Haar, Alfréd

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Hatos, Stefan (Aurora, USA, 20 August 1920 - Lakeside Golf Club in Toluca Lake, Cal., USA, 1999)Television producer; was born of Hungarian parents. His father was an iron peddler by trade. He began playing the piano and oboe in childhood and, while attending college on a music scholarship, he played oboe and English horn with the Detroit Civic Symphony Orchestra. To work his way through school, he played saxophone in dance bands. His career started when he became staff announcer at a Detroit radio station, and later on the NBC radio network. However, he was always more interested in writing and production than in performing. While an announcer, he wrote episodes of The Lone Ranger (1940), The Green Hornet, and a psycho-thriller, the Hermit’s Cave. He served 37 months as a Commanding Officer in World War II, was wounded twice. After the War he joined an advertising agency and, in 1949, moved into television and created and produced one of the first night-time game shows on the first interconnected network of 17 TV stations on ABC-TV. The name of the show was Fun for the Money. He produced numerous radio and TV shows and beame famous for Let’s Make a Deal with Monty Hall, which had its debut in 1963, and had been running for over 4,600 shows. – B: 1031; T: 7456.

Hatvani, István (Stephen) (Rimaszombat, now Rimavská Sobotá, Slovakia, 21 November 1718 - Debrecen, 19 November 1786) – Mathematician, physicist, naturalist and polymath. His father was a master-bookbinder. His earlier education was at Rimaszombat, Losonc (now Lucanec, Slovakia) and Kecskemét; in 1737 he was appointed praeceptor (teacher) in Révkomárom. In 1738 he enrolled in the Reformed College in Debrecen but, because of the bubonic plague, only in 1741 did he become a gowned student. In 1746 he continued his studies in Basel, Switzerland, obtaining his Medical Degree in 1748. He was invited to the Universities of Heidelberg and Magdeburg in Germany, and Leiden, Holland; but in 1749, having been invited to the Reformed College of Debrecen, he took the Chair of the Department of Philosophy and Mathematics there. Besides lecturing on the History of Philosophy, he also taught Cosmology, General and Special Physics, Experimental Physics, Botany, Medical Physiology, Geography, Hydrostatics, Mechanics, Astronomy, Ethics and Natural Law. In 1750 he was the first in Hungary to teach Chemistry. As a physicist he recognized the significance of experiments in teaching Physics. Probably because of his electrostatic experiments, he developed the reputation of being “possessed by the devil”, forming legends around his figure. Besides teaching, he also did healing. He was the supervisor of the pharmacies of Bihar and Debrecen counties. He was in communication with a wide circle of scholars abroad. His works include Introductio ad principia phylosophiae…(Introduction to the Principles of Philosophy…) (1757), and Thermae Varadienses examini physico and medico (Physical and Medical Examination of the Thermal-waters of Nagyvárad) (now Oradea, Romania) (1777). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456→ Debrecen, Reformed College of.

Hatvany, Lajos (Louis) (Deutsch till 1897, Hatvany-Deutsch till 1917) (Budapest, 27 October 1880 - Budapest, 12 January 1961) – Writer, critic, literary historian. He was born into a wealthy family. His higher studies were at the University of Budapest, where he was under the influence of Pál (Paul) Gyulai. He earned a Ph.D. in Philosophy in 1905. With Pál (Paul) Ignotusz and Miksa (Maximilian) Fenyő, he was the founder of the influential literary review, the West (Nyugat) in 1908. He befriended the poet Endre (Andrew) Ady and was one of the first supporters of Ady’s poetry. In 1911 he went to Germany for an extended period. From 1917 to 1919 he was Editor of the Pest Diary (Pesti Napló), and from 1918 to 1919 of the journal, Year (Esztendő),. After having been a member of the National Council of the 1918 Revolution, he emigrated to Vienna in 1919. He lived there and in Berlin till 1927, when he returned home. During his time abroad he wrote against the Horthy system and consequently was sentenced to one-and-and-a-half year in imprisonment; but received an amnesty. His radical writings appeared in the Social Democrat press. He again left Hungary in 1938 for Paris, and returned to Hungary in 1947. He supported young writers and dedicated his life to Hungarian Literature. One of his friends was Thomas Mann. Apart from his critiques and literary history writings, among his works is the volume, entitled, Thus Lived Petőfi (Így élt Petőfi) (1955-1957). Some of his other books and plays are Die Wissenschaft des nicht Wissenwerte (1908); The Twilight of Pál Gyulai (Gyulai Pál estéje) (1910); Das verwundete Land (1921); Speaking Houses (Beszélő Házak) ed. (1957), and Five Decades (Öt évtized) (1961). He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1960) and recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1959). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7103.→Gyulai, Pál; Ady, Endre; Ignotusz, Pál; Fenyő, Miksa.

