Haar, Alfréd

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Halasy-Nagy, József (Joseph) (Ercsi, 2 May 1885 - Hajdúszoboszló, 6 May 1976) – Philosopher. He received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Budapest in 1907, and began his career by teaching at the High School in Kiskunhalas. His first writings on literature appeared at this time in the journal Communications on Literary History (Irodalom-történelmi Közlemények). On Alexander Bernat’s request, he translated Pascal’s Thoughts (Gondolatok), and published it in 1912, with explanatory notes and comments. He also worked on Taine. In 1916 he became an honorary lecturer (privatdozent) with the thesis, History of French Philosophy in Modern Times (A francia filozófia története az újkorban). Between 1919 and 1924, he taught in Budapest and Pécs. From 1940 he held a faculty position at the Department of Philosophy, and was Dean of the Faculty of Arts from 1941 to 1942, at the University of Szeged. He was also on the editorial boards of the Athenaeum and Pannonia Publishers. His views incorporate various philosophical directions, from positivism to neo-kantianism. His interpretations of moral ethics reflect an idealist world-view. His works include History of Philosophy (A filozófia története) (1912, 1927); Foundations of Ethics (Az ethika alapvonalai) (1925); Modern Thinking (A modern gondolkodás) (1927); Philosophy of Antiquity (Az antik filozófia) (1934); The Metaphysics of Aristotle (Aristoteles metafizikája) (1936); Man and his World (Az ember és világa) (1940); The History of the Beginnings of Political Science (A politikai tudományok kezdetei) (1942); The Spiritual Life of Man (Az ember lelki élete) (1943), and The Philosophy (A filozófia), 1944. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7667.→Alexander, Bernát.

Halassy, Olivér vitéz (Budapest, 31 July 1909 - Budapest 10 September 1946) – Swimmer, water-polo player. He completed his secondary education in Budapest; as a school boy he had an accident while traveling on a tram, and his left leg became crippled. Yet he turned to sport, became a swimming and water-polo member of the Újpest Gymnastic Club, and in 1931, he was a member of the water-polo playing and championship-winning team in the European Championships in Paris (1931), Magdeburg (1934), and London (1938). In the Olympic Games of Amsterdam (1928), he won second place, while in the Los Angeles Games of 1932, and in the Berlin Olympics of 1936, he was a member of the gold-medal winning water-polo team. Between 1926 and 1938, he gained excellent results in several events in free-style swimming. In 1931, in Paris, he became European Champion in the 1,500-meter free-style swimming. He won National Championships in river swimming on eleven occasions. As a member of the University of Budapest’s sportsman team, he was 5 times in the select free-swimming team, and 91 times in the select water-polo team. In 1946, he lost his life in a robbery incident. The sports center of Újpest (northern suburb of Budapest) is named after him. – B: 1768, 0883, 1031, T: 7456.

Halász, Albert (Felsőlakos, now Gornji Lakoš, Slovenia, 2 February 1969 - ) – Poet, essayist, journalist. His secondary studies were in Lendva (now Lendava, Slovenia). He studied Hungarian Literature and Ethnography at the University of Budapest, where he acquired a Ph.D. in 1999. Between 1994 and 1997, he was journalist at the weekly, Peoples’ Newspaper (Népújság) in Lendva. In 1997 and 1998, he was a free enterpriser, publisher. Since 1998, he has been the Hungarian program director of the Slovenian TV. Among his writings are Smile-Crumbles (Mosolymorzsák) poems (1991); The Press and Ethnography of Alsólendva 1889-1919 (Az alsólendvai sajtó és a néprajz 1889-1919) (1994); Icons (Ikonok) poems (1996), and Eminent Days, Folk Festivals in the River Mura Region (Jeles napok, népi ünnepek a Muravidéken) (1999). – B: 0878, 1169, 1257, T: 7103.

Halász, János (John) (Zenta, Hungary, now Senta, Serbia, 27 April 1885 - New York, N.Y. 18 February 1976) – Physician. He attended school in Montenegro. He studied Medicine from 1913 at the Medical School of the University of Budapest. During World War I, he voluntarily enlisted in the army and served there from 1915 to 1919. Among other distinguished medals, the Signum Laudis was conferred upon him. From 1922, he worked at his birthplace as a physician, now under Serbian rule. When, in 1939, a part of Voivodina was returned to Hungary, he worked in Újvidék (now Novi-Sad, Serbia). He relentlessly fought for the health of the poor agricultural workers. Finally, the Hungarian Parliament enacted the “Peasant Law”, also called “Halász Law” in 1941. He became Chief Director of the Institute of National Social Insurance (Országos Társadalombiztosítási Intézet – OTI). From 1944, he was again in the army. He moved to the USA in 1951 from Germany, and worked as physician in various hospitals. In New York, he set up a Hungarian Library and was involved in Hungarology research. He retired in 1962. His over 10,000-volume library became the core of the János Halász Library in Toronto, Canada. – B: 1037, T: 7103.

