Haar, Alfréd

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Horthy, István Mrs. (née Countess Edelsheim-Gyulai, Ilona Maria Andrea Gabriella, Budapest, 14 January 1918 - ) – She spent her childhood on the family estate at Felsőelefánt, near Nyitra in Upper Hungary (Felvidék, now Slovakia), which was ceded to the newly created Czechoslovakia by the Dictated Peace Treaty of Trianon of 1920; at present it belongs to Slovakia (the Slovakian name of the village is Horné Lefantovce). The education of her and her three sisters was taken care of by a Hungarian, a French and a German governess. In 1940 she married the Deputy Regent, vitéz István Horthy of Nagybánya, the son of the Regent of Hungary, Miklós Horthy of Nagybánya. In 1941, a son, István was born to them. István Horthy, who served as a pilot in World War II, was killed in a plane accident in 1942 on the Russian front. During World War II, Mrs. Horthy worked as a Red Cross sister on the Russian front. She also took part in the saving of Jews. She participated in Hungary’s attempt to pull out of the war, in which she had to carry out some sensitive tasks. Later, she took part in maintaining secret radio contact with the armistice delegation sent to Moscow at the end of September 1944, and in the decoding of secret texts. She exhibited considerable poise and coolness in this risky activity. In 1944, when she was 26, she was with the Horthys when they were deported by the Germans to Bavaria. In the decades of homelessness she was the guardian of the family. She loyally accompanied and served her father- and mother-in-law in exile at Estoril in Portugal. Later she remarried. She wrote her memoirs in a two-volume novel, providing insight into the fateful period experienced by Hungary, and the Regent and his family. Her memoirs were published in Budapest under the title Honour and Duty (Becsület és kötelesség). At present she is living in London. – B: 1031, T: 7456.→Horthy, István; Horthy Miklós.

Horthy, Miklós, de Nagybánya (Kenderes, 18 June 1868 - Estoril, Portugal, 9 February 1957) - Rear Admiral, Regent of Hungary between 1920 and 1944. He was a commissioned Imperial and Royal Naval Officer in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, aide-de-camp to Emperor Ferenc József (Francis Joseph) and was the last Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial and Royal Navy with the rank of Rear Admiral. After the collapse of the Monarchy, in the fall of 1918, a national government was formed on 31 May 1919, in Szeged, and it appointed Horthy Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. After the fall of the short-lived Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary, on 1 August 1919, with the National Army, he marched into Budapest on white horseback on 16 November 1919, and restored law and order in the country. With a secret vote the National Assembly elected him Regent of Hungary on 1 March 1920.

His rule started after a lost war, Red terror, the Czech and Romanian intervention, and he endeavoured to restore the moral, economic and political life of the ravaged country. He twice thwarted the return to the throne of King Károly IV (Charles) and dissolved the white military officer-groups. He established the Knightly Order of the “Vitéz” (Hero). His foreign policy attempted to revise the harsh conditions imposed upon Hungary by the Dictated Peace Treaty of Versailles-Trianon on 4 June 1920, which dismembered historic Hungary. It ceded 2/3 of its territory and 1/3 of its ethnic Hungarian population to hostile nations, two of them newly, artificially created.

Under his reign the economic restoration of the rump country was successfully achieved. In 1926, Hungary introduced the new currency, Pengő, and it became one of the strongest currencies in Europe until the end of World War II. A world-renowned industry was developed, including such giants as Ganz, Weiss-Manfred, Láng, Tungsram, Hoffer, Chinoin and Richter. Industry, agriculture and commerce flourished. Public education and public health were upgraded and modernized, social problems were dealt with, and houses were built for large families (ONCSA houses). The population grew from 7.6 million in 1920 to 8.7 million in 1930 and to 9.5 million in 1940.

To achieve the revision of the unjust and harsh peace dictate of Versailles-Trianon of 1920, he at first sought the help of the western democracies for 15 years, but in vain. To reach at least a partial solution for revision, he finally aligned Hungary with Italy and Germany. During his term in office, the Vienna Awards (in 1938 and in 1940) returned to Hungary the southern part of the Northern Hungary (Upland, Felvidék) from Slovakia and the northern part of Transylvania from Romania, both with a Hungarian ethnic majority. The return of Subcarpathia (or Ruthenia), the Mura Interstice and part of Voivodina were initiated only after the collapse of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Hungary ultimately entered into World War II on 27 June 1941, against the Soviet Union. Before and during the War, Horthy opened the Hungarian borders to persecuted peoples such as Poles and Jews.

