Haar, Alfréd (Budapest, 11 October 1885 - Szeged 16 March 1933) – Mathematician; started his higher studies in Chemical Engineering at the Budapest Polytechnic; but in 1904 changed over to the University of Budapest. In 1905 he continued his studies in Göttingen, Germany, where he obtained his Ph.D. in 1909. Before a short stay at the University of Zürich as an assistant professor 1912-1919, he was Professor of Mathematics at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). In the years after World War I, in order to escape Romanian rule, he lectured temporarily in Budapest, then in Szeged, where the Kolozsvár University was in exile. In Szeged, together with Frigyes (Frederick) Riesz, he established a famous mathematical center. In 1922 they founded the journal Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum. In 1929, at the University of Hamburg, he expounded his researches in variation in mathematics. In 1931 he was invited to become a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Haar’s research extended over a very wide field and led to significant results. These research fields included orthogonal serial functions, singular integrals, theory of sets, analytical functions, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, function approximation, linear unevennesses, discrete groups, continuous groups, the plateau problem, and the infinite Abelian group. He put the problem of the theory of multiple variables on new foundations. Also, in his last work, he achieved something fundamental for modern mathematics by proving the existence of invariant groupings (“Haar Measure, Haar Integral”). He published mainly in German. His main works include Zur Theorie der orthogonalenFunktionensysteme (1910 and 1911), Zur Variations-rechnung Abhandlungen aus der Mathem (1930), DerMaasbegriff in der Theorie der Kontinuierlichen Gruppen(The concept of the grain measure “Maas” in the theory of continuing groups) (1933). – B: 0883, 1279, 1306, T: 7456.→Riesz, Frigyes.
Haas, Mihály (Michael) (Pinkafő, now Pinkafeld, Austria, 8 April 1810 - Pest, 27 March 1866) – Catholic Bishop, theologian, writer. He began his studies at Szombathely, and continued them in Pécs and in Vienna, where he was awarded a Ph.D. in Philosophy. After he was ordained in 1834, he served in Dunaföldvár and Pécs. Between 1837 and 1846, he worked as a professor at the newly founded Lyceum at Pécs, during which time he also became active in the literary field. In 1846 he was appointed parish priest and soon after was named provost. In 1853 he became inspector of all schools in the district. At the end of his life, he was made Bishop of Szatmár (now Satu Mare, Romania). Of his literary output, the ones dealing with local history are of some importance. His collections of folk music, folk customs, proverbs, as well as nicknames of certain Western Hungarian settlements are significant. – B: 0883, 0942,1020, T: 7617.→Catholic Church in Hungary.
Habans – Name of an Anabaptist sect in historic Upper Hungary (Upland, Felvidék, now Slovakia). A large group of the radical Anabaptist movement, fleeing persecution in Switzerland and in Tyrol first settled in Nikolsburg and Austerlitz, Moravia. There, Jakob Hutter, a Tyrolean hatmaker and an able leader gave them their spiritual and worldly Constitution, around 1529. The Hutterites-Habans, as they later became known, believed in adult baptism, and a communal life based on Biblical principles. The “new Christians”, soon settled in Northwest Hungary, mostly in Counties Pozsony, Trencsén and Nyitra (now Bratislava, Trencin and Nitra, S
Habán deep dish lovakia). Powerful Hungarian landowners: the Pálffy, Erdődy, Illésházy, Czobor, Nádasdy, Batthyány families and the Rákóczis at Sárospatak shielded them from the authorities, mainly for their excellence in many crafts. The Pozsony Diet enacted the first of many Acts against the Hungarian Anabaptists in 1548. After the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620, the Hutterites were expelled from Moravia. A large group, about 180 persons from Ó-Szombat, Hungary (now Sobotište, Slovakia) was received by Prince Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen (1580-1629) and settled in Alvinc (now Vintu de Jos in Transylvania, Erdély, now in Romania). Eventually a group emigrated to Russia, and later to the USA and Canada, where they still prosper today. The Habans were accomplished metal workers, producing beautiful cutlery for their landlords. They also introduced the French method of constructing fireproof thatched roofs from straw dipped in clay slip; but above all, they produced some of the finest majolica services outside of Italy. In the Haban communes, potters of outstanding ability produced fine tin-glaze earthenware, painted in high temperature blue, green, yellow and brownish-purple flowers on a white, sometimes blue background. These motives were influenced by contemporary Italian majolica and by some local flora, including tulips and snowdrops. By the sect’s strict regulations, only floral motives were allowed. Human figures and animals appeared on Haban ceramics only after the communes were broken up and many of the Hutterites were forced to convert to Catholicism, during the reign of Empress & Queen Mária Terézia (Maria Theresa, 1717-1780). Those who resisted fled the country, eventually settling in North America, around the turn of the 19/20th century. Originally the Haban name applied only to the converted Hutterites, but later tended to include all of the Anabaptists in Hungary. The elegant style of the Haban vessels greatly influenced the motives on later rural Hungarian folk ceramics. The descendants of the converted Hutterite potters kept the traditional style alive, sometimes complete with 17th century dates until the beginning of the 20th century. Haban ceramic vessels are treasured and proudly displayed by many museums today. – B: 7654, T: 7654.Hutterites; Bokály; Bethlen, Prince Gábor; Mária Terézia, Empress and Queen; Horváth, J. Eugene.
