Hajdú Tradition – The Hajdú tradition is characterized by the military life style of the 16-18th centuries. The heroic part of the tradition, kept alive by legends such as the freedom fights of István Bocskai (1604-1606); fights against invading Turks; against marauding Serbs, who fled to Hungray as the Turkish occupacion of their land advanced. Today, this tradition is reflected by their folk dances. – B: 1134, 1020, T: 7103.→Hajdús; Bocskai, Prince István.
Hajdúböszörmény Cauldron - A 320-mm-high cauldron of the Late Bronze Age (1570 – 1200 B.C), found in the town of Hajduböszörmény in Eastern Hungary. It is decorated with sun and bird symbols. It is dated from the 9th century BC. It is in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. – B: 1100, 1020, T: 7617.
Hajdús (Haiduk or Haiduc, in the singular Hajdú) – Collective name of an identifiable subgroup of Hungarians. The name is not based on ethnic features but on a type of profession or job. The group and its name originate from the late 14th century. At that time, animal husbandry and commerce were growing and, with them the demand for herdsmen and armed guards who accompanied the herds on foot to markets of the distant towns of Europe. These armed guards were called Hajdús. With the changing of cattle export laws, the existence of Hajdús became uncertain and, instead of returning to their former peasant life style, they organized themselves into irregular troops. Thereby the original concept of herdsmen changed to a military one from the second half of the 16th century. In the 16-17th centuries their numbers grew with the addition of outlaws, fugitives and insurgents against Habsburg rule. They took part in Prince István (Stephen) Bocskai’s freedom-fights and, after the victorious battle of Álmosd on 15 October 1604, he settled many of them in the Hajdúság region in Eastern Hungary, which includes Kálló, [Hajdu]Nánás, [Hajdu]Hadház and Vámospércs. In a charter dated 12 December 1605, Bocskai gave them nobility and granted them estates. On 13 September 1609, Transylvanian Prince Gábor (Gabriel) Báthori resettled the Hajdús of Kálló to Böszörmény, because of an ongoing confrontation with soldiers of the Austrian Imperial Army. In later ages, Hajdú was the name of servants of the nobles or civil authorities, sometimes wearing decorative uniform. – B: 1078, 1134, 1138, 1231, T: 7103, →Bocskai, Prince István;Hajdúság; Győrffy, István; Báthori, Prince Gábor; Hajdú Tradition; Hajdú Dance; Hajdúság.
Hajdúság – A historical area in Hungary with a unique culture. A landmass of 966 km2 was assigned to the jurisdiction of the Haiduk in County Hajdú-Bihar, containing six towns including the capital, Hajdúböszörmény; they were granted free status. Its population reached 63,000, before the Turkish occupation, dropped to 4700 in 1720; by 1870 its population was again 63,000. It enjoyed many privileges, granted only to the nobility in the Middle Ages by the King. From 1790, the area regularly sent a delegate to the Lower House of Parliament. In 1876, it became part of County Hajdu-Bihar. Its most famous area is the Hortobágy Steppe (Puszta) of Hungary. – B: 1078, 1134, 1138, 1020, T: 7656.→Hajdús.
Hajmássy, Ilona (Ilona Massey) (Nagykőrös, 16 June 1910 - Bethesda, MD, USA, 20 August 1974) – Actress. Her career began at the City Theater (Városi Színház), Budapest. Subsequently, she moved to screen acting in Vienna, and Hollywood, USA, where she signed with Metro Goldwyn Mayer, under the name of Ilona Massey. Her first major success was with Eddy Nelson in the 1937 musical, Rosalie.Balalajka in 1939, is another notable example of her many films, where she starred once again with Eddy Nelson. Her feature films include Circus Heros(A cirkusz hősei) (1935); New Wine(Új bor) (1941); The Invisible Agent (A láthatatlan ügynök) (1942); Spring Clouds in the Sky(Tavaszi felhők az égen) (1944); Tokyo Rose (1946); Mexican Vacation(Mexikói vakáció) (1946); Northwest Outpost(Északnyugati előörs) (1947); The Looters(A fosztogatók) (1948), and HappyLove (Boldog szerelem) (1949). – B: 0883, 1435, T: 7667.