In 1942-1943, he attempted to establish diplomatic connections with Great Britain. He tried without success to withdraw Hungary from the War. In retaliation the Germans occupied Hungary on 19 March 1944, and kidnapped his son, Miklós Jr, (Nicholas), removed Regent Horthy from office, and later interned him in Germany. After the Armistice, he remained in the custody of the Americans, as a witness at the Nürnberg Trials, but he did not stand for trial as a war criminal, though Yugoslavia unsuccessfully demanded his handover for trial. Later, he settled in Estoril, Portugal, where he died in 1959, and was buried in the Military Cemetery of Portugal. After the collapse of the Communist System, his remains were eventually returned to Hungary and laid to final rest in the family crypt in Kenderes, on 4 September 1993. Many Hungarians regard him as the most successful Hungarian ruler in the 20th century. – B: 0883, 1288, 1153, T: 3312.→Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary; Trianon Peace Treaty; Kiel Meeting; Hitler, Adolf; Ciano, Geleazzo; Vienna Award I; Vienna Award II; Hungary in World War II.

Hortobágy - Completely flat northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Nagyalföld), south and east of the River Tisza and adjacent to the City of Debrecen. Originally it belonged to the flood plain of the River Tisza, therefore it was swampy; but in the 1840s, it was drained and was converted to a mostly treeless pasture land. Since the mid 18th century, it became an outlying pasture land of the city of Debrecen and a characteristic pasturing culture has developed there. After 1945, about one quarter of this area was converted to irrigated agricultural land. Along the main drainage channels, several fish farms were established. Its central area became a National Park. – B: 1134, 1153, 1020, T: 7656.

Hortobágy National Park – 52,000 hectares (ha) or 128,400 acres of the Hortobágy Puszta (steppe) became the first national park of Hungary on 1 January 1973. Its additional 13,500 ha (33,345 acre) perimeter is retained as a Nature Conservation Area. The National Park preserves the centuries-old indigenous pasturing culture along with its unique flora and fauna, especially bird life, so characteristic of the Hungarian steppes. The Park retains the unique gene pool of the Hungarian longhorn cattle and long-wool sheep, which regularly pastured there for centuries. Other typical domestic animals bred here are the Hungarian horse, the water buffalo and the vizsla dog. The characteristic architecture of the buildings and structures, constructed here in the last centuries, is also preserved within the Park. – B: 1153, 1020, T: 7656.→Vizsla, Hungarian Dog.

Horvát, István (Stephen) (Székesfehérvár, 3 May 1784 - Pest, 16 June 1846) - Historian and linguist. He was Professor of Paleography and Diplomatics, and subsequently taught the history of Hungarian literature; he was credited with publicizing the Hungarian language relics, the training of a new generation of scholars, as well as with the admirable organization of the Széchényi Library. In spite of several nominations, he never accepted membership in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, as he disagreed with its main principles. He produced a rich output on history, history of literature and linguistics. He was one of the pioneers of comparative linguistics and considered the Hungarian language to be one of the oldest in the world. Horváth was also productive in the field of literature. He kept alive the spiritual traditions of Miklós Révay and had a great influence on Baron József Eötvös, and Mihály Vörösmarty. At the time of low national morale he was one of the spiritual supports of the nation, and many of his writings appeared in literary journals. His main works are: Of the Kings: Lajos the Great and Mátyás Hunyadi... (Nagy Lajos és Hunyadi Mátyás királyoknak...) (1815), and Sketches on the Most Ancient Past of the Hungarian Nation (Rajzolatok a magyar nemzet legrégibb történéből) (1815). He left behind a rich manuscript collection. – B: 1136, 1257, T: 7617.→Révay, Miklós; Eötvös, Baron József; Vörösmarty, Mihály.

