Guide to sources consulted



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Chapter One:

On the origins of the term feminism, see Karen Offen, “Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach,” Signs 14:1 (1988), 119-157, and Leila Rupp, “Feminist Movements,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills (New York: Macmillan, 1968). Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987) describes the U.S. struggles over terminology; see also her “What’s In A Name: The Limits of Social Feminism,” Journal of American History 76:3 (1989), 809-29. On international women’s movements, see Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of An International Women’s Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997) and Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). Joni Seager, The State of Women in the World Atlas (London: Penguin, 1997) provides an excellent comparison of vital data across countries.


For overviews of Anglo-American feminist scholarship, see two collections edited by Juliet Mitchell and Ann Oakley: What is Feminism: A Re-Examination (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986) and Who’s Afraid of Feminism (New York: The New Press, 1997). On the growth of feminist scholarship in the U.S., see Ellen Carol DuBois, Gail Paradise Kelly, Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy, Carolyn W. Lorsmeyer, and Lillian S. Robinson, Feminist Scholarship: Kindling in the Groves of Academe (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987).

Chapter Two:

On the cross-cultural analysis of gender, see Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, "Woman, Culture, and Society: A Theoretical Overview" in Woman, Culture, and Society, eds. Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974), 17-42, as well as the other essays in this book; Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, “The Use and Abuse of Anthropology,” Signs 5:3 (1980), 389-417; Jane F. Collier and Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, “Politics and Gender in Simple Societies,” in Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality, eds. Sherry B. Ortner and Harriet Whitehead (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 275-329 (and other essays in this volume); and Louise Lamphere, “The Domestic Sphere of Women and the Public World of Men: The Strengths and Limitations of an Anthropological Dichotomy,” in Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. Caroline B. Brettell and Carolyn F. Sargent (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997), 82-92 (as well as other articles in this collection).


Origins stories, kinship, and the long historical view appear in Peggy Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Eleanor Leacock, “Women’s Status in Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution,” Current Anthropology 19:2 (1978), 247-255; an important theoretical essay by Gayle Rubin, “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex,” in Toward an Anthropology of Women ed. Rayna Rapp (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975), 157-210 (and other essays in this collection); Jane Fishburne Collier and Sylvia Junko Yanagisako, Gender and Kinship: Essays Towards a Unified Analysis (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987); Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). See also [vanitai island book]
On native gender relations in the Americas and the impact of Europeans, see Joan Jensen, “Native American Women and Agriculture: A Seneca Case Study,” in Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, eds. Ellen Carol DuBois and Vicki L. Ruiz (New York: Routledge, 1990), 51-65; Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987); Elinor Burkett, “Indian Women and White Society: The Case of Sixteenth Century Peru,” in Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives, ed. Asuncion Lavrin (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1978).
For Africa, I draw on Ester Boserup, Woman's Role in Economic Development (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970); Simi Afonja, “Changing Patterns of Gender Stratification in West Africa,” in Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development, ed. Irene Tinker (New York, Oxford University Press, 1990), 198-209; Richard Roberts, “Women’s Work and Women’s Property: Household Social Relations in the Maraka Textile Industry of the Nineteenth Century,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 26:2 (1984), 229-250; Iris Berger and E. Frances White, Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Restoring Women to History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999); Jean Davison, Agriculture, Women and Land: The African Experience (Boulder: Westview Press, 1988).
The following studies of gender relations in Chinese history proved extremely useful:

Judith Stacey, “When Patriarchy Kowtows: The Significance of the Chinese Family Revolution for Feminist Theory," Feminist Studies 2: 2-3 (1975), 64-112; Janice Stockard, Daughters of the Canton Delta: Marriage Patterns and Economic Strategies in South China, 1860-1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989); Francesca Bray, Technology and Gender: Fabrics of Power in Late Imperial China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Inner Quarter: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Hill Gates, China’s Motor: A Thousand Years of Petty Capitalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996); Dorothy Ko, Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth Century China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994); Margery Wolf, Women and the Family in Rural Taiwan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972) and Revolution Postponed: Women in Contemporary China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985); Barbara N. Ramusack and Sharon Sievers, Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999); Susan Mann, Precious Records: Women in China’s Long Eighteenth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997); Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers: Women in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986).


For an excellent collection of essays on European women’s history see the various editions of Becoming Visible, eds. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977) which includes Joan Kelley’s classic essay, “Did Women Have a Rennaissance?,” 137-164. Throughout this book I draw heavily on the encyclopedic and highly readable survey by Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), vol. I-II. See also Judith Shaver Hughes and Brady Hughes, Women in Ancient Civilizations (Washington: American Historical Association, 1998); Judith M. Bennett, “Medieval Women, Modern Women: Across the Divide,” in Culture and History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), 147-175; Natalie Zemon Davis, Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995); Susan Moller Okin, Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979); Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to 1870 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Erna Olafson Hellerstein, Leslie Parker Hume, and Karen M. Offen, eds., Victorian Women: A Documentary Account of Women's Lives in Nineteenth-Century England, France and the United States, assoc. eds. Estelle Freedman, Barbara Gelpi and Marilyn Yalom (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1981). On the colonial encounter, see Margaret Strobel, Gender, Sex, and Empire (Washington: American Historical Association, 1993) and Strobel and Nupur Chaudhuri, Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1991); Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), and below, Chapter Six.