Habsburg, Ottovon (Otto Habsburg-Lothringen) (Reichenau an der Rax, Lower Austria 20 November 1912 - Pöcking, Bavararia, Germany, 4 July 2011) – Diplomat, head of the Habsburg family. He was the eldest son of Károly (Charles) IV (1916-1918), the last Emperor of Austria and the last King of Hungary, and Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma. At the age of four, Otto became Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, when his father ascended the throne, following the death of Ferenc József I (Francis Joseph). However, at the end of World War I in 1918, King Károly IV (Charles) had to abdicate; both monarchies were abolished and the family was forced into exile, when the Republics of Austria and Hungary were founded. Otto spent the following years in Switzerland and in Madeira (Islands of Azores), where Károly IV died prematurely in 1922, making Otto heir to the throne at the age of ten. Meanwhile, the Austrian Parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg Dynasty and confiscated all their property (Habsburgergesetz of 3 April 1919). In 1935, Otto graduated from the University of Louvain, Belgium, having studied Social and Political Science. A fervent patriot, he had opposed the Nazi Anschluss of Austria of 1938, and also opposed Hitler’s regime. He fled to the USA and spent most of the years of World War II in Washington, DC. After the War, he lived in exile in France and Spain. Well after the end of World War II, he finally renounced all claims to the Austrian throne in 1961, and was eventually allowed to return to his home country in 1966. He became a German citizen in 1978. An early advocate of a unified Europe, he served from 1979 until 1999 as a Member of the European Parliament for the conservative German CSU Party. He was one of the organizers of the so-called Pan-Europa picnic on the Austrian-Hungarian border region in 1989. He spoke fluent Hungarian, had frequently visited Hungary, and supported Hungary in many ways. He was the last heir to the throne of the former Austrian-Hungarian Empire and oldest member of the Habsburg family. – B&T: 1031.→Károly IV, Emperor and King; Zita, Queen; Pan-European Picnic.
Habsburg Restoration Attempts – There were two attempts by King Károly IV (Charles, 1916-1918), the last Hungarian king, to reclaim the throne in 1921. (1) The King, as a political emigrant, received a resident’s permit to stay in Switzerland, but was prohibited from leaving the country. Therefore he traveled in disguise and with false documents, by train, then he crossed the Hungarian border by car and, on 26 March 1921, he arrived by horse-drawn carriage at the palace of the Bishop of Szombathely. The next day, he had an unsuccessful meeting with Regent Horthy in Budapest. On 3 April, the representatives of the Entente Powers launched a concerted diplomatic protest against the Habsburg restoration attempt. The King left the country on 5 April 1921 (and died in Madeira on 1 April 1922). The successor states, comprising the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania) unanimously protested against the return of King Károly IV, declaring it a cause de guerre. (2) The Swiss Government refused to extend the residence permit of the King, since he had violated its conditions. Instead, the castle of Hertenstein was designated as his new residence, which he could leave only with special permission. Nevertheless, Queen Zita, who was very much concerned about their uncertain future and who possessed an exceptionally strong will, arranged a second trip to Hungary with the help of the King’s supporters. On a rented plane, they arrived at the manor house of Count Cziráky, in Dénesfa in County Sopron, on 20 October 1921. In the evening, the troops of the Sopron barracks, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Lehár and Colonel Ostenburg, swore an oath of loyalty to the King. They also formed the Royal Government with István (Stephen) Rakovszky as Prime Minister and Count Gyula (Julius) Andrássy as Foreign Minister. In six railway cars, they set out toward Budapest but, at the outskirts of the city, the cadet battalions were ordered to stop their advance. In the meantime, the successor states ordered partial mobilization on hearing the news of the King’s return, while the regular Hungarian army units surrounded the King’s troops at Budaörs, and they were forced to surrender at Tata on 24 October. The Hungarian Government designated the Abbey of Tihany as temporary residence of the King and his retinue. On 1 November, they were handed over to the Entente Powers. They transported them aboard the English ship, Glowworm, to the island of Madeira. Among the countries created on the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Hungary was the only one that did not confiscate the estates of the Royal Family. On 6 November 1921, the Hungarian Parliament by Bills XL and VII abrogated the right of the Habsburg House to the Hungarian crown. – B: 1230, 1338, 1020, T: 7665.→Károly IV, Emperor and King; Zita, Queen.