Horváth, Barna (Barnaby) (Budapest, 25 August 1896 - New York, NY, USA, 3 March 1973) – Jurist, philosopher of law. He studied Law at the University of Budapest. There he lectured in Legal Philosophy in 1926, and History of Ethics in 1927. Between 1929 and 1940, he held various academic positions at the Department of Legal Philosophy of the University of Szeged. From 1948 on, he lived in the USA. He taught Political Science, International Law and Legal Theory at the New School of Social Research in New York. He lectured in Zürich, Vienna, Berlin, Freiburg, Copenhagen and Geneva. He represented a neo-Kantian view of legal philosophy. The theory, philosophy and sociology of law were his primary interests. Among his pupils were István (Stephen) Bibó and Ferenc (Francis) Erdei. His main works are: Introduction to Legal Science (Bevezetés a jogtudományba) (1932); Notes on Legal Philosophy (Jogbölcseleti jegyzetek) (1932); Elements of Sociology (A szociológia elemei) (1938); Investigations of Public Opinion (A közvélemény vizsgálata) (1942); Theory of English Law (Angol jogelmélet) (1943), and Problems of Legal Sociology (Probleme der Rechtssoziologie) (1971). He was member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. – B: 0883, 1511, T: 7667.→Bibó, István; Erdei, Ferenc.

Horváth, Béla (Budapest, 25 May 1908 - Budapest, 28 November 1975) – Poet, translator of literary works, journalist. He studied on tertiary level at the Universities of Budapest and Paris; as member of Eötvös College of the University of Budapest, and he earned a Ph.D. in Philosophy and a Degree in secondary education. He worked also as a journalist for several daily papers from 1927. Between 1937 and 1944 he wrote political articles for the paper Evening Courier (Esti Kurir) and was in charge of its literary column. Between 1936 and 1939 he was Associate Editor of Nice Word (Szép Szó), and between 1935-1944 that of Vigilia. From 1943, with some breaks, he was a soldier, serving in a penal company because of his political views. In the final part of the war he was taken to Germany and fell in US captivity, later he moved to Italy, and in Rome his articles appeared in Italian papers. Between n 1948 and 1952 he taught history in the monastic school of the Franciscans in Genoa. From October 1952 until April 1957, he worked in the Munich editorial office of Radio Free Europe. In 1952 he began to publish in the Munich journal Horizon (Látóhatár): he was one of the editors of this journal from the end of 1957 to the summer of 1958. After the split that took place in the summer of 1958 he edited until 1961 the occasionally appearing Horizon issues together with Imre (Emeric) Vámos. In February 1962 he returned to Hungary. For a number of years he took part as managing editor in the publishing of Horizon in Budapest. During his years spent in the West, he carried out significant work as a poet, critic, translator of literary creations, and as a publicist. His works include Vineyard Hill at Noon (Szőlőhegy délben) poems, (1929); Everything is Motionless (Minden mozdulatlan) poems (1931); Our Lord Christ, the Pope, and the Poor (discussions in Hungarian and Italian) (1947); Poems (Versek) (1955), and Doomsday (Végkor) poems (1962). – B: 0883, 1672, 7456.→Vámos, Imre; Radio Free Europe.

Horváth Codex – A Codex dated from 1551. The manuscript contains two homilies, as well as parables and maxims, allegedly from St Bernard, intended for the training of monks. The sermons are about the incarnation and the death of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Their source is the Stellarium of Pelbart. The parables are of a simple-minded friar. It is possible that originally the Christina-legend also belonged to the Codex. The 137 letters are stored in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest. – B: 1150, 1257, 1020, T: 7617.→Codex Literature.

Horváth, Csaba (Szolnok, 25 January 1930 - New Haven, Connecticut 13 April 2004) – Chemical engineer. His higher studies were completed in the Chemistry Department of the Polytechnic of Budapest, where he earned a Degree in 1952. After the Revolution of 1956 was crushed, he emigrated to West Germany, where he continued his studies at the University of Frankfurt, Germany, and joined the Farbwerke Hoechst AG there, where he performed research and developmental work on the surface chemistry of organic dyes. In 1961, he left industry to resume his studies at the University, where he earned a Ph.D. in physical Chemistry in 1963. In the same year he emigrated to the USA, and became a Research Fellow at the Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1994, he moved to Yale and served in the School of Medicine, and subsequently in the Department of Engineering and Applied Science. In S. R. Lipsky's laboratory at Yale, he built the first HPLC unit to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of HPLC for the separation of biological substances. He pioneered biochemical engineering in the fields of enzyme engineering and biochemical separation. He was a frequent speaker at international scientific gatherings and a consultant to the biotechnology industry. He was a member of a number of related editorial boards and societies. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences of New York and Connecticut; an Honorary Doctorate was conferred on him by the Budapest Polytechnic (1986). He was an external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1990). He had 7 registered patents, wrote 290 scientific articles and 7 books. He received a number of prizes and awards, among them the Zwett Prize (1979), the Alexander von Humboldt Prize (1982), the Martin Golden Medal (1994), and the Golay Prize (1998). The American Chemical Society lists him among the greatest chemists. – B: 0874, 1279, T: 7103.