Chapter Three:

On European feminisms, see Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), vol. II; Gerda Lerner, Creation of Feminist Consciousness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Bonnie S. Andersen, Joyous Greetings: The First International Women’s Movement, 1830-1860 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Joan Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996); Karen Offen, European Feminisms, 1700-1950: A Political History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000); Marion Kaplan, The Jewish Feminist Movement in Germany: The Campaigns of the Jüdischer Frauenbund, 1904-1938 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979); Ray Strachey, The Cause: A Short History of the Women’s Movement in Great Britain (London: Virago, 1978, orig. 1928); Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution in Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980); Marilyn J. Boxer and Jean H. Quaraert, Socialist Women: European Socialist Feminism in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (New York: Elsevier North-Holland, 1978); Barbara Engel, “Women as Revolutionaries: The Case of the Russian Populists,” in Becoming Visible, eds. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977). On Scandinavia see Ida Blom, “Nation, Class, Gender: Scandinavia at the Turn of the Century,” Scandinavian Journal of History 21:1 (1996), 1-16; Ingrid Aberg, “Revivalism, Philanthropy and Emancipation: Women’s Liberation and Organization in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Scandinavian Journal of History 13:4 (1988), 399-420.


Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980) traces the intellectual debates on gender in the early United States. Alice Rossi, The Feminist Papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir (New York: Columbia University Press, 1973) provides biographical and critical introductions to key historical documents, including Wollstonecraft, Wright, Mill, Stanton, Engels, Gilman, and Woolf. Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham discusses the temperance movement among African American women in Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993). On female moral reform and social purity in the U.S. see Mary Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790-1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981) and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). On Charlotte Perkins Gilman, see Carl Degler’s introduction to Gilman’s Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women (New York: Harper and Row, 1966, orig. 1898) and Louise Michelle Newman, White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Steven Buechler, Women’s Movements in the United States: Woman Suffrage, Equal Rights, and Beyond (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990) provides an overview, while Seth Koven and Sonya Michel’s edited collection Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (New York: Routledge, 1993) provides a useful comparative perspective on maternalism. Linda Alcoff’s discussion of rights and race appears in [I will find....]
On Latin America, see especially Nina M. Scott, “‘If You Are Not Pleased to Favor Me, Put Me Out of Your Mind...’: Gender and Authority in Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and the Translation of the Letter to the Reverend Father Maestro Antonio Núñez of the Society of Jesus,” Women’s Studies International Forum 11:5 (1988), 429-38, and “Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: ‘Let Your Women Keep Silence in the Churches…’” Women’s Studies International Forum 8:5 (1985), 511-519; Francesca Miller, Latin American Women and the Search for Social Justice (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1991); the special issue of the Pacific Historical Review 69:4 (2000) on suffrage in the Americas; June E. Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women’s Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990); Sylvia Arrom, The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985); and Evelyn Stevens, “Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo in Latin America,” in Female and Male in Latin America: Essays ed. Ann Pescatello (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977). On Japan, see Sharon Sievers, Flowers in Salt: The Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983).


Chapter Four: The Politics of Identity in U.S. Feminist Movements

Overviews of the women’s rights and feminist movements in the United States include Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996, orig. 1959) and Steven Buechler, Women’s Movements in the U.S.: Woman Suffrage, Equal Rights, and Beyond (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990). On the racial conflicts in the nineteenth century, see Ellen Carol Dubois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of An Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1869 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978), Louise Michelle Newman, White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) and Aileen Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920 (New York: Norton, 1981, orig. 1965). Nancy Cott provides the context for early women’s rights in The Bonds of Womanhood: "Woman's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, orig. 1977) and explores the shift towards feminism from 1910 through the 1930s in The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987). In addition to the Sara Evans’ discussion of the origins of radical feminism in Personal Politics: The Roots of Women’s Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), Ruth Rosen provides a thorough account of second-wave movements in The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America (New York: Viking, 2000); and Alice Echols, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), critiques cultural feminism.