Hauk, Lajos (Louis) (1799-1850) - An Austrian freedom fighter, Lieutenant Colonel in the Hungarian National Defense Army; and a leader in the 1848 March and October uprisings in Vienna. After the defeat of the October uprising, he followed General József Bem to Hungary. He participated in the Hungarian War of Independence against Austria, as an aide of General Bem and became the commander of Szászváros (now Saros pe Tarnave, Romania) and Versec, Hungary (now Vrsac, Serbia). The Austrian military court condemned him to death and he was executed in the Fort of Arad (now in Romania). – B: 1138, 1020, T: 3233.→Bem, József.

Haumann, Péter (Budapest, 17 May 1941 - ) – Actor. His higher studies were at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, completed in 1963. His career started at the Csokonai Theater (Csokonai Színház) in Debrecen, and continued from 1966 at the National Theater (Nemeti Színház), Pécs; and at the following Budapest theatres: 25th Theater (25. Színház); Attila József Theater (József Attila Színház); Madách Theater (Madách Szinház); National Theater (Nemzeti Színház); Arizóna Theater (Arizóna Színház); Radnóti Theater (Radnóti Színház) and, from 1994, József Katona Theater (Katona József Színház). His major roles on the stage include the title role in G. Büchner’s Woyzeck; the title role in B. Brecht’s The Resistible Rise of Auturo Ui (Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg
des Arturo Ui; Állitsátok meg Aturo Uit); Benedetto in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing (Sok hűhó semmiért); Hamlet; Claudius; Torquemada in Illés’ Spanish Isabella (Spanyol Izabella); Miska in Kálmán’s The Gypsy Princess (Csárdáskirálynő); Doolittle in Shaw’s Pygmalion; Puzsér in Molnár’s Sir Doctor (Doktor úr), and Figaro in Beaumarchais’ The Marriage of Figaro (Figaró házassága). He had some 20 feature films to his credit, including Black Diamonds (Fekete gyémántok), Old Times Cinema (Régi idők mozija); TV films Twilight (Szürkület), Richard III, Mr. Ficzek, Storm (Vihar). He was also involved in stage management. He is one of the popular and leading character actors. He is a recipient of the Mari Jászai Prize (1970, 1972), the Merited Artist title (1980), the Kossuth Prize (1985), the Prize of Theater Critics (1997), He is a Member of the Society of Immortals (1977), and Actor of the Nation (2010). – B: 0874, 1105, 1445, T: 7103.

Hauser, Arnold (Temesvár, now Timişoara, Romania, 8 May 1892 - Budapest, 29 January 1978) – Philosopher, art historian and art sociologist. He studied French and German Literature at the University of Budapest in 1910; from 1921 he studied in Berlin. György (George) Lukács, Lajos (Louis) Fülep, Bernát (Bernard) Alexander, and Béla Balázs exercised influence upon him. During the Council (Soviet) Republic in 1919, he dealt with the reform of art education. From 1934 he lived in Vienna, then in England. He was a professor of Histoy of Arts at the University of Leeds (1951-1957). He returned to Hungary in 1977. He wrote a book: The Social History of Art, published in London in 1951, which received international acclaim as the foundation of the sociology of art and was translated into many languages. Its original title is: Sozialgeschichte der Kunst and Literatur, vols. i-ii (A művészet és az irodalom társadalomtörténete, I-II) (1968-1969, 1980); Philosophie der Kunstgeschichte (1958), Methoden moderner Kunstbetrachtung (1974), Mannerism: The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modern Art, vols. i,ii (1965). – B: 0883, 1028, 1257, T: 7103.→Lukács, György; Fülep, Lajos; Alexander, Bernát; Balázs, Béla (1).