Halász, József (Joseph) (Szeged, 5 April 1945 - ) – Lawyer, politician. His higher studies were at the University of Szeged, where he studied Law, Mathematics and Auditing, obtaining a Degree in each, and a Doctoral Degree in Law. In addition, he earned a diploma in Systems Administration. He was a university professor for 17 years, and taught post-graduate courses in logic, leadership theory, systems theory and auditing.  He wrote several editions of lecture notes. Among these, one entitled, Programming Logic, is still circulating among the students. He worked in professional appointments and in middle-management as well.  He went on early retirement. Since then, he is engaged in political theorizing, insisting on the uniqueness and restoration of the Hungarian Holy Crown Doctrine. He also writes about the dangers that befell Hungary by joining the European Union. He founded the Shield Alliance (Pajzs-szövetség), and edits the Eunyet electronic website, lecturing and writing articles and essays. He wrote a book entitled, Love or Hate (Szeretet vagy gyűlölet). He calls himself “The Humble Servant of the Holy Crown”. – B: 2000, T: 7103.→Holy Crown Doctrine; Crown, Doctrine of the Holy Crown.

Halász, Judit (Judith) (Budapest, 7 October 1942 - ) – Actress. Her higher studies were at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest (1960-1964). From 1964-1965 she worked at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Pécs. From 1965, she has been a member of the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház), Budapest. She is a versatile actress with some forty theater, film and TV roles to her credit. She created a new genre of singing poems of classical poets. Her theater roles include Estella in Krudy’s The Red Mail Carriage (A vörös postakocsi); Egérke in Örkény’s Cat’s Play (Macskajáték); Mrs. Husheby in G. B. Shaw’s Heartbreak House (Megtört szívek háza); Lady Capulet in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet (Romeo és Júlia), and Emma in H. Pinter’s Betrayal (Árulás). Some of her film roles are Singing Bird (Énekes madár) (TV, 1966); The Bear (A medve) (TV, 1970); The Pendragon Legend (A Pendragon-legenda) (1974), and On the Last Summer (Az utolsó nyáron) (1990). She also made many recordings. She is a recipient of many awards and prizes, among them the Mari Jászai Prize (1971) the Merited Artist title (1983), the Smile Prize (1987), the Kossuth Prize (2001), Member of the Society of Immortals (2003), the Officer’s Cross of Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (2007), the Prima Primissima Prize (2008), Pro Urbe Budapest Prize (2010), and My Country Prize (2011). – B: 0874, 1105, 1445, T: 7103.→Presser, Gábor.

Halász, Pál (Paul) (Budapest, 29 August 1880 - Budapest, 27 July 1949) – Mechanical engineer. He invented the compressed-air mortar during World War I. It was soundless, therefore difficult to locate. – B: 0883, 1020, T: 7662.

Halász, Zoltán (Budapest, 31 December, 1914 - ) – Writer, journalist, art historian. He obtained a Law Degree at the University of Budapest (1938). He worked at the General Credit Bank (Általános Hitelbank), Budapest, and was journalist at the Hungarian Journal (Magyar Hírlap). During World War II, he served intermittently in the army. From 1945 he worked at the Hungarian News Agency (Magyar Távirati Iroda), and was its reporter in Rome, Italy (1947). Between 1947 and 1949 he was a contributor at the Hungarian Radio. From 1950 to 1955, he was unemployed and earned his living as a translator. Between 1960 and 1989, he was Editor of the periodical, Hungarian Quarterly. From 1993, he was Editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica Hungarica. His fields of interest are archeology, urban history, even gastronomy. He has done much for the proliferation of Hungarian culture abroad. His works include Discovery of Budapest (Budapest felfedezése) (1959); Across Canada (Keresztül-kasul Kanadán) (1975),;Hortobágy and its Environs (Hortobágy és környéke) (1990), and Gastronomic Adventures in Europe (Gasztronómiai kalandozások Európában) (1997). – B: 1257, T: 7103.