Primary sources not otherwise cited in the text include Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (New York: Morrow, 1970); Robin Morgan, ed., Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement (New York, Random House, 1970); Anne Koedt, Ellen Levine, and Anita Rapone, eds., Radical Feminism (New York: Quadrangle, 1973). Several recent books collect sources from U.S. feminism: Karen Kahn, ed., Frontline Feminism, 1975-1985: Essays From Sojourner’s First 20 Years (San Francisco: Aunt Lute, 1995); Barbara A. Crow, ed., Radical Feminism: A Documentary Reader (New York: New York University Press, 2000) and Rosalyn Baxandall and Linda Gordon, eds., Dear Sisters: Dispatches From the Women’s Liberation Movement (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
To understand the relationship of women’s movements to slavery, abolitionism, emancipation, and lynching, see Deborah Gray White, Ar’n’t I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South (New York: Norton, 1985) and White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894-1994 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999); Lora Romero, Home Fronts: Domesticity and its Critics in the Antebellum United States (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997) (on Maria Stewart); Nell Irwin Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996); Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Pioneers for Woman’s Rights and Abolition (New York: Schocken Books, 1971); Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign Against Lynching (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979); and essays in Kimberly Springer, ed., Still Lifting, Still Climbing: African American Women*s Contemporary Activism (New York: New York University Press, 1999). Important contemporary works by African American feminists include bell hooks, especially Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981), which cites the 1972 poll on p. 148, and Feminist Theory: From Margins to Center (Cambridge: South End Press, 1984, repr. 2000); Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds., All the Women Are White, All the Men Are Black, but Some of Us Are Brave (Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1982); Audre Lorde, Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1982); Barbara Smith, ed., Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2000), and Smith, The Truth That Never Hurts: Writings on Race, Gender, and Freedom (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990, repr. 2000); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race and Class (New York: Random House, 1981).
Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995) includes a discussion of women’s movements. Other aspects of African American, Native American, and Mexican American women’s history are covered in Karen Anderson, Changing Woman: A History of Racial Ethnic Women in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). On intercultural relations among women, see Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search For Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). Paula Gunn Allen writes about Native American women’s history and culture in The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Traditions (Boston: Beacon Press, 1992).
Chicana feminism is the subject of Alma M. Garcia, “The Development of Chicana Feminist Discourse, 1970-1980,” in Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, eds. Vicki L. Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois (New York: Routledge, 1994), [pages], and Alma Garcia, Chicana Feminist Thought: The Basic Historical Writings (New York: Routledge, 1997); Beatriz M. Pesquera and Denise A. Segura, “There Is No Going Back: Chicanas and Feminism,” in Chicana Critical Issues ed. Norma Alarcon et al. (Berkeley: Third Woman Press, 1993); Ramon Gutierrez, “Community, Patriarchy, and Individualism: The Politics of Chicano History and the Dream of Equality,” in Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, eds. Vicki L. Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois (New York: Routledge, 1994), [pages]; and Vicki L. Ruiz, From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), especially chapter 5. Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute,1987) and Making Face/Making Soul= Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1990) document the politics of multiple identity since the 1970s, as does Anzaldúa and Cherríe Moraga, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1981). See also Cherríe Moraga, Loving in the War Years: Lo Que Nunca Pasó Por Sus Labios (Boston: South End Press, 1983).
The role of women in labor, pacifist, and liberal movements just before the second-wave is documented in Dorothy Sue Cobble, “Recapturing Working-Class Feminism: Union Women in the Postwar Era,” in Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945-1960, ed. Joanne Meyerowitz (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), 56-83; Susan Lynn, Progressive Women in Conservative Times: Racial Justice, Peace, and Feminism, 1945 to the 1960s (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992); and Susan Hartmann, The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998). See also Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt (New York: Viking, 1992). On women’s racist activities, see Kathleen M. Blee, Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).
Contemporary white women’s explorations of race and racism include: Bettina Aptheker, “Race and Class: Patriarchal Politics and Women’s Experience,” Women’s Studies Quarterly 10:4 (1982), 10-15; Elizabeth V. Spelman, Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought (Boston: Beacon Press, 1988); Diana Fuss, Essentially Speaking: Feminism, Nature and Difference (New York: Routledge, 1989); Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993); Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History (London: Verso, 1992).
Important discussions of the effect of identity politics appear in Donna Haraway, "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century," in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, ed. Haraway (New York: Routledge, 1991); Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge, 1990); Chela Sandoval, "U.S. Third World Feminism: The Theory and Method of Oppositional Consciousness in the Postmodern World," Genders 10 (Spring, 1991), 1-24; Maria C. Lubones and Elizabeth V. Spelman, "Have We Got a Theory for You! Feminist Theory, Cultural Imperialism and the Demand for ‘The Woman’s Voice’," Women’s Studies International Forum 6:6 (1983), 573-581; Linda Alcoff, "Cultural Feminism vs. Poststructuralism: The Identity Crisis in Feminist Theory," Signs 13:3 (1988), 405-36; Paula M. L. Moya, "Chicana Feminism and Postmodernist Theory," Signs 26:2 (2001), 441-483, and Reclaiming Identity: Realist Theory and the Predicament of Postmodernism, eds. Moya and Michael R. Hames-Garcia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); and essays in Teresa de Lauretis, ed., Feminist Studies/Critical Studies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986). Patricia J. Williams has made important contributions to the use of experience to explore theoretical questions of identity. See, for example, Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991). For a critique of experience, see Joan Scott, "The Evidence of Experience," Critical Inquiry 17:4 (1991), 773-797.