Hauszmann, Alajos (Aloysius) (Buda, 9 June 1847 - Velence, County Fejér, 31 July 1926) – Architect. Commenced his higher studies at the Budapest Polytechnic and continued them at the Academy of Berlin from 1866. After returning to Hungary, he worked at Arnold Skalnitzky’s office and, from 1872, he taught at the Budapest Polytechnic. Besides his teaching engagements, he was active in writing and in running a busy designer’s office. Earlier, he designed buildings in modest Renaissance style; such buildings are the new extension of the Polytechnic, the St Stephen Hospital (St István Kórház), and the Museum of Industry (Iparmúzeum). Later, he leaned toward the Baroque style. Its proofs are the Justice Palace (Igazságügyi Palota), New-York Palace, and the completion of the Danube side of the Royal Castle (Királyi vár dunai részlege). He wrote a description of his major designs. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7103.

Havadtoy, Sam (Havadtőy, Sámuel) (London, 4 August 1952 - ) – Painter, interior designer. He was born to Hungarian parents in London, but raised in Hungary. The family returned to Hungary in 1956, just before the outbreak of the Revolution. After the croushed Revolution it became difficult for the family to return to Britain. It took 14 years for Havadtőy to acquire British citizenship. Eventually in 1971 he fled Hungary through former Yugoslavia, back to the United Kingdom. On an invitation, Havadtoy moved to New York, but intermittently he lived for four years in Geneva, Switzerland, until 2000. In 1978 he founded Samuel Havadtoy Gallery, an interior designer gallery, where he worked until 1981. Havadtoy designed the homes of notable artists, such as John Lennon's and Keith Haring's last home. In 1981 Havadtoy turned to New York's artistic scene, where he became close friends with notable artists, such as Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, George Condo, Donald Baechler, Jasper Johns and Yoko Ono, with whom Havadtoy began a relationship, being her companion for over twenty years, until 2001. Havadtoy inspired and contributed to many of Keith Haring's late works.

Havadtoy started painting at a young age, just after moving to New York, and acquired his own eclecting style during the 1980s. He mainly uses oil, acrylic and mixed techniques for his paintings. Havadtoy's works reflect subtle blends of different cultures, mostly Central European and American pop culture. His exhibitions include Tel Aviv, Budapest, Rome and Milan.

In the late 1980s, when the Eastern block was in a state of dissolution, Havadtoy travelled frequently to Hungary, and has residences in Budapest and Szentendre. In 1992 he founded Gallery 56, which became significant in the Hungarian contemporary art scene by exposing important artists who were considered rarities at the time. The gallery focuses mainly on displaying American modern artists; classics of Hungarian contemporary art are also represented. – B: 1031, T: 7103.

Havadtőy, Sándor (Alexander) (Kovászna, now Covasna, Transylvania (Erdély), now in Romania, 11 November 1924 - ) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian, writer in the USA. He attended high school in Kovászna and Sepsiszetgyörgy (now Covasna and Sfantu Gheorghe, Romania). He studied Theology and Philosophy in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and Theology in Budapest. Upon receiving scholarship from the World Council of Churches, he left for the University of Basel, Switzerland, where he studied under Karl Barth and Karl Jaspers and received a PhD in Theology in 1952. Unable to return to his homeland he went first to Canada, where he was a minister of Hungarian Reformed Churches in Mt. Brydges, Ont., then in Windsor, Ont., (1954-1960). He became Parish Minister in Fairfield, CT. USA, and he also served as Supervisor at Yale Divinity School, New Haven, CT. (1962-1986). He was a member of the Committee of Human Rights for Romania; Vice President of the Committee of Transylvania; Advisor of the State Department Commission on Human Rights; and a delegate to the Alliance of Reformed Churches in Seoul, South Korea and Budapest, Hungary. After 33 years, he retired from the pastorate of Calvin United Church of Christ, Fairfield, and became Professor of Philosophy at the Norwalk Community and Technical College, Norwalk, CT. As a staff member of Radio Free Europe from 1967, he preached regularly to the nations of Central Europe. He has been the editor of the Reformed News, the Szekler People (Székely Nép) and the Carpathian Observer. His publications include Arbeit und Eigentum in den Schriften des Jungen Marx (Labor and Property in Writings of the Young Marx) (1952); Tentative Statement Concerning Eschathology (1957); Karl Barth: Between East and West (1962); On Being a Christian (1963); Preaching in the Reformed Tradition (1984); The Oppression of the Hungarian Reformed Church in Romania (1986), and Comfort my People (Vígasztaljátok népemet), selected sermons (2001). He also authored several articles and essays in three languages. He is recipient of the Julianus Prize (2003). – B: 0914, T: 7103.→Reformed Churches in America.