Halina Cloth – A thick white, rough felt-type cloth made of strong sheep’s wool. It is used to make outerwear and halina boots for the herdsmen of Upper Hungary (Upland, Felvidék, now Slovakia), the Hungarian Steppe (Alföld) and, to some extent, for those of Transdanubia (Dunántúl) in County Veszprém. – B: 0942, 1138, 1153, T: 3240.

Halmay, Zoltán (Dubrava, now in Slovakia, 18 June 1881 - ? 20 May 1956) – Swimmer, all-round sportsman. He started working as a journalist; later he worked as a civil servant. Apart from swimming, he competed in speed skating, and became a champion; he also played ice hockey and football, proving himself to be the best in these fields as well. He learned swimming in the swimming pools of the Danube and always made good use of his height of 189 cm, and also his long arms. He won 13 Hungarian Championships, and won championship titles in Austria, Germany and England. He participated as an athlete in three Summer Olympic Games: in Paris in 1924, he won two silver medals and one bronze medal. In 1904, in St. Louis, following Alfred Hajós’ example, he won two Olympic Championships. In the London Games in 1908, he acted as team captain, helping his team members in every way. He became the famous all-round sportsman of the first decade of the 20th century. As a result of concentrating on his fellow sportsmen, neglecting himself, he only gained second place in the 100-meter sprint swimming and could not secure a winning position in the 4x200-meter sprint relay race in swimming. His swimming career became a fiasco. He was elected to be a member of the Swimming Hall of Fame. – B: 1768, 0883, 1031; T: 7456.→Hajós, Alfréd.

Halmi, Artur Lajos (Louis) (Pest 1886 - New York, USA, 1939) - Painter. He learned his profession in Vienna and Munich. He went to Paris with a Munkácsy scholarship. Between 1894 and 1910, he lived in Munich and worked as a sketch artist at the newspaper, Jugend. In 1910 he moved to New York. He was quite popular in the United States for his magnificent portraits. His paintings include Little Girl Before the Mirror (Kislány a tükör előtt) and the Old Woman and Flowers (Öregasszony és virágok). He exhibited in 1922 and in 1931. He was a recipient of a number of awards, among them the Golden Medal at Antwerp (1894), and Golden Prix Budapest (1896). – B: 0872, 0934, T: 7103.

Halmi, Róbert Sr. (Budapest, 22 January 1924 - ) – Producer, author, photojournalist. Son of a playwright mother, and a father, who was the official photographer to the Vatican and the Habsburg Empire. His higher studies were at the University of Budapest. In 1944, he participated in the antifascist resistance movement in Hungary, was twice arrested, sentenced to death, but escaped and lived in Austria. In 1947 he was put on trial by the Communist Government of Hungary for blowing up bridges and was sentenced to death. With his father’s help, he escaped with a camera and little else and, in Salzburg he chronicled his travails in a seven-part series, in the Saturday Evening Post, called Trial by Terror. In 1950, he emigrated to the USA, and started as a penniless immigrant. Borrowing from his father’s legacy, he ultimately secured a position as a photographer at Life magazine in 1952. In 1962 he started to make document films for television, and became well-known in adventure photography, showing exotic sites and dangerous assignments. In 1979 he produced his first significant work, the film adaptation of Hemingway’s Old Man. There are some 200 film and TV productions to his credit, including Gypsy; The Odyssey; Moby Dick; Argonauts; Arabian Nights; Gulliver’s Travels; Animal Farm; Lonesome Dove, Dinotopia Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and the Arabian Knights. He is owner of the Hallmark Entertainment Co. with some 200-million subscribers worldwide He is the most prolific producer in TV history, a multiple Emmy Awared winner and was recipient of the Peabody Award in 1999. – B: 1037, 1081, T: 7456.