Hajmássy, Miklós (Nicholas) (Hagymássy, Hagymási) (Zalaegerszeg, 20 July 1900 - Buenos Aires, 9 February, 1990) – Actor. He was trained at Kálmán (Coloman) Rózsahegyi’s acting school; later performed with various theater companies. Discovered by Franciska Gaál, he joined the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház) in 1927 in Budapest. During the 1940s, he was on contract with the New Hungarian Theater (Új Magyar Színház), but acted at the Operetta Theater (Operettszínház) as well. He was cast primarily in comedies and light plays; and from 1933 on, also in films. In 1944 he left Hungary, settled in Argentina, and became a regular on the stage of the Hungarian Theater in Buenos Aires. His main roles included Balásházy in Hunyady’s Black Stemmed Cherry(Feketeszárú cseresznye); Gosztonyi in Móricz’s Gentry Fun(Uri-muri); Colonel Stromm in Mikszáth-Harsányi’s The Noszty Boy’s Affair with Mari Tóth (A Noszty-fiu esete TóthMarival), and Higgins in B. Shaw’s Pygmalion. His feature films include Stolen Wednesday(Az ellopott szerda) (1933); Hungarian Resurrection(Magyarfeltámadás) (1939); A Night in Transylvania(Egy éjszaka Erdélyben) (1941),;The Devil Never Sleeps(Azördög nem alszik) (1941); The Perfect Family(A tökéletes család) (1942); Siamese Cat(Sziámi macska) (1943), and It Happened in Budapest(Ez történt Budapesten) (1944). – B: 0883, 1339, 1445, T: 7667.
Hajnal, Gábor (Gabriel)(Gyepűfüzes, now Kohfidisch, Burgenland, Austria, 4 October 1912 - Budapest, 26 January 1987) – Poet, translator of literary works. His schooling was in Szombathely; moved with his family to Budapest in 1926. While attending University, he supported himself by private tutoring and working as a clerk. After 1945, he read Law for two years. From 1949 on, he worked as Editor for the journal, PublicEducation (Népművelés), thereafter, in turn with the journals Book (Könyv) and TheWorld of the Book (Könyvilág). His works include The Complaint of a Pauper (A szegény panasza) (1947); Among Stones (Kövek között) (1980) and Before You Step into theFog (Mielőtt belépsz a ködbe) (1980). – B: 0883, 0878, 1257, T: 7103.
Hajnal, István (Stephen) (Nagykikinda, now Kikinda, Serbia, 3 July, 1892 - Budapest, 16 June, 1956) – Historian. In 1919 he was an archivist at the Hungarian National Museum. From 1920 he was clerk at the National Archives, and from 1922 he acted as an archivist for the Princely Esterházy family. In 1921 he became an honorary lecturer (privatdocent), and from 1931 Professor of Modern History at the University of Budapest. His field of research was the problems of comparative history of writing; the relationship between sociology and science of history, and on certain questions of political history. He was particularly interested in the spreading of literacy, historical knowledge and understanding. His writings are important in the radical communication change of our age. He became a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy ofSciences in 1928, and became a regular member in 1939. He was srtipped of membership in 1949 for political reasons, but his membership was reinstated in 1989. His main works include On the Chancery of King Béla IV (IV. Béla király kancelláriájáról) (1914); Modern History (Az újkor története) (1936); Vergleichende Schriftproben zur Entwicklung und Verbreitung der Schrift im 12-13. Jahrhundert (1943), L'enseignement de l'écriture aux universités médiévales (1954). – B: 0883, 1028, 1257, T: 7103.
Hajnal, László Gábor (Ladislas Gabriel) (Szabadszállás, 27 August 1948 - ) – Writer, journalist, sociologist. From 1967 he read Philosophy and History at the University of Budapest. In 1969 he was imprisoned by the Communist Government for subversive propaganda, but freed by amnesty in 1971. Thereafter, he was a manual laborer. In 1971 he worked as a reporter for the Illustrated Newspaper (Képes Újság), and completed his higher studies in 1976. In 1981 he left Hungary for the West and worked at the Free Europe (Szabad Európa) Radio Station in Munich. In 1986 he founded a periodical entitled Generations (Nemzedékek), and became co-owner of the Novum Verlag publishers in Munich. In 1995 he returned to Hungary. Among his works are Only the Mornings are Terrible…(Csak a reggelek borzalmasak…) articles (1982); Human Mill (Embermalom) selected writings (1985); Vigil Without Fear (Virrasztani, félelem nélkül) (1996), and Prison-Book (Börtönkönyv) (1998). – B: 0878, 1257, T: 7103.