Háy, Gyula (Julius) (Stefan Faber) (Abony, 5 May 1900 - Ascona, Switzerland, 7 May 1975) – Playwright, translator of literary works. Following high school graduation, he served at the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic’s Commissariat for Public Education (Tanács-köztársaság Közoktatásügyi Népbizottsága) in 1919. After its fall, he emigrated to Germany, where he returned again in 1929, after a six-year stay in Hungary. His first stage successes occurred abroad; but the 1932 demonstrations by Hitler’s supporters blocked further presentations of his play, God, Emperor, Peasant (Isten, császár, paraszt), in Berlin. On Hitler’s rise to power, he emigrated to Austria but, due to his participation in the 1934 Socialist demonstrations, he was expelled and moved to the Soviet Union in 1935. In 1945, he returned to Hungary, where his plays, written in exile, were frequently performed. From 1955 to 1956, he belonged to the revisionist group of Imre Nagy. Mainly on account of his articles in the Literary News (Irodalmi Újság), he became the most vocal representative of the views and sentiments of opposition writers. He was imprisoned in 1957, released in 1960, but was allowed to publish only translations until 1964, when finally a collection of his new writings, Royal Dramas (Királydrámák) was authorized to be released, although not performed. Finally, in 1964, he left Hungary and settled in Ascona, Switzerland, where he remained for the rest of his life. His plays in this period were published in the Literary News (Irodalmi Újság) and the New Horizon (Új látóhatár), two Hungarian language periodicals, circulated in the West. Some of his works are Scene: Budapest-Time: Ten Years Ago (Szinhely: Budapest-Idő: Tíz év előtt) novel (1929); Tisza Hole (Tiszazug) play (1934-1936), premièred in 1945; Night of Judgment (Itélet éjszakája), play (1943) pemièred in Berlin (1945); Man’s Word on the Stage (Emberi szó a színpadon) studies (1947); Dramas, vols. i,ii. (Dramen I-II) (1951, 1953); Bridge of Life (Az élet hídja),play (1951); Destinies and Fights (Sorsok és harcok) 7 plays (1955); Mohács (1958-1960); The Horse (A ló) (1960); Oxford première (1965); Attila’s Nights (Attila éjszakái) (1961-1962); Dramas, vols. i, ii. (Dramen I-I) (1964-1966; Born 1900 (Geboren 1900), memoires (1971, 1974). He translated works from A. Checkov, G. Hauptman, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and others. His works were translated into English, Russian and Italian. He was a recipient of the Kossuth Prize in 1951. – B: 0883, 0878, 1257, T: 7667.

Haydn, Franz Joseph (Rohrau, Lower Austria, 31 March 1732 - Vienna, Austria, 31 May 1809) – Composer. His ancestor Gaspar Haydn moved to Hainburg (Austria) from Tétény (Tadten, County Moson, formerly Hungary, east of Lake Fertő or Neussiedlersee) Born into a poor but musical family, he was in the Stephanskirche choir of Vienna as a young boy. After years of poverty in Vienna, he became private Kapellmeister for Austrian magnates. In 1761, Prince Pál Antal (Paul Antony), the famous patron of arts, then most importantly Miklós I (Nicholaus) Esterházy employed him as Kapellmeister of his orchestra at his palace at Kismarton (now Eisenstadt, Austria) and also at his other palace at Eszterháza, (now called Fertőd, in Hungary, south of Lake Fertő), where he worked for thirty years, until 1790. He was expected to provide music for the Prince’s daily ceremonies and weekly concerts; and he ran an opera theater; he did all the hiring, training and caring for the orchestral and vocal musicians, he performed his own music as conductor, violinist and pianist. In these two quiet countryside estates of the Prince, he composed prodigiously: 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets, 15 piano concertos, 52 piano sonatas, 21 operas, four oratorios and 14 instrumental masses. His two trips to London (1790-1792 and 1794-1795) mark the climax of his career, with his compositions admired in musical circles everywhere in Europe. It was for the London impresario, Johann Peter Salomon, that Haydn composed his last twelve, so-called Salomon, symphonies and his two great oratorios, The Creation (Die Schöpfung, Teremtés) (1798) and The Seasons (Die Jahreszeiten, Évszakok) (1801), which were received enthusiastically in Vienna and made him the most celebrated classical composer. Another late work of his is Gotterhalte, which became first the national anthem of Austria, and later that of Germany. In the field of symphonic and chamber music, he opened up new paths that made him immortal, the classical instrumental music after him, taken up by Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. Joyfulness and good sense of humor pervade his work, also a delight in nature and a deep religious feeling. His musical themes are melodious and lively, structured around motives in sonata form. His marriage was miserably unhappy, but he lived comfortably in financial security, with remuneration from Prince Esterházy even after 1790, when Haydn lived in Vienna and also enjoyed fame in the musical world. He met the young Mozart and they became great friends, mutually admiring each other’s compositions. Because of his long stay in Hungary, occasionally he used Hungarian musical themes, as in Piano Trio No. 39 in E-major, also known as the “Gypsy Trio” after the movement Rondo all’ ongarese; as well, the Ungarischer Nationalmarsch for wind band in E-flat major (Hungarian National March). In the concert hall of the palace at Eszterháza (Fertőd), there are annual chamber music concerts; there is also a memorial plaque on the wall of the building. The palace chapel of the Esterházy family houses a mausoleum in his honor, while his palace at Kismarton (Eisenstadt) is now a Museum. – B: 1068, 1197, 1138, 1153, 7456; T: 7684, 7456.→ Esterházy, Prince Miklós József.