Halmos, Paul (Pál, Richard) (Budapest, 3 March 1916 - Los Gatos Calif., 2 October 2006) – Mathematician. His mother died early on, his father, a physician, emmigrated to Chicago, USA in 1924, leaving behind three of his sons under a guardian. Paul joined his father in 1929. He attended high school in Chicago. At first, he studied Chemical Engineering at the University of Illinois; then, after one year, he changed to Mathematics and Philosophy. He earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1938. In early 1939 he obtained a position at Reed College in Oregon. Almost simultaneously he was offered a scholarship at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, which he accepted. A year later he became John von Neumann’s assistant. In 1942 Halmos published his Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces, which was to bring him instant fame as an outstanding writer of mathematics. After leaving the Institute for Advanced Study, he was appointed to Syracuse University, New York. Here, he took part in teaching soldiers in the Army's Specialized Training Program. In 1946 he became an assistant professor at the University of Chicago. In 1961 he moved to the University of Michigan. In 1968-1969 he served for one year as Chairman of the Mathematics Department of the University of Hawaii. At the end of that year, he accepted a professorship at Indiana University. He remained at Indiana until 1985, when he moved to Santa Clara. Halmos is known for both his outstanding contributions to operator theory, ergotic theory, functional analysis in Hilbert space, and for his series of exceptionally well-written textbooks. He authored more than 120 articles and 13 books, including Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces (1942); Measure Theory (1950); Introduction to Hilbert Space and Theory of Spectral Multiplicity (1951); Lectures on Ergodic Theory (1956); Naive Set Theory (1960); Algebraic Logic (1962); A Hilbert Space Problem Book (1967), and Lectures on Boolean Algebras (1974). Among his many prizes and award are the Chauvenet Prize (1948), the L.R. Ford Prize (1971, 1977), the György Pólya Prize (1983), and the Steele Prize (1983). He has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He has also been awarded an Honorary D.Sc from the University of St Andrews. – B: 0874, 1278, T: 7103.→Neumann, John von.

Halom Clan - One of the six Szekler clans of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). The ancient Hungarian meaning of the word halom was “resigned to die” or “ready to die”. From this clan stem the György, Halom, Náznán and Péter branches. A 19th century document also mentions the Gabud branch. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 7617.

Hamar, István (Stephen) (Kisszentmárton, 18 December 1867 - Budapest, 11 August 1933) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian, writer. He studied Theology at Budapest (1886-1890), and Edinburgh (1890-1891). He was an assistant minister in Budapest (1891-1893), and secretary of the bishop (1893-1896). He became an assistant, then Professor of Old Testament at the Reformed Theological Academy, Budapest, from 1897 till his retirement in 1931. He was the guardian of the Ráday Library and Archives, and President of the Calvinist Political Association (1905-1912). His articles and studies appeared at home and abroad in newspapers and periodicals. Some of his writings appeared in books, others in lithographed form, and some are still in manuscript. A selection of his works: Book of Hosea (Hóseás könyve) (1897); Biblical Theology, vol .i, (Biblia theológia, I) (1989); Little Biblical Lexicon (Bibliai kislexikon), with J. .Murányi (1910); Book of Isiah, vols. i-xii, (Ésajás könyve I-XII) (1917); Book of Prophet Joel (Jóel próféta könyve) (1928); Book of Prophet Amos (Ámos próféta könyve) (1932), and Introduction to the Old Testament (Ótestamentumi bevezetéstan) (1921, 1929), He was co-author of the Czeglédy-Hamar-Kállay: Biblical Lexicon (Bibliai Lexikon). – B: 0910, T: 7103.

Hammerl, László (Ladislas) (Budapest, 15 February 1942 - ) – Marksman, coach. His higher studies were at the Semmelweis Medical School of the University of Budapest (1961-1968), and at the School of Physical Training, Budapest (1978-1982). He worked at the Ganz Elelctric Works, Budapest (1952-1956), and at the Hungarian Home Defense Alliance (Magyar Honvédelmi Szövetség) (1957-1968). He was a competitor in the Dózsa Sport Club Újpest (1969-1977). His best achievements were: Olympic Champion in Tokyo (1964), silver medalist at the Mexico Olympic Games (1968), triple bronze medalist in European Competitions, Captain of the National Team for 24 years. He is Sportsman of the Nation. – B: 0874, 1656, T: 7103.

Hámos, László (Ladislas) (Neiully-sur-Seine, France, 22 June 1961 - ) – Human rights activist. In the USA, he founded the New York based Transylvanian Committee (Erdélyi Bizottság), and the Hungarian Human Right Foundation, HHRF (Magyar Emberjogi Alapítvány) in 1975, has been its President since 1976. The Organization fights against deprivation of civil rights of Hungarians in the detached historical Hungarian territories in the Carpatrhian Basin, mainly in Transylvania. They valiantly fought against Ceausescu’s oppressive and village-demolition politics in Transylvania. On 26 April 1988, Victor Orbán, then Hungarian Prime Minister, appointed him his foreign policy counselor. He regularly participates in negotiations of Hungarian ethnic issues, as he is a member of the Hungarian Standing Conference (Magyar Állandó Értekezlet MAERT). In order to successfully defend the human rights of Hungarians, they built significant contacts to the upper echelons of the US administration. – B: 1037, 1031, T: 7103.→Systematization; Tőkés, László.