Hajnal, Zoltán (Cegléd, 11 September 1933 - ) – Geophysicist, educator. He received his hufher education at the University of Sopron, he emigrated to Canada in 1957, and continued his higher education at the University of Saskatchewan, graduating with a B.Ed., (1961), MSc. (1963), and Ph.D., University of Manitoba (1970). He was employed by Chevron Standard as an interpreting geophysicist (1963-1965). He worked at the University of Manitoba as a lecturer from 1965 to 1970, and was Professor of Geophysics at the University of Saskatchewan from 1970. His special fields include geophysics, physics of Earth and seismology. He published nearly 100 scientific and technical papers in periodicals, conference proceedings and technical reports. He has ongoing projects in the USA and Hungary. He served on more than twenty professional and expert committees, such as the Earth Sciences Computer Committee. He organized scientific conferences. The recipient of several research grants, he is a Fellow of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. – B: 0893, T: 4342.
Hajnóczy,József (Joseph) (Modor (now Modra in County Pozsony), 3 May 1750 – Buda, 20 May 1795) – Scholar of jurisprudence and one of the leaders of the Hungarian Jacobites. He completed his legal studies in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), became a qualified solicitor, and spoke seven languages. He became secretary, first to Count Miklós (Nicholas) Forgách and, from 1779, to Count Ferenc (Francis) Széchényi. About this time, he joined the Freemasons. He became a supporter of Emperor Joseph II, because he expected help from the Emperor in opposing feudalism in Hungary. He was appointed Deputy-Lieutenant of County Szerém, at the southern edge of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the death of Emperor József II (Joseph), not being a nobleman, he lost his position. Thereafter, in the unfolding nobility-nationalism movement of 1790-1791, during the reign of Lipót II (Leopold), he endeavored to get the relatively progressive wing to accept social-economic reforms. Hajnóczy soon became disillusioned in the movement and turned to the ideas of the French Revolution, which he tried in his writings to popularize in wide circles from 1791 on; his ideas grew ever more radical. In his work on taxation, he criticized the Hungarian feudal constitution and demanded the levying of tax on the nobility and the secularizing of all church properties. By demanding the general and proportionate sharing of taxation, as well as freedom of the press, he was already pressing for the establishment of a civic state. He also urged the importance of the right of the serfs to culture. In 1792 he became Secretary of the Royal Treasury in Buda. In 1793, he distributed among his friends the Jacobin constitution, translated into Latin. In the spring of 1794, Ignác (Ignatius) Martinovics, the learned revolutionary leader of Hungary, drew him into the Jacobin movement as one of the directors of the secret Society of Freedom and Equality. On 16 August 1794, Hajnóczy was captured and taken to Vienna, then carried to Buda and, on 27 April 1795, he was sentenced to death. In the meadow southwest of the Castle Hill of Buda called Vérmező (Blood Meadow) he was beheaded, together with his companions. His works include Writings of the Hungarian Jacobins(A magyar jakobinusok iratai) (Published by Kálmán Benda, I-III, 1952). – B: 0883, 1031; T: 7456.→ Martiniovics, Ignác; Jacobites in Hungary.
Hajnóczy, Péter [Family name: Béla Ödön (Edmund) Hajnóczy] (Porcsalma, 10 August 1942 - Porcsalma, 8 August 1981) – Writer. He completed his secondary education in evening classes (1962). Thereafter he earned his livelihood with casual jobs. After the appearance of his first volume, The Stoker (A fűtő) (1975), he lived from his writings. He belonged to the circle of writers grouped around the Moving World (Mozgó Világ) literary review. One of the most characteristic figures of the 1970s, he introduced a new narration technique. Despite his short life, he created a complete literary world. His works include two short novels: Death Rode out of Persia(A halál kilovagolt Perzsiából) (1979); The Bride of Jesus (Jézus menyasszonya), (1981), and Short Novels and Other Writings (Kisregények és más írások) (1993). – B: 0883, 0878, 1257, T: 7103.