Haynald, Lajos (Louis) (Szécsény, 3 October 1816 - Kalocsa, 4 July 1891) - Achbisop and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was ordained in 1839. He was Professor of Theology at the Seminary of Esztergom (1842-1846). In 1848, as the secretary of the Primate, he did not allow the announcement of the Declaration of Independence and the decrees of the Szemere Government. Therefore, the Kossuth Government dismissed him from office in June 1849. The Primate later restored him to his office. He became Bishop of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), in 1852. Later, he urged the restoration of the laws of 1848, and the union of Transylvania and Hungary. In 1861, after having condemned the absolute rule of the Government of Vienna, he was forced again to resign. Between 1863 and 1867, he worked in Rome. In 1867 he became the Archbishop of Kalocsa and a member of the Upper House of Parliament. In 1879 the Pope created him Cardinal and he was very active in creating a number of foundations. As a herbalist, he was generous to scientists involved in flora researches. He donated his huge herbarium and library to the Hungarian National Museum, which posesses Europe’s third largest botanical library. A number of plants bear his name. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. – B: 0883, 1173, 1020, T: 7103.

Haynau, Baron Julius Freiherr von (Kassel, Germany, 14 October 1786 - Vienna, 14 March 1853) – Austrian military officer. After studying in Marburg, he entered the Austrian army in 1801. In 1809 he was promoted to Hauptmann (Captain). In 1813 he was promoted to Major, and transferred to the German legion, where he saw service in Northern Italy. Following Napoleon's return from exile, his battalion entered France. After the second Peace of Paris, his promotions continued to Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel), then to Oberst (Colonel) in 1830. Five years later, he was promoted to Major General and assigned as a Brigade Commander in Italy. In 1844 he was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant. (Lieutenant General). The next year, he was made Obertstinhaber (Colonel General). In 1847, he was transferred to Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania). During the Revolutions of 1848-1849, he proved to be loyal to the Emperor. He was appointed Commander of Verona and, at the Battle of Custozza, he played a decisive role. His most significant and remembered action was at the city of Brescia. The revolutionaries in this Italian city had massacred invalid Austrian soldiers in the local hospital and, in response to this atrocity Haynau executed 12 men in April 1849. This incident soon became known worldwide and von Haynau was called the “Hyena of Brescia”. Shortly afterward, he was promoted to Feldzeugmeister (General of the Artillery) and he subsequently was given supreme command over the Imperial Army in Hungary, which he led against the Hungarian Army and won some minor victories, in July 1849. Following the capitulation of the Hungarian Army not to him but to the Russian General Rudriger at Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania), in his vengeance, he ordered the execution of 13 of the highest ranking Hungarian army officers at the Castle of Arad (now in Romania) and at Pest and imprisoned thousands of other officers. After his campaign in Hungary he soon retired to Graz. He died in Vienna. He received numerous orders and decorations during his career including the Commanders Cross of the Military, Maria Theresia Order (1849), Grand Cross of the Military Maria Theresia Order (1850), the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Stephen and the Imperial Russian Saint Andreas Order. – B: 0942, 1230, 1138, 1153, 1145, T: 7103.→Arad, Martyrs of.  
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