, 1257, 1020, T: 7674.→Hell, Máté Kornél; Anonymus; Sajnovics, János.
Heller, Ágnes (Budapest, 12, May 1929 - ) – Philosopher, political scientist, survivor of the Holocaust; her family perished in a concentration camp. She studied Philosophy at the University of Budapest, under the guidance of György (George) Lukács. Later, she became an assistant professor in the Department of Philosophy. For her participation and solidarity with the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, she was expelled from the University and, for years, banned from publication. Between 1963 and 1973 she worked as a researcher at the Institute of Sociology in Budapest. Since she belonged to the Budapest School of Philosophers, the Government authority banned her from all teaching and research works in 1973. She was forced to leave Hungary in 1977, and emigrated to Australia, and taught Sociology at La Trobe University in Melbourne. In 1986 she moved to New York, where she was appointed to the Hannah Arendt Chair, as Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research. Since the political change of 1989 in Hungary, she now spends half of the year in her native land, and teaches at the Universities at Budapest and Szeged. Her major works include The Dissolution of Moral Norms (Az erkölcsi normák felbomlása) (1957); The Renaissance Man (A reneszánsz ember) (1967); Theorie der Gefühle (A Theory of Emotions) (1980); A Theory of History (1982); Message of a Revolution (Egy forradalom üzenete) (1989); The Power of Shame (A szégyen hatalma) (1985, in Hungarian 1996); Beyond Justice (Az igazságosságon túl) (1985, in Hungarian 1990); The Idea of Beauty (A szépség fogalma) (1998), and Personal Ethics (Személyiségetika) (1999). Many of her works have been published in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Hungarian, as well as in other languages. She is a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Science (1990). She was awarded the Lessing Prize of Hamburg (1989), the Széchenyi Prize (1995), and the Hannah Arendt Prize in Bremen (1995). She received an Honorary Doctorate from the La Trobe University Melbourne (1996) and from the University of Buenos Aires (1997). – B: 0875, 0878, 1251, 1257, T: 7103.→Lukács, György.
Heller-Forgó Air Condensation Cooling Plant – The spent steam of steam turbines is conducted into a partial vacuum condenser, where it is sprayed with cooling water. This cooling plant was patented by László Heller. He used László Forgó’s new heat exchanger system for his design. This cooling system requires only small quantities of water, making the development of thermal power plants possible in water-poor regions. – B: 1138, 1020, T: 7662.→Heller, László; Forgó, László.
Heller, István (Stephen) (Pest, 15 May 1813 - Paris, 14 January 1888) – Piano virtuoso, composer. He showed musical talent as a boy and played piano in public at the age of nine. He studied music theory under Alphonse Czibulka, and piano with Anton Halm in Vienna. From 1828 to 1830, he gave concerts as a traveling virtuoso in Hungary and Germany. First he settled at Augsburg, where he taught the children of an aristocrat lady; and by the help of a Count Fugger, took lessons in composition. In 1838, he moved to Paris which was to be his home. Here, he got acquainted with Hector Berlioz. Robert Schumann praised his compositions and found him a publisher. He played in England in 1849. He wrote very garceful and melodious pieces. His oeuvre include some two hundred piano pieces, among them 33 variations for Piano; Variation on the Theme by Bethoveen; Sieben Deutsche Lieder, and a successful book L’Art de phraser. His piano pieces and studies are still popular worldwide. – B: 0903, 0883, 1509, T: 7103.
Heller, László (Ladislas) (Nagyvárad, now Oradea, Romania, 1907 - Budapest, 1980) – Mechanical engineer. He received his qualifications in the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule of Zürich, Switzerland. He remained at the school for two years after graduation to study some special aspects of the strength of material. He established an engineering consulting company after his return to Hungary and played a significant role in the development of power engineering before World War II. He was professor of the Budapest Polytechnic. He designed high-pressure boilers and worked on the improvement of their efficiency. He was the co-inventor of the Heller-Forgo air-cooling system, which became known worldwide as the Heller-System, applied in thermal power stations. With the introduction of entropy into practical designing he made a pioneering, basic contribution to engineering. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. – B: 1138, 1153, T: 7662. Forgó, László; Heller-Forgó Air Condensation Cooling Plant.