Hajós, Alfréd (Guttman, Arnold) (Budapest, 1 February 1878 - Budapest, 12 November 1955) – Swimmer, architect. He was only 13 when he lost his father, who got drowned in the Danube. At age 18 he won a 100-meter free-style swimming competition in the cold water of the Zea Bay in Athens and, after a brief rest, also the 1,200-meter competition. Having scored these victories in swimming, he did not take part in any more competitions, but his many-sided talent was demonstrated by his participation in the first official football match in Hungary, and played also in the first select team against the Austrians. He did some boxing and took part in gymnastic competitions. After obtaining his Degree in Architecture at the University of Budapest, he worked in the engineering bureau of architetct Ödön (Edmund) Lechner. In 1924 he designed a stadium plan, together with Dezső (Desider) Lauber. He designed a number of public buildings, among them the Arany Bika (Golden Bull)Hotel in Debrecen. Well after retirement age, he worked in the Mezőterv Design Office. Hajós was the designer of the swimming pool on Margaret Island of Budapest, which is named after him. A shipping firm, a school in Budafok, and a swimmingpool in Budapest bear his name. – B: 1768, 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Lechner, Ödön.
Hajós, György (George) (Budapest, 21 February 1912 - Budapest, 17 March 1972) – Mathematician. He completed his higher education at the University of Budapest in 1929. For a few years he taught in high schools; then, between 1935 and 1949, he lectured at the Polytechnic of Budapest as a demonstrator, then as an assistant professor. Subsequently, he became Head of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Budapest. In 1948 he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1965 he became a member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences and, in 1967, of the German Academy of Sciences. His research field was many-sided. Hajós made significant advances in the geometric theory of numbers, in the theory of groups, in discrete geometry, in the geometry of grid-points, in the theory of designing, in the grill-theory, in the Bolyai-Lobachevsky geometry, and in numerical analysis. His most important mathematical result is known as the Hajos-Minkowski Theorem. He was Editor-in-Chief of the journal, ActaMathematica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, in which he regularly published. His main work is Differential Geometria (1950); Über einfache und mehrfacheBedeckung des n-dimensionalen Raumes mit einem Würfelgitter (Using simple and multiple coverage of the n-dimensional space with a cubic lattice) (1941); Introduction into Geometry (Bevezetés a geometriába) (1960), in German (1969). He was twice a recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1951, 1962). A mathematic competition bears his name. – B: 0883, 1306, T: 7456.
Hajós, Tamás (Thomas) (Budapest, 1953 - ) – Poet, writer, translator of literary works and journalist. The Communist dictatorship did not allow him to attend secondary school, thus he completed high school through correspondence. Meanwhile he earned a living as a lathe operator, later as a laborer. After the publication of his poems in top literary magazines, he was appointed Librarian at the University Library, and then at the Széchenyi National Library in Budapest. After having emigrated to Canada (1977), Hajós once again worked as a lathe operator to support his further studies. Admitted to the University of Toronto in 1981, he obtained an English Specialist Degree and a Degree in Hungarian Literature (1985), foloowed by a Diploma in Marketing from Centennial College followed (1991). He fulfilled an important role in local Hungarian cultural life by founding and running the Hungarian Club of the University of Toronto (1981-1985), and organizing well over a hundred cultural events. A year later, he founded, and subsequently ran a publishing, printing and advertising business. Writing poems since early childhood, by 1967 he won a special literary poetry prize. This led to an introduction to the renowned poet László (Ladislas) Kálnoki, who would become his teacher and lifelong friend. Hajós entered into the literary world when the foremost literary review of the day, Life and Literature(Élet és Irodalom), published nine of his poems at once in their 1 June 1974 Issue. The following year he was asked to translate poems for the anthology, Modern Moldavian Poets – The Ballad of the Blue Snow(Mai Moldován Költők – A Kék Hó Balladája). He was a contributor to one of the editors and publishers of the literary journal, Witness (Tanú) (1978-1980). His book of poems, In the Noose(Szárítókötélen) was published in 1980 (American-Hungarian Writers’ series). At the request of the Toronto Board of Education, he took part in the writing and editing of teachers’ textbooks (1990-1992). Hajós edited a number of books, newspapers and periodicals, held poetry readings in Hungary, Canada and the USA, and his works have been published in different forums including print, radio and television. In English translation, his work has appeared in numerous publications, including Writ 14, (1982); Crossroads: Anthology of Hungarian Canadian Authors (1986), and Blessed Harbours (2002). – B: 0892, 1257, 7657, T: 7657.→Canadian Hungarian Literature.→Kálnoky, László.