Chapter Five: The Global Stage and the Politics of Location


For overviews of the historical literature on gender and colonialism, see Margaret Strobel, Gender, Sex, and Empire (Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1993) and Nupur Chaudhuri and Margaret Strobel, Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992); Clare Midgley, Gender and Imperialism (New York: Manchester University Press, 1998). Influential interpretations of women and empire appear in Ann L. Stoler, “Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in Twentieth-Century Colonial Cultures,” American Ethnologist 16:4 (November, 1989), 634-660, and Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest (New York: Routledge, 1994). Chandra Mohanty, "Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses," Feminist Review 30 (1988), 61-85, critiques early feminist studies of women outside the west.
The literature on India includes Lata Mani, “Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India,” in Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History, eds. Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1989), 88-125; Antoinette M. Burton, Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865-1915 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994); Mrinalini Sinha, “Introduction to Katherine Mayo,” in Katherine Mayo’s Mother India, ed. Sinha (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000, orig. New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1927). A comprehensive history of women’s movements in India, including their relationship to nationalism, is Radha Kumar, The History of Doing: An Illustrated Account of Movements for Women’s Rights and Feminism in India, 1800-1990 (London: Verso, 1993). See also Ivy George, “Shakti and Sati: Women, Religion and Development” in Religion, Feminism, and the Family, eds. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996); see article on Gandhi and Nehru; Aparna Basu, “Feminism and Nationalism in India, 1917-1947,” Journal of Women’s History 7:4 (1995), 95-107; and Amrita Basu, “Women’s Activism and the Vicissitudes of Hindu Nationalism,” Journal of Women’s History 10:4 (1999), 104-124. Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain’s Sultana’s Dream has been reprinted as Sultana's Dream and Selections from The Secluded Ones, trans. and ed. Roushan Jahan (New York: Feminist Press, 1988, orig. Madras: The Indian Ladies’ Magazine, 1905).
For historical overviews of gender and feminism in the Middle East, see Judith Tucker, Gender and Islamic History (Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1993) and Beth Baron and Nikki Keddie, eds., Women in Middle Eastern History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991). Important regional and national studies include Deniz Kandiyoti, ed., Gendering the Middle East: Emerging Perspectives (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996) and Women, Islam, and the State (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991); Margot Badran, Feminists, Islam, and the Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995) and Badran and Miriam Cook, eds., Opening the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (London: Virago, 1990); Maryam Poya, Women, Work and Islamism: Ideology and Resistance in Iran (London: Zed books, 1999); Carol Delaney, “Father State, Motherland, and the Birth of Modern Turkey,” in Naturalizing Power: Essays in Feminist Cultural Analysis, eds. Sylvia Yanagisako and Carol Delaney (New York: Routledge, 1995), 177-199. Key works by Nawal el Saadawi include The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World, trans. and ed. Sherif Hetata (London: Zed Books, 1980) and Saadawi, ed., The Nawal El Saadawi Reader (London: Zed Books, 1997).
On international and regional feminist organizing see Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997) and Rupp and Verta Taylor, “Forging Feminist Identity in an International Movement: A Collective Identity Approach to Twentieth-Century Feminism,” Signs 24:2 (1999), 374; Ellen Dubois article on int’l women’s movement—is this the correct one??: Ellen Carol DuBois, “Woman Suffrage Around the World: Three Phases of Suffragist Internationalism,” in Suffrage and Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives, eds. Caroline Daley and Melanie Nolan (New York: New York University Press, 1994), [pages?]

For national political contexts I frequently turned to Barbara J. Nelson and Majma Chowdhury, eds., Women and Politics Worldwide (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994) and Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). See also the historical anthology Global Feminisms Since 1945: Rewriting Histories, ed. Bonnie G. Smith (London, Routledge, 2000) and essays in Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices, eds. Inderpal Grewal and Caren Kaplan (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994). On the United Nations see Arvonne S. Fraser, The U.N. Decade for Women: Documents and Dialogue (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987). On development policies, see Naila Kabeer, Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought (London: W.W. Norton, 1994); and Martha C. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, eds., Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).


For Latin American movements, see Jane Jaquette, ed., The Women’s Movement in Latin America: Participation and Democracy, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994); Nancy Saporto Sternbach, Marysa Navarro-Arangurnen, Patricia Chuchryk, and Sonia Alvarez, “Feminisms in Latin America: From Bogota to San Bernardo,” Signs 17:2 (1992), 393-434; June E. Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle For Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990). Carmen Diana Deere ; Sonia Alvarez
Slg: pederson book on shelf? Peterson? British women’s history - relevant here?