Horváth, Ernő (Ernest) (Budapest, 11 November 1883 - Budapest, 3 January 1943) – Teacher, the pioneer of Hungarian aeronautics. He taught at high schools in Budapest. He was also a pilot and airplane designer, who designed several monoplanes and won a prize at the Budapest airplane competition in 1910, with his first 26-horsepower plane. In the beginning, he piloted his own planes but he quit flying after a serious airplane accident. He designed the first two-seater passenger monoplane in Hungary. As a good physicist and mathematician, he introduced design innovations into airplane designs, based on his own theories and calculations. He designed his most advanced planes with variable wing curvature and wing angles, giving his planes a better, all-over stability and gliding properties. During the First World War, he was Chief Engineer of the Hiero airplane factory in Graz, Austria. He was amongst the first to work on the problem of unifying the vertical and horizontal direction control of airplanes and succeeded with the invention of the control stick in 1940. He patented his innovations and had many technical publications, including his book, Airplane Motor (A repülőmotor) (1922). – B: 0883, 1512, T: 7662.→Pioneers of Hungarian Aviation.

Horváth, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 10 May 1930 - Kápolnásnyék, 30 October 2005) – Actor, comedian. His education commenced in Austria. From the age of 6 he was raised by his grandparents at Karcag. His secondary education was at the Reformed High School, Karcag. Since his parents lived in Austria, his higher education was denied by the authorities. When he tried to escape from Hungary, he was captured and imprisoned. Freed, he was a manual laborer on the railway and in the building industry in Debrecen, and a hospital clerk in Jászberény. By chance, he was admitted to the Academy of Dramatic Arts, Budapest, where he studied under Lajos (Louis) Básti, Zoltán Várkonyi, Mária Sulyok and Kálmán Nádasdy. He worked at the Army Theater (Néphadsereg Színháza) (1955-1956), the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Miskolc (1956-1959), the Szigligeti Theater (Szigligeti Színház), Szolnok (1963-1964), the Attila József Theater (József Attila Színház), Budapest (1964-1982), and at the Gaiety Stage (Vídám Színpad), from 1982. He appeared in leading roles, mainly in comedies. To his credit are more than 30 feature and TV films, among others: Dollárpapa (1956); Attempt (Merénylet) (1959); Cantata (International English title) (Oldás és kötés) (1963); The Naked Diplomat (Meztelen diplomata (1963); Princ the Soldier (Princ, a katona) (1966); Trip Around My Cranium (Utazás a koponyám körül) (1970); There Was a Family (Volt egyszer egy család) (1972); The Three Fats (A három kövér) (1983) (TV); The Fantastic Aunt (A fantasztikus nagynéni) (1986) (TV); Neighbors (Szomszédok) (1987) TV Series, and The Secret War (A titkos háború) (2002) (TV). His book is I Played the Comedian (Én a komédiást lejátsztam) (2005). He was a recipient, among others, of the Mari Jászai Prize (1973) and the title of Merited Artist (1987). – B: 0874, 1171, T: 7103.→Básti, Lajos; Várkonyi, Zoltán; Sulyok, Mária; Nádasdy, Kálmán.

Horváth, Helena, Lament of - A poem from 1566. It was written in Kentelki (County Szolnok-Doboka, Transylvania, Erdély, now in Romania). The original title is Cantio Jucunda de Helena Horváth. It is contained in the Csereyné-Codex written by an anonymous poet. It describes the lamentations of a young, childless widow, who considers her tragic fate to be a punishment from God and urges others to lead an honorable life. The poem obviously is not the work of Helena, but was written for her use by someone familiar with her situation and who could place herself in her position. As an example of a lyric ballad, it stands alone in the 16th century. The poem’s topics reappeared in the poetry of Bálint Balassi. – B: 0883, 1257, 1020, T: 7617.→Balassi, Bálint.