Had (Army) – (1) A term used in the broad sense by the ancient Magyars to name the tribes or the family units. Both the male and female members and their children were covered by that expression, and even their serfs were included as members of the Had. In various regions, the meaning of the word differed greatly and the expression lost its significance in modern times. (2) In wartime, it is the name of an armed military unit. Declaration of war in Hungarian is hadüzenet, and waging war is hadviselés, words that preserved the old root of the word. – B: 1078, 1134, 1020, T: 3233.
Hadik, Count András (Andrew) (Kőszeg, 16 October 1710 - Vienna, Austria, 12 March 1790) – Military officer. He was a descendant of a small landholder noble family of Upper Hungary (Felvidék,now Slovakia). His career started as a regular Hussar. At the age of 22, he was made an ensign in the Dessewffy Hussar regiment; and in 1736, at the beginning of the Turkish War, he became a captain. He participated in the War of Succession of Austria and in the Seven Years War. His bravery and daring adventures, his Hussar-bravado became legendary. With 400 of his Hussars, he cut through the encirclement of the Fort of Neisse to reinforce the defenders. At Frankenstein, using some cunning, with 350 Hussars, he forced a whole Prussian regiment to flee. In the fall of 1757, as Division-General, with 5270 of his troops in Radenberg, with a daring manoeuvre, he exacted a ransom from the city of Berlin. It was one of the most significant surprise attacks in Hungarian military history. His force consisted of 1100 Hussars and 1100 Austrian cavalry, the rest being Austrian, Hungarian and Croatian infantry troops and gunners. At that time, his own Austrian and the Prussian enemy armies were far away from him when he declared: “The road to Berlin is free”. They set out on the 11 October and, five days later, on the birthday of Empress Maria Theresa, he was standing at the gate of Berlin. On the 16th of October, the military envoy, a trumpeter from the cavalry, delivered Hadik’s letter to the Mayor of Berlin. It demanded 300,000 tallers in tribute money, which the City Council refused. They pulled up the drawbridge over the River Spree, but Hadik’s artillery blew apart the chain holding the bridge. The City Council then requested mercy, but by that time Hadik demanded double the tribute money. The City Council could only raise 150,000 tallers in cash and gave a draft for the remaining 50,000, made out to Hadik. As Hadik strongly opposed looting, they handed over 25,000 taller for the military, which he distributed among the soldiers before leaving Berlin. He accounted for the rest in Vienna and refused to accept the 12,000 taller offered to him personally. Maria Theresia rewarded Hadik with the Maria Theresia Grand Cross. In 1760, he was Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian Imperial Army. For his services he was awarded estates at Cernoviĉ and Futak, along with the title of Count. Between 1764 and 1768, he was military commander, royal representative and attendant of the royal seat in Transylvania (Erdély now in Romania). In that capacity, he proposed, for the first time in Hungary, the abolishment of the feudal system. In 1772, he was Commander of the occupational forces and, for a short time, Governor of occupied Poland. In 1774 he was promoted to Marshal and, until his death, he remained the Head of the Imperial Military Council in Vienna. He participated in the campaigns against the French, in one campaign against the Turks, and three times against Prussia. He served for over 45 years. In 1777 he became a Count of the German Empire. He secured the immunity of the Szeklers in Transylvania, and was the initiator of the Szekler and Hungarian settlements in Bukovina. He is buried in Futak. His equestrian statue by György Vastagh was erected in 1937, within the Fort of Buda. – B: 0883, 1031, 1020, T: 3233, 7678.→Hussars;Hussar Bravado.