Chapter Six: Never Done: Women’s Domestic Labor


On the ideology and labor of domesticity in the U.S., see Kathryn Kish Sklar, Catharine Beecher: A Study in Domesticity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973); Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: "Woman's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997); Jeanne Boydston, Home and Work: Housework, Wages, and the Ideology of Labor in the Early Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); and Glenna Matthews, "Just a Housewife": The Rise and Fall of Domesticity in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). Ann Oakley, Woman’s Work: The Housewife Past and Present (New York: Random House, 1976) first raised many of the feminist critiques that still inform scholarship. Calculations of the value of housework, based on U.S. Department of Labor statistics, appear in Hunter College Women’s Studies Collective, Women’s Realities, Women’s Choices: An Introduction to Women’s Studies (New York: Oxford, 1995), Table 13.1, 459, and from the U.N. Development Program [SOURCE FOR THE UN 1995 11 TRILLION ESTIMATE ? Help]
Data on time spent in housework come from: The World’s Women, 1995: Trends and Statistics (New York: United Nations, 1995), 106, and The World’s Women, 2000: Trends and Statistics (New York: United Nations, 2000), 126; Frances K. Goldscheider and Linda J. Waite, New Families, No Families (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 113; Arlie Russell Hochschild (with Anne Manchung), The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution At Home (New York: Viking, 1989); Daphne Spain and Suzanne M. Bianchi, Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment Among American Women (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996); John P. Robinson, “Who’s Doing the Housework?” American Demographics 10:12 (1988), 24-29; Janeen Baxter, “Gender Equality and Participation in Housework: A Cross-National Perspective,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28:3 (1997), 220-247; Andrew J. Cherlin, “By the Numbers,” New York Times Magazine, 5 April 1998, 39-41; Joseph Pleck, “Balancing Work and Family,” Scientific American Presents 10:2 (1999), 38-43; Jeevan Vasagar, Guardian (London) 6 July 2001, reporting on Man Yee Kan study. On problems with self-reported housework studies, see Julie Press and Eleanor Townsley, “Wives’ and Husbands’ Housework Reporting: Gender, Class, and Social Desirability,” Gender and Society 12:2 (1998), 188-218. Results of the California poll appeared in the "The New Attitudes of Men and Women," San Francisco Chronicle, 13 February 1986, A20. For the effects of labor saving devices, see Ruth Schwartz Cowan, More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave (New York: Basic Books, 1983).
Sources for women’s caring work include Elizabeth H. Pleck, Celebrating the Family: Ethnicity, Consumer Culture, and Family Rituals (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000) (on holidays), and on elder care, Takako Sodei, “Care of the Elderly: A Women’s Issue,” in Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future, eds. Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (New York: The Feminist Press, 1995), 213-228; on Puerto Rican elder care, see Johnetta Cole, All american women? [in office]. The importance of domestic identities is evident in Linda Kerber, No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998). See also: Joan Williams, Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
For paid domestic workers see David M. Katzman, Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978); Evelyn Nakano Glenn, Issei, Nisei, War Bride: Three Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), 160, and Glenn, “From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labor” in Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, eds. Ellen Carol DuBois and Vicki L. Ruiz, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994) 405-435; Theresa M. McBride, The Domestic Revolution: The Modernization of Household Service in England and France, 1820-1920 (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1976); Judith Rollins, Between Women: Domestics and Their Employers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1985); Mary Romero, “Chicanas Modernize Domestic Service,” Qualitative Sociology 11:4 (1988), 319-333, and Romero, Maid in the U.S.A. (New York: Routledge, 1992); Elizabeth Jelin, “Migration and Labor Force Participation of Latin American Women: The Domestic Servants in the Cities,” Signs 3:1 (1977), 129-141; Henrietta Moore, Socialism book—not feminism and anthropology?; Grace Chang, Disposable Domestics: Immigrant Women Workers in the Global Economy (Cambridge: South End Press, 2000); Rachel Salazar Parrenas, “Transgressing the Nation-State: The Partial Citizenship and ‘Imagined (Global) Community’ of Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers,” Signs 26:4 (2001), 1129-1154; and Raymond Bonner, “Report from Kuwait: A Woman’s Place,” New Yorker, November 16, 1992, 56-66. On the decline of paid domestic service jobs, see for the U.S.: Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of America's Wage-Earning Women (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982); and for Brazil, June E. Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women’s Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990), 97, Table 7. (proper format?)
On attitudes towards working women and working mothers, see: “Stay-at-Home vs. Career Moms,” and “Changes in Gender Roles,” Washington Post 22 March 1998, A16; Kalwant Bhopal, Gender, ‘Race’ and Patriarchy: A Study of South Asian Women (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1997); Tracey Harrison, “Equality? What Equality? More Women Go Out to Work . . . Then Do Chores Too,” The Mirror (London) 22 October 1998, 6. Howard W. French, “Women Win a Battle, but Job Bias Still Rules Japan,” New York Times 26 February 2000, A3; Harris poll, nyt -get date and cite;
I discuss prostitution in John D’Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988) and draw here on: Lucy Cheng Hirata, “Free, Indentured, Enslaved: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century America,” Signs 5:1 (1979), 3-29; Luise White, The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990); Ruth Rosen, The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900-1918 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982), 5; Gail Hershatter, Dangerous Pleasures: Prostitution and Modernity in Twentieth Century Shanghai (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). Angela Davis cites the figure for women of color imprisoned for streetwalking in [I’m looking for it!]
On contemporary sexual commerce, see: Cynthia H. Enloe, Bananas, Beaches & Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics 1st U.S. ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, orig. London: Pandora, 1989); Karim el-Gawhary, “Sex Tourism in Cairo,” Middle East Report (Sept-Oct 1995), 26-27; Masum Momaya, "The Cost of Living: Taking Her Place in the Global Economy," Honors Thesis, Program in Feminist Studies, Stanford University, 1999; Pushpa Das story in Celia W. Dugger, “Dead Zones: Fighting Back in India; Calcutta's Prostitutes Lead the Fight on AIDS,” New York Times, 4 January 1999, A4. Angela Davis cites the figures for to prostitution for the 85% data; [checking for nyt on egyptian prosts/russian competition - can’t find so far]. For contemporary feminist monitoring of international sex work, see Donna M. Hughes, Laura Joy Sporcic, Nadine Z. Mendelsohn, and Vanessa Chirgwin, The Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation (Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, 1999), .
Chapter Seven: Industrialization, Wage Labor, and the Economic Gender Gap