Halápy, Konstantin (Szilárd Alápi) (Ungvár, now Uzhhorod, Carpatho-Ukraine, 15 August 1698 - Privigye, now Priezvidza, Slovakia, 8 January 1752) - Poet. He was born into the lesser nobility in 1781, and he entered the Piarist Order. He taught at various places, including Debrecen and Privigye, Nyitra (now Nitra, Slovakia) and was named Principal of the Convent and Secondary School of Privigye. Later, he was named Provincial of the Piarist Order and was known by the above name in literary circles. He wrote numerous poems, odes, elegies, epigrams, enigmas, as well as educational and descriptive verses in Latin, including Nessus indissolubilis Damonem and Pythiam (1726), Epigrammatum moralium liibri 6, Elegiarium unicus (1747). – B: 1150, 1257, 1020, T: 7617.
Halas, John (Budapest, 1912 - London, 1995) – Scenario writer, animator. John Halas learned his craft under George Pál. He launched his career in 1934 and, two years later, moved to England, where he continued his cinematographic career with British Animated Films in London. Later, he and his wife, Joy Batchelor, founded the Halas-Batchelor Films. It became one of the most significant producers of cartoon films at that time. Their most famous feature was Animal Farm (1954), based on the novel by George Orwell. It was the first full-length animated film made in Great Britain. They made some 47 works, including Owl and the Pussycat (1952); The Christmas Visitor (1959); Automania 2000 (1963); The Three Musketeers (1974), and Dilemma, (1981). – B: 1041, T: 7103.
Halas Lace(Halasi csipke) – Lace making is an ancient craft. It was introduced into the northern regions of Hungary (now Slovakia) by German miner families, settling there in the 16th century, escaping religious persecution in their homeland. Gradually, this craft spread all over the Kingdom of Hungary. At first, the nobles in manor houses used lace as braids. Regions famous for lace making, apart from Upper Hungary, are: Mezőkövesd, Transylvania (Erdély,now in Romania), and first and foremost, Kiskunhalas, the home of the famous Halas Lace. Lacemaking in the farming town of Kiskunhalas started with Árpád Dékány (1861-1931), teacher and folk artist, who created his first lace design in 1902. His successors, Mária Markovits, Ernő (Ernest) Stepanek and Béla Tóth, developed the original design with folk motives. The new lace was worked with only a needle and thread over a paper pattern. Their technique was wholly original. The unusual combination of weaving, and the traditional techniques of needle-lace gave this lace its unique feature. Early Halas lace even incorporated color into the designs, which included doilies, fans and border lace. Over the decades, the lace evolved and, by 1935, color was almost never seen. To keep their standard high and to help distinguish between the true Halas lace and copies, they incorporated a logo. Three fishes are now included in each piece of Halas lace. The fame of Halas lace continued to grow until World War II, when the Lace House (Csipkeház) and all its records and patterns were destroyed. The lace makers rebuilt it, and lace making was restored in Hungary. Among the great variety of motifs are butterflies, snowflakes, bell shapes, ribbons, and many more. Making of Halas lace is extremely time-consuming; its price per gram is equal to that of gold. The Halas lace was exhibited in Budapest, St Louis, Milan, London and Berlin World Exhibitions. It won the Grand Prix in Paris in 1937, ahead of the Brussels lace. There is a Csipkeház (Lace House)Museum in Kiskunhalas. The Halas Lace Foundation was established by the local government of Halas that has also founded the Halas Lace Center, which coordinates the lace makers working in Hungary, supporting them and organizing biennial exhibitions – B: 1031, 1138, 1380, T: 7103.