Hadrovics, László (Ladislas) (Alsólendva now Lendava, Slovenia, 10 September 1910 - Budapest, 13 May 1997) – Linguist, philologist, Slavic scholar. His primary education was at Lendva, the secondary at Kőszeg and finally at Keszthely, where he graduated in 1929. He studied Hungarian and Latin Literature at the University of Budapest, where he acquired a Degree in Education (Dip.Ed.) in 1934, and obtained a Ph.D. in Hungarian and Slavic Linguistics in 1935. In the same year he was on a scholarship in Berlin. From 1937, he worked at the University Library, Budapest. He was an assistant professor at the Slavic Institute. From 1941, he worked at the Pál (Paul) Teleki Institute and then became researcher for the History Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Professor, teaching Southern Slavic Philology and Literature. He became Department Head from 1954 until his retirement in 1974. He was a corresponding member and then a regular member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Among his writings are: Hungarian and Southern Slav Spiritual Links (Magyar és déli szláv szellemi kapcsolatok) (1944); Hungaraian-Serbian-Croatian Dictionary (Magyar-szerbhorvát szótár - Madžarsko srpskohrvatski rečnik) (1958), and Hungarian-Russian Dictionary (Magyar-orosz szótár-Vengersko-russkij slovar), with L. Gáldi (1964). He was a recipient of the State Prize (1985). – B: 1122, 1161, 1257, 1339, T: 7103.→Teleki, Count Pál.
Hafenscher, Károly Sr (Charles) (Budapest, 6 July 1926 - ) – Lutheran minister, theologian. His secondary studies were at the Fasor Lutheran (Evangelical) High Schooligh School , Budapest. In 1944 he commenced theological studies at the Lutheran Theological Academy, Sopron. With a scholarship from the World Council of Churches, he spent a year at the Seminary of Gettysburg, PA, USA, where he studied Ethics, the crisis of modern times and that of marriage, from the Christian point of view. He later on studied Practical Theology and learnt languages. He obtained a Ph.D. in Practical Theology from the Lutheran Theological Academy of Budapest in 1967. He was Assistant Pastor in Kőbánya-Budapest, the Mandák Home, and the Deák Square congregations, Budapest, where he was a pulpit supply for 3 years; junior pastor for 14 years, and pastor for 15 years. Since the Deák Square Church is the congregation of the Bishop of the Southern Lutheran Church District, he worked with such Lutheran bishops as Lajos (Louis) Ordass, László (Ladislas) Dezséry, Zoltán Káldy and Béla Harmati. He rendered important support and versatile service to his Church. He was a member of the church delegation at the 3rd Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Minneapolis, MN, USA, and member of the Lutheran Vatican Committee. He participated in important ecumenical meetings, gatherings and consultations in many parts of the world. He was also lecturer at the Lutheran Theological Academy, Budapest. He retired from his pastoral duties in 1989. His book, Das Herrenmahl(Lord’s Supper, Úrvacsora) is a theological textbook. His studies, articles and books appeared in German, English, Swedish and other languages. He is a recipient the Middle Cross of Honor of Republic of Hungary (2012). – B: 1050, T: 7103.→Ordass, Lajos; Dezséri, László; Káldy, Zoltán; Harmati, Béla.
Hafnium - A rare element with metallic properties, belonging to the group of titanium. Its atomic number is 72 on the periodic table and its atomic weight is 178.58 with properties very similar to that of zirconium. The chemist, György Hevesy, discovered it in 1922. It is used for making shielding covers in the atomic industry because it can absorb large volumes of neutrons. – B: 1138, 1020, T: 7675.→Hevesy, György.
Haggenmacher Plansifter – Károly (Charles) Haggenmacher, engineer, invented and patented the plansifter in 1887 that is used in the milling process to separate different types of flours according to particle size. He applied diverters to the sifters to direct the stream of the products as needed. His invention was adapted worldwide. – B: 0883, 1091, T: 7662.
Hagymási, Bálint (Valentinus Cybeleius Varasdiensis) (Varasd, now in Croatia, 1490 - 12 January 1517) - Humanist writer and poet; between 1506 and 1516 he studied with Italian poet Gionbattista Pio at the University of Bologna, with the financial support of György (George) Szatmári, Bishop of Pécs. At that time Hagymási was already Canon of Pécs and Székesfehérvár. His first independent publication appeared in 1512, in Bologna, under the title Elegidion. His main work, the Opusculum de laudibus et vituperio vini et aquae, (Small Book on the Praise and Damnation of Wine and Water)was published in 1517, in Hagenau, Germany. Another of his works is the poem Ad Pannoniam.– B: 1150, 1257, 1020, T: 7617.
Hahót Codex - The manuscript of the first Hungarian musical score, Sacramentarium, written between 1075 and 1092, for the Benedictine Order of Béla. The music notes appear as neumas, i.e. hand signs, the earliest form of music notation. The manuscript is kept in Zágráb (now Zagreb, Croatia). – B: 1150, T: 7617.→Codex Literature.