The data used in this chapter comes from the following sources: Joni Seager, The State of Women in the World Atlas, 2nd ed. (New York: Penguin, 1997); “Employment Status of the Civilian Noninstitutional Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin,” U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings 47:1 (2000), 172; Roderick Harrison and Claudette Bennett, "Racial and Ethnic Diversity," in State of the Union: America in the 1990s, ed. Reynolds Farley (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1995), Table 4.6; Irene Browne, “Latinas and African American Women in the U.S. Labor Market," in Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, ed. Browne (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1999) [pages?]; Daphne Spain and Suzanne M. Bianchi, Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment Among American Women (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996); Women’s Unit, United Kingdom Cabinet, Minister of Women, “Women and Work: Challenge and Opportunity, February 2001 Factsheet" [insert http address from slg email]; ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1999), 101; The World’s Women, 2000: Trends and Statistics (New York: United Nations 2000), 110; The World’s Women, 1995: Trend and Statistics (New York: United Nations, 1995), 109; “Women in the Global Economy,” fact sheet 4, United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, 4-15 September, 1995; Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow, “Introduction,” in Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future, eds. Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (New York: Feminist Press, 1995), xvii-xxxviii; Sun Shaoxian, “Reflections on Female Employment in China,” Copenhagen Discussion Papers No. 21 (Copenhagen: Center for East and Southeast Asian Studies, 1993); Joyce Jacobsen, The Economics of Gender, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).
On the wage gap see also [Goldin--not sure which source for my figures] Claudia Goldin, Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); Derek Robinson, “Differences in Occupational Earnings by Sex,” International Labour Review 137:1 (1998), 3-31; “Wage Gap Widens for Women,” The Courier-Mail (Australia) 28 March 2001, 9; U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, “Earnings Differences Between Women and Men,” Facts on Working Women (December, 1993); and The Institute for Women’s Policy Research Briefing Papers (Washington, D.C.): “The Wage Gap: Women’s and Men’s Earnings” (February, 1995), “The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses,” (March, 1998). [citation format for last ok?]
On the history of women’s wage labor, see Louise A. Tilly and Joan W. Scott, Women, Work and Family (New York: Routledge, 1987); Alice Kessler-Harris, Out To Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982); Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979); Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers: Women in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986); Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe From Prehistory to the Present, 2nd ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 2000), vol. II; Claudia Goldin, Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). Yoko Kawashima, “Female Workers: An Overview of Past and Current Trends,” in Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future, eds. Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (New York: Feminist Press, 1995), 271-293; Myra H. Strober and Agnes Miling Kaneko Chan, The Road Winds Uphill All the Way: Gender, Work, and Family in the United States and Japan (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999); Kathryn Ward, ed., Women Workers and Global Restructuring, (Ithaca: ILR Press, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, 1990). I also found useful material throughout Henrietta L. Moore, Feminism and Anthropology (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988), especially chapter 4; Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995); and Annette Fuentes and Barbara Ehrenreich, Women in the Global Factory (Boston: South End Press, 1983). Studies of individual industries are numerous, e.g. Patricia Zavella, Women’s Work and Chicano Families: Cannery Workers of the Santa Clara Valley (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).
On white collar jobs and the professions, see: Michael Carter and Susan Carter, “Women’s Recent Progress in the Professions, or Women Get Ticket To Ride After the Gravy Train Leaves the Station,” Feminist Studies 7:3 (1981), 477-504; Deborah Rhode, “Perspectives on Professional Women,” Stanford Law Review 40:5 (1988), 1163-1207; Myra H. Strober and David Tyack, "Why Women Teach While Men Manage: A Report on Research in Progress," Signs 5:3 (1980), 494-503; Virginia Valian, Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998); Christine L. Williams, “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the ‘Female’ Professions,” Social Problems 39:3 (1992), 253-267; Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, Woman's Place: Options and Limits in Professional Careers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), and Women in Law, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993); Gail Warshofsky Lapidus, “Occupational Segregation and Public Policy: A Comparative Analysis of American and Soviet Patterns,” Signs 1:3, part 2 (1976), 119-136; Author’s name “How are We Doing,” Ms 8:2 (1997), 22-23; Heidi Hartmann, "Improving Employment Opportunities for Women," Testimony Concerning H.R.1, Civil Rights Act of 1991, Before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, 27 February 1991 (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research, 1991). --OR--Roberta M. Spalter-Roth and Heidi Hartmann, Increasing Working Mothers' Earnings with Christina A. Andrews, et al. (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research, [1991]) [proper format? which is correct for “Hartmann, 1991, p. 7” citation?]; Jean Eaglesham, “Legal Eagles Get Time to Roost,” Financial Times (London), 16 March 2000, 14; I.C. McManus and K.A. Sproston, “Women in Hospital Medicine in the United Kingdom: Glass Ceiling, Preference, Prejudice or Cohort Effect,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54 (January 2000), 10; Ian Murray, “Women Doctors Urged to Become Surgeons,” The Times (London), 15 September 1999, [need page?]; Korean Women Today 30 September 1986, n. 60, 4. [n.?]
On structures and ideologies that affect women worker, see Heidi I. Hartmann, “Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex,” Signs 1:3, part 2 (1976), 137-169; Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, Deceptive Distinctions: Sex, Gender, and the Social Order (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), especially chapter 7, and Epstein, “Workplace Boundaries: Conceptions and Creations,” Social Research 56:3 (1989), 571-590; Sandra Lipsitz Bem, The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993); Cecilia L. Ridgeway, “Gender, Status, and the Social Psychology of Expectations,” in Theory on Gender/Feminism On Theory, ed. Paula England (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993), 175-197; Vicki Schultz, “Telling Stories About Women and Work: Judicial Interpretations of Sex Segregation in the Workplace in Title VII Cases Raising the Lack of Interest Argument,” Harvard Law Review 103:8 (1990), 1750-1843; HOSSFIELD ARTICLE HERE; Barbara F. Reskin, "Bringing the Men Back In: Sex Differentiation and the Devaluation of Women's Work" in Feminist Frontiers IV, eds. Laurel Richardson, Verta Taylor, and Nancy Whittier (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997), 215-28; Janet W. Salaff, Working Daughters of Hong Kong: Filial Piety or Power in the Family? (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Naila Kabeer, “Cultural Dopes or Rational Fools? Women and Labour Supply in the Bangladesh Garment Industry,” European Journal of Development Research vol:no?? (June, 1991), 133-160; Margery Wolf, [which China book is chap 3 Women Workers in the Cities], especially chapter 3. On the Sears case, see [LOCATE SUMMARY IN THE JOURNAL FEMINIST STUDIES - check data base for issue.]
On sexual harassment, I draw on Catharine MacKinnon, Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination, with Thomas I. Emerson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979); “Equal Opportunities: Commission Propose to Update Policies and Laws in Anti-Harassment Drive,” European Report, section 2507, 10 June 2000, and “EU Seeks Tougher Sex Harass Caw,” United Press International, 5 June 2000; Joseph Kahn, "Morgan Stanley Is Target Sex Bias Inquiry," New York Times, 29 July 1999, C1. On Japan, see Howard W. French, "Women Win a Battle, but Job Bias Still Rules Japan," New York Times, 26 February 2000, A3.
The following anthologies on feminist economics contain classic essays on labor force theory and practice: Alice H. Amsden, ed., The Economics of Women and Work (New York: St. Martin’s, 1980); Mariann A. Ferber and Julie A. Nelson, Beyond Economic Man: Feminist Theory and Economics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993); Ann Helton Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective, 2nd ed. (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 1988).
MESSY END OF CHAPTER 7—NOT IN PARAGRAPH FORM, MISSING INFO:

Rina Singh, Gender Autonomy in Western Europe: An Imprecise Revolution (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 42-47.



And I don’t know quite what this reference is for - ask slg: Janice Hamilton Outtz, "Are Mommies Dropping out of the Labor Force?" in Times Educational Supplement n. 4256 23 January 1998, F22.

hmmm-this is intriguing too: American Demographics 14:12 (1992), 6.

nyt 6/9/99;

extra points to figure this one out: Women in trades: Kahn and see tables;

Also list Blue Collar Women book:

Blue-collar women: pioneers on the male frontier /, Mary Lindenstein

Walshok. 1st ed. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1981.

OR

Blue collar women: trailblazing women take on men-only jobs /, Trudie C. Ferguson with Madeline Sharples. Liberty Corner, N.J.: New Horizon Press, 1994.



and Molly Martin book:

Molly Martin, ed. Hard-Hatted Women: Life on the Job photographs by Sandy Thacker, 2nd ed. (Seattle: Seal Press, 1997).

[KAHN IS FRONTLINE FEMINISM]: Karen Kahn, ed. Frontline Feminism, 1975-1995: Essays from Sojourner's First 20 Years (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1995.
Chapter Eight: Workers and Mothers: Feminist Social Policies
On women’s workplace organizing and legal strategies, see Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of America's Wage-Earning Women (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982); Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers: Women in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986); Annelise Orleck, Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965 (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Roberta Goldberg, Organizing Women Office Workers: Dissatisfaction, Consciousness, and Action (New York: Praeger, 1993); Jean Tepperman, Not Servants, Not Machines: Office Workers Speak Out! (Boston: Beacon Press, 1976); Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe From Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper & Row, 1988, repr. 2000), vol. II; Sheila Rowbotham, A Century of Women: The History of Women in Britain and the United States (New York: Viking, 1997); Rahda Kumar, A History of Doing: An Illustrated Account of Movements for Women's Rights and Feminism in India, 1800-1990 (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1993); Mary Goldsmith and Elsa Chaney, “From Bolivia to Beijing: Household Workers Organize at the Local, National, and International Levels,” in V. E. Rodriguez, et al., Memoria of the Bi-National Conference: Women in Contemporary Mexican Politics II, The Mexican Center of ILAS, University of Texas at Austin, 12-13 April 1996, <http://lanic.utexas.edu/ilas/mexcenter/women2/workers.html>
On union membership, see Rina Singh, Gender Autonomy in Western Europe: An Imprecise Revolution (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998); Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995); Johanna Brenner, “The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Feminism in the United States,” in Mapping the Women's Movement: Feminist Politics and Social Transformation in the North ed. Monica Threlfall (London: Verso, 1996), [pages?]. The effect of unions on wages appears in Heidi Hartmann, Roberta Spalter-Roth, and Nancy Collins, “What do Unions Do for Women?” Challenge 37:4 (1994), 11-18, and the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics,” modified 19 January 2001, accessed 7 September 2001

[HOW CITE THESE TABLES - SEE HTTP://STATS.BLS.GOV/NEWS.RELEASE/UNION2.T02.HTM --> is this citation ok?].