Helsinki Accord – The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, signed on 31 August 1975 in Helsinki by the high representatives of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, German Democratic Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United States of America and Yugoslavia. The 10 main points of the Accord are: (1) Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty. (2) Refraining from the threat or use of force. (3) Inviolability of frontiers. (4) Territorial integrity of States. (5) Peaceful settlements of disputes. (6) Non-intervention in internal affairs. (7) Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. (8) Equal rights and self-determination of peoples. (9) Co-operation among States. (10) Fulfillment in good faith of obligations under international law. – B: 1138, 1020, T: 7677.
Heltai, Gáspár (Kaspar Heltner) (Nagyszeben, now Sibiu, Romania, 1510? - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1574?) – Protestant pastor, writer, printer, a pioneer of idiomatic Hungarian prose writing and publishing. Around 1531 he came in contact with the humanist Bishop István Brodarics. Being of Saxon origin, Heltai began to learn Hungarian during 1536; and in the early 1540s he converted to the Lutheran faith. In 1543 he enrolled at the University of Wittenberg, and in 1544 returned to Hungary. He remained the pastor of the Saxon parish in Kolozsvár until his death. In 1550 he founded and managed a printing shop with György (George) Hoffgreff, until Heltai took over the business in 1559. In the same year he accepted the Reformed tenet. On becoming a disciple of Ferenc (Francis) Dávid, he converted to the Unitarian faith. Many of his publications were his own works. Through them he was instrumental in developing a uniform Hungarian spelling system. He was the most eminent Hungarian prose writer of the 16th century. Heltai’s main work is a collection of narratives, called A Hundred Fables (Száz Fabula) including Aesops’s Fables (Esopus meséi) (1566). His other major work, A Chronicle About the Affairs of the Hungarians (Chronica az Magyaroknac Dolgairól) (1575), is mainly a rewrite of Antonio Bonfini’s Hungarian history. Some of his minor writings appeared in Latin and German; a significant and important part of his literary output however, is in Hungarian. With the exception of a few books, he made a complete translation of the Bible, as well. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7617.→Hoffgreff, György; Dávid, Ferenc; Bonfini, Antonio; Bible in Hungarian.
Heltai, Jenő (Eugene) (Budapest, 11 August 1871 - Budapest, 3 September 1957) – Writer, poet, playwright, journalist. Interrupting his law studies he turned to a career in journalism. He worked for the Hungarian Daily (Magyar Hírlap), The Week (A Hét), Pest Newspaper (Pesti Hírlap), Pest Diary (Pesti Napló). He lived for extended periods in London, Vienna, Berlin and Constantinople. In 1900 he was secretary of the Comedy Theater (Vígszíház), Budapest; then, from 1914 to 1918, he was its dramaturgist and director. From 1918 he was literary director at the Athenaeum Publishing Company. From 1928 he was one of the directors of the Inner City Theater (Belvárosi Színház), and of the Hungarian Theater (Magyar Színház) between 1932 and 1934. His unreserved versification of the light French flair of big city life brought him praise with such works as Modern Songs (Modern dalok) (1892); Kató (1894); Willow Whistle (Fűzfasíp) (1913) and Forgotten Poems (Elfelejtett Versek) (1947). Songs he wrote for the Singspiel “John the Hero” (János Vitéz) by Pongrác Kacsóh earned him wide popularity. The Bohemian world of the turn at the century was depicted with wit, humour and much affection in his novels. The moral falsities of the contemporary bourgeois classes were revealed with fine irony and subtle technique in his comedies for the stage. His plays in verse resurrected comedies of various eras in a characteristic ironic/romantic style. After 1945 he was a supporter of the People’s Democracy. For his translations of literary works he was awarded the French Honorary Prize. He was the Hungarian president of the PEN Club (the worldwide association of writers). His writings were translated into numerous languages. His main works include short stories: Writers, Actresses and Other Scoundrels (Irók szinésznők és más csirkefogók) (1910); Colourful Stones (Szines kövek) (1911); Wastepaper Basket (Papírkosár) (1927); Novels: The Last Bohemian (Az utolsó bohém) (1911); Family Hotel (1913); Jaguar (1914); The House of Dreams (Álmok háza) (1929); Plays Faces and Masks (Arcok és álarcok), (1925); The Dumb Knight (A néma levente) (1936); The Thousand-and-Second Night (Az ezerkettedik éjszaka) (1939), and Menagerie (Menazséria) (1962). He was recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1957). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7667.→Kacsóh, Pongrác.