Hain, Gáspár (Gasper) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 17 February 1632 - Lőcse, now Leviče, Slovakia, 1687) – Chronicler. He was son of the Magistrate of Lőcse, author of the Lőcse Chronicle. After his studies he became a teacher, then Rector of the secondary schools of Kassa and Lőcse. Later, he was appointed Councilor, then Magistrate of the City of Lőcse. The title of his chronicle is: Zipserische oder LeutschauerischeChronika. – B: 1078, 1257, T: 7617.→Cipszers.
Hainburg (Hunvár), Austria – The first settlers in the area were the Illyrians and the Celts. Its Celtic name was Carnuntum, and it became the capital of the Province of Pannonia, where Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius once resided. A castle was built there in 1050. The Romans had developed this town but, during the great migration, it fell into ruin. The fortress was called Hun Fort (Hunvár), and it later became an Avar stronghold. The Hungarians used it as one of their border fortresses. In 1683, the Turks devastated the town and ruined its castle on their way to the siege of Vienna. The city’s old statue of Attila the Hun probably dates from the 12th century. Joseph Haydn, the composer lived here from 1737–1740 as a child learning music, and singing as a choirboy. – B: 1078, 1031, T: 7103.→Pannonia;Attila; Huns; Avars; Hajdús.
Hajdú Dance – During the Turkish war of the 16th century, a specifically Hungarian dance was developed by restless, wandering Hajdú (Heyduck) soldiers: the Hajdú Dance (Heyducker Tanz). It is performed with cudgel or sword to bagpipe music. Its steps are made up of staggering, stamping, squatting, later spinning and leaping into the air. By the 18th century, it evolved into the Verbunkos (from German Werbung, recruiting), used as a recruiting dance by the Hungarian army. This in turn evolved into the now internationally known Hungarian dance, the Csárdás.– B: 1031, 1138, 1197, 1020, T: 3220, 7103.→Verbunkos; Hajdús; Csárdás;Hungarian Dances, Traditional.
Hajdú, Júlia (Budapest, 8 September 1925 - Budapest, 23 October 1987) – Composer, pianist. Her studies were completed at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, where she obtained a Degree in Music Education. She studied folkmusic with Zoltán Kodály and jazz instrumentation with György (George) Rimki. She composed 14 operettas, hundreds of dance songs, music for radio and television, variety shows, songs, dance suites, such as the Winter Pleasures (Téli örömök),Merry Moments(Vidám percek), arias, serenades and movie background music. Her main works are Comedians of Füred(Füredi komediások) (1959); Lady Doctor(Doktorkisasszony) (1960), and Pest is Worth a Night (Pest megér egy estét) (1960). Her songs were quite popular at the time. – B: 0883, 1508, T: 7667.→Kodály, Zoltán.
Hajdú, Péter (Budapest, 27 December 1923 - Budapest, 19 September 2002) – Linguist. His higher studies were completed at the University of Budapest, in Hungarian and German languages (1941-1950). After World War II, he carried out research at the Library of the Festetich Estate, as a co-worker of the National Széchényi Library. From 1951, he worked in the Finno-Ugric Department of the Linguistic Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He organized the Finno-Ugric Department at the University of Szeged, and was its professor until 1974, when he was appointed Director of the Linguistic Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Between 1974 and 1992, he taught at the University of Budapest. He was also President of the Linguistic and Literary Department of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1965-1990). He was a research professor between 1991 and 1995, and retired in 1996. He was visiting professor in Vienna, Munich and Uppsala. He was Director of the Institute of Finno-Ugrian Studies. His special field of research was Samoyedic languages, phonology, etymology, ancient history of the Hungarians (Magyars). He edited some 10 volumes. His works include The Samoyedic Peoples and Languages(A szamojéd népek és nyelvek) (1949); Antecedents of the Development of the Hungarian People(A magyarsag kialakulásának előzményei) (1953); Finno-Ugrian Peoples and Languages(Finnugor népek és nyelvek) (1962), Introduction to Uralic Linguistics(Bevezetés azurali nyelvtudományba) (1966), and Samoyedic Chrestomathy(Szamojéd chrestomathia) (1968). Some of his works appeared in German. He was a regular or honorary member of a number of learned societies, such as the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, exterior member of the Finnish Academy of Sciences, Honorary Doctor of the University of Szeged and the University of Uppsala, Knight of the Finnish Order of the Lion, a recipient of the Labor Order of Merit and the Széchenyi Prize. – B: 0874, 0878, 1257, T: 7456.