Overviews of United States workplace legal strategies appear in Barbara Allen Babcock et al., Sex Discrimination and the Law: History, Practice, and Theory, 2nd ed. (Boston: Little Brown, 1996), and Deborah L. Rhode, Justice and Gender: Sex Discrimination and the Law (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989) (Dworkin is cited on page 188). For Europe see: Mariagrazia Rossilli, “The European Community’s Policy on the Equality of Women: From the Treaty of Rome to the Present,” The European Journal of Women’s Studies 4 (1997), 63-82; Linda Hantrais, "Women, Work and Welfare in France, " in Women and Social Policies in Europe: Work, Family and the State, ed. Jane Lewis (Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1993); and the series Equality in Law Between Men and Women in the European Community, eds. Michel Verwilghen and Ferdinand von Prondzynski (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1994-1998) [series of books—on 7 different countries with different authors for each country. is this citation (with series editors) sufficient?]. On specific strategies see: Nancy MacLean, “The Hidden History of Affirmative Action: Working Women’s Struggles in the 1970s and the Gender of Class,” Feminist Studies 25:1 (1999), 43-78; Edmund L. Andrews, "European Union Court Upholds Affirmative Action for Women," New York Times, 12 November 1997, A7; Laura Pincus and Bill Shaw, "Comparable Worth: An Economic and Ethical Analysis" Journal of Business Ethics 17:5 (1998), 455-470; Elaine Sorenson, “Implementing Comparable Worth: A Survey of Recent Job Evaluation Studies,” American Economic Review 76:2 (1986), 364-367, Rae Blumberg, "Gender, Microenterprise, Performance and Power," in Women in the Latin American Development Process, eds. Christine E. Bose and Edna Acosta-Belen (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995); Patricia B. Kelly, “The Real Profits of Village Banking,” Americas 48:6 (1996), 38-43.

On policies relating to parents, see Joan Williams, Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Ann Crittenden, The Price of Motherhood: Why the Most Important Job in the World Is Still the Least Valued (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2001); Betty Friedan, The Second Stage (New York: Summit Books, 1981); Anneke Van Doorne-Huiskes, “Work-Family Arrangements: The Role of the State Versus the Role of the Private Sector,” in Women and Public Policy: The Shifting Boundaries Between the Public and Private Spheres, eds. Susan Baker and Anneke van Doorne-Huiskes (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1999), 93-110; Christopher J. Ruhm and Jackqueline L. Teague, “Parental Leave Policies in Europe and North America,” in Gender and Family Issues in the Workplace, eds. Francine D. Blau and Ronald G. Ehrenberg (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997); Victor R. Fuchs, Women’s Quest for Economic Equality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988); Trudie Knijn and Monique Dremer, “Gender and the Caring Dimension of Welfare States: Toward Inclusive Citizenship,” Social Politics 4:3 (1997), 328-361; “Equality Between Men and Women in Sweden,” The Swedish Institute, May 1987 [sufficient citation?]. Information on childcare comes from Rina Singh, Gender Autonomy in Western Europe: An Imprecise Revolution (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998); “Ministry of Education: Establish Child Care Rooms at Schools,” Korean Women Today 42:5 (1994); United Kingdom, “Women and Work: Challenge and Opportunity, February 2001" [what is this? insufficient citation??]; Vera Mackie, “Feminist Critiques of Modern Japanese Politics,” in Mapping the Women's Movement: Feminist Politics and Social Transformation in the North ed. Monica Threlfall (London: Verso, 1996). Socialist provisions are summarized in Henrietta L. Moore, Feminism and Anthropology (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988); see also Myra Marx Feree and Beth B. Hess, Controversy and Coalition: The New Feminist Movement Across Three Decades of Change, 3rd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2000). Documents on Wages for Housework appear in Karen Kahn, ed., Frontline Feminism 1975-1995: Essays from Sojourner's First 20 Years (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1995) and Rosalyn Baxandall and Linda Gordon, eds., Dear Sisters: Dispatches from the Women's Liberation Movement (New York: Basic Books, 2000).


Sources for changing fathers’ roles include: Arnlaug Leira, “Caring as Social Right: Cash for Child Care and Daddy Leave,” Social Politics (Fall 1998), 363-378; Warren Hoge, “Issue Aborning at No. 10: Will Daddy Stay Home?,” New York Times 29 March 2000, A4; Helen Froud, “Helping Working Mothers,” Women’s International Net, Issue 34 (July 2000), <http://www.winmagazine.org/issues/issue34/win34c.htm>;

Author? “Divorced Housewives Gain More Alimony,” Die Welt 13 June 2001, 1; “How Much Can Child Support Provide? Welfare, Family Income and Child Support,” (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women’s Policy Research Publication #D435, March, 1999). is this proper citation format??


Data on poverty comes from Joni Seager, The State of Women in the World Atlas (London: Penguin, 1997). See also Heidi Hartmann et. al, “Poverty Alleviation and Single-Mother Families,” National Forum 76:3 (1996), 24-27. On welfare state policies, see Susan Pedersen, Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State: Britain and France, 1914-1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993); Gisela Bock and Pat Thane, eds., Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880-1950s (New York: Routledge, 1991); Nancy Fraser, Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the "Postsocialist" Condition (New York: Routledge, 1997); Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992); Linda Gordon, Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890-1935 (New York: Free Press, 1994), and Gordon, ed., Women, the State, and Welfare (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990); Gwendolyn Mink, Wages of Motherhood: Inequality in the Welfare State, 1917-1942 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).
? Recheck this and if possible cite the harris poll from 2000 that was conducted for the Radcliffe Pubic Policy Center too. If poll cite not available [she is citing Griswold, and Berry] and find Author, title?, Sojourner, 26:8 (2001), 21. Welfare warriors article.


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