Hamvas, Béla (pen-name Antal Pál) (Eperjes, now Presov, Slovakia, 23 March 1897 - Budapest, 7 November 1968) – Writer, philosopher. He participated in World War I; in 1919 his family was expelled from Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) by the Czechoslovak authorities. They settled in Budapest. His higher education was at the University of Budapest, where he acquired a Degree in Hungarian and German Literature. After a short stint as a journalist, he became a librarian at the Capital City Library (Fővárosi Könyvtár) (1927-1948). He lost his job for political reasons during Communist times and earned his living as a laborer. He wrote some of his most important works during this period, but his works remained unpublished. He was one of the founders of the periodical, Island (Sziget), and of a spiritual workshop in 1936. His writings in the field of literature, esthetics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and science-theory appeared in various newspapers and periodicals. In his work, Scientia Sacra, (written in 1943, published in 1988), he dealt with the metaphysical orienation of archaic men, and men of Christian culture. In Karneval and Patmos, literature, history, culture-history, philosophy and metaphysics are intertwined. Especially in Karneval, esoteric themes, such as hermetism and magic are utilized. His philosophy was ignored by officials, and even György (George) Lukács criticized them. Others insist that his work might be an alternate Hungarian philosophy. His basic experience was the universal orientation and the transparent existence, which is the contradiction between the authentic existence and the modern world. There is a growing interest in his work in France and Russia. Some of his works are World Crisis (Világválság) (1938); Spirit and Existence (Szellem és egzisztencia) (1987); Silentium-Secret Notebook, (Silentium-Titkos jegyzőkönyv) (1987); The Invisible Story (A láthatatlan történet) (1943, 1988); Thirty-three Essays by Béla Hamvas (Hamvas Béla 33 esszéje) (1987), and Scientia Sacra (1988). He was awarded the Kossuth Prize pusthumously (1991). There is a Hamvas Institute in Budapest. – B: 0883, 0878, 1028, 1257, T: 7103.→Lukács, György.

Hamvas, Endre (Andrew) (Piszke, 27 February 1887 - Kalocsa, 3 April 1970) – Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He started his Theological studies in 1909, and earned a Doctorate at the Pázmáneum, Vienna. He was ordained in 1913, and worked as Parish Priest in Naszvad (now Nasvady, Slovakia). In 1916, he became the Chaplain of the Notre Dame de Sion Institute. From 1928, he taught Ethics at the Seminary of Esztergom. He had various positions and offices, and was consecrated Bishop of the Csanád Diocese in 1944. He protested against the German persecution of the Jews in Szeged. After the arrest of Archbishop Mindszenty in 1949, he became the Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Esztergom, from 1951 to 1956. In 1954, he was appointed Archbishop of Kalocsa. Due to ill health, he resigned in 1968. Yet he was still able to participate in the negotiations between the Catholic Church and the Communist State. He also attended the Second Vatican Council in 1962-1965. He worked also with the state-supported Opus Pacis, and the Catholic Committee of the National Peace Council. One of his works is The Vatican and the Action Française (Vatikán és az Action Française) (1928), and he wrote a series of religious textbooks for junior high school students. – B: 0945, T: 7103.→Mindszenty, József; Opus Pacis; Catholic Church in Hungary.

Hamvas, József (Joseph) (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 5 August 1911 - Toronto, 2001) – Chemical engineer, virologist, actor. He was educated at the Royal Military Ludovika Academy and the Polytechnic of Budapest and graduated as a Chemical Engineer in 1942. He served in the Hungarian Army. After World War II, he was employed by the Hungarian Restitution Mission in Vienna. He moved to Salzburg in the late 1940s, and later emigrated to the United States, and worked as an interpreter with the US Air Force, then he moved to Edmonton, Canada, to work for an oil company. He then moved to Toronto, worked in the Ontario Department of Health as Head of the Electron Microscopy Laboratory of the virus section, where he introduced the electrophoretic analysis of serum and electron microscopic identification of viral infections. He served as Acting President of the Federation of Hungarian Engineers and Architects. He was the former executive secretary of the Hungarian-Canadian Engineers’ Association. He was Secretary General of the Rákóczi Foundation (Rákóczi Alap). He established the Hungarian Research Institute of Canada and was the former producer of the Hungarian House Radio at CHIN. He also published scientific papers on the technical use of the electron microscope in virus research. In Toronto he was active among the Hungarian emigrees, and he appeared intermittently at the Art Theater (Művész Színház) led by Sándor (Alexander) Kertész. – B: 0893, 1445, T: 4342.→Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy.
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