Horváth, János (John) (Margitta, now Marghita, Romania, 24 June 1878 - Budapest, 9 March 1961) – Literary historian. He received his Degree in the Hungarian-French Department of the University of Budapest (1901-1902) and he also studied on a scholarship, at the Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris. From 1904, he was professor at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest. He was one of the founders of the Literary History Society (1911). From 1923 to 1948, he held the professorial Chair of History of Literature at the University of Budapest. As the most outstanding Hungarian literary historian of the 20th century, he undertook to present Hungarian literature synthetically, and by employing the results of the positivistic style of literary history writing. Horváth also analyzed the large-scale developments in Hungarian literature. A significant part of his work is important from the language history point of view as well, with special emphasis on the development of the Hungarian literary language. Some of his main works are The Developmental History of Hungarian Literature (A magyar irodalom fejlődéstörténete) (1922-1923, 1976); The Hungarian Literary Populism from Faludi to Petőfi (A magyar iriodalmi népiesség Faluditól Petőfiig) (1927, 1978); The Beginnings of Hungarian Literary Education (A magyar irodalmi nevelés kezdetei) (1931); In the Sign of the Reformation (A reformáció jegyében) (1953); Ady and the Latest Hungarian Lyric Poetry (Ady és a legújabb magyar líra) (1910); Sándor Petőfi (1922), and Essays (1997). He was awarded the Kossuth Prize (1948), and he was member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding member 1919, regular member 1931). – B: 0879, 1257, T: 7456.

Horváth, J. Eugene (Jenő) (Győr, Hungary, 13 May 1920 - Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3 January 2013) – Accountant. Received his secondary education in Budapest, where he also attended University. Between 1941 and 1944, he served in the military. Came to Vancouver in June of 1957 following the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. He graduated as a Certified General Accountant from the University of British Columbia in 1966, and practiced until his death. In his private life he was a well known collector of faience and Haban ceramics. With his wife, Maria Krisztinkovich; also a collector, they possessed the largest collection of the genre in Canada. He also collected old books and maps. He published extensively on these subjects. Among them are: English Delftware (Canadian Antiques Collector, Toronto) (1968); The Rise and Fall of Bibliotheca Corviniana (Amphora, the Alcuin Society, Vancouver) (1989); The Blue and White Faience of Europe (Canadian Society for Asian Arts and the Vancouver Museum, Vancouver) (1992); A Canadian Collection of Hungarica. Vol. I: Books 1494-1819; Vol.II: Maps & City Views 1493-1817, (Vancouver) (2001); J. Eugene Horvath & Maria H. Krisztinkovich: A History of Haban Ceramics – A Private View (Vancouver) (2005; Hungarian and Other European Ceramics of the mid-17th to mid-19th Centuries (Vancouver) 2011. He was member of several Societies, among them the Alcuin Society of Vancouver; the Hungarian Studies Association of Canada, where he presented papers at the Society’s annual conferences for several years. He donated part of his Hungarica book collection to the Széchényi Library and the National Archives of Budapest. – B&T: 7617.→Freedom Fight of 1956; Habans; Krisztinkovich, Mária.

Horváth, József (Joseph) (Soproni) (Kemenesszentpéter, 2 March 1891 - Sopron, 22 April 1961) – Painter. He studied painting under Imre (Emeric) Révész and Aladár Edvi Illés and, after he earned his Degree, he went to the artistic colony of Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania). He took part in World War I, and was seriously wounded. From 1922 till 1950, he was a teacher of art graphics in Sopron. He mostly painted the locals in traditional attire, also portraits, landscapes and nude compositions. After World War II, the Socialist Government did not duly acknowledge him because he did not comply with the government directives as to what and how to paint. But after his watercolor, The Brazier, won first prize in London, the Government was forced to recognize him and was awarded numerous prizes. The last of his exhibitions was held in the National Art Salon in 1959. He was an eminent Hungarian master of the watercolor technique. He lifted color painting to the level of oil painting. He was a recipient of the Aquarel Prize, First Class (1936) and the Grand Prize of Alliance of Applied Artists (1943). He also received the Mihály Munkácsy Prize. His grateful town named a street and an art-school after him and gave him the “Soproni” prenome; a Memorial Museum also bears his name in Sopron. – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7653.→Edvi Illés, Aladár.
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