Guide to reading notes ch 4



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MR. DUNN’S WORLD HISTORY CLASS 5/4/2016

NOTES AND OUTLINE



GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4

Read Section 4.2 on p. 44 and answer the questions below. Then, before each group’s performance in class, read that section in your book and complete the corresponding notes.
4.2 The Growth of Medieval Towns
1. Where were towns in medieval Europe often located, and why?


  • Towns were often located next to rivers, which made trade easier.


2. What contributed to the growth of towns in medieval Europe?


  • Improved farming methods and the revival of trade with the east contributed to the growth of towns.


3. What rights did a charter give townspeople?


  • A charter allowed the members of a medieval town to govern themselves.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.3 Guilds p. 45


  1. What were guilds? Why were they established?




    • Guilds were associations of people who practiced the same craft or trade.

    • They were set up to make sure their members were treated fairly and produced quality goods.




  1. How did a person become a member of a guild?




  • Around age 12, a person who wanted to learn a trade became an apprentice.

  • He lived and worked in the home of a guild master.

  • After 7 years, the guild examined a sample of his work.

  • If it met their standards, he was allowed to join the guild.




  1. What are some examples of craft guilds in medieval Europe?




  • Some craft guilds were those for cobblers (who made shoes), the stonemasons (who built cathedrals), and cloth makers.




  1. How did guilds help members and families of members?




  • Guilds provided them with money and food in times of need.




  1. Choose an object from the illustration on the opposite page that represents this topic. Sketch it below.




  • Students should sketch the shoes.


GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.4 Trade and Commerce p. 46


  1. What role did merchants play in the growth of medieval European towns?







  1. What were merchant fairs like?




  • Merchant fairs were large and sold goods from all over Europe and the east.

  • They attracted merchants from many countries.




  1. How did merchants become the most wealthy and powerful members of towns?




    • Merchants became wealthy and powerful by selling a variety of goods from faraway lands, dominating the town’s business life, and joining town councils.




  1. How were Jews often mistreated in medieval Europe?




    • Because of hostility, Jews found it hard to earn a living by farming, and sometimes they were the victims of violence. Rulers took their property at will.




  1. Choose an object from the illustration on the opposite page that represents this topic. Sketch it below.




    • Students should sketch the balance scale.



GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.5 Homes and Households p. 47


  1. What did homes in medieval European towns look like?




  • Most homes in medieval towns were small, crowded, and built of wood. The homes of the wealthy were much larger.




  1. Why were the homes of most town dwellers uncomfortable?




  • Rooms were cold, smoky, and dim because fireplaces were the only source of heat and the main source of light.


  1. Why was growing up in medieval towns difficult?




  • Almost half of all children died. Those who survived began preparing for their adult roles at age seven.




  1. How were the lives of medieval girls different from those of modern girls?




  • Most girls were educated at home in cooking, cloth making, and others skills for running a home.

  • They typically married young and began raising children soon after.

  • Only girls from wealthy families had an opportunity to learn how to paint or read music.




  1. Choose an object from the illustration on page 22 that represents this topic. Sketch it below.




    • Students should sketch the lute.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.6 Disease and Medical Treatment p. 48


  1. How did unhealthy living conditions and limited medical knowledge affect life in medieval European towns?




  • Unhealthy living conditions and the lack of understanding of how diseases spread caused many illnesses and deaths.




  1. What were some common diseases in medieval Europe?




  1. What were some common practices used by medieval doctors?




  1. What group was sometimes blamed when an outbreak of a disease occurred?




  • Jews were sometimes blamed for outbreaks of diseases.




  1. Choose an object from the illustration on page 22 that represents this topic. Sketch it below.




  • Students should sketch the flask with leeches.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.7 Crime and Punishment p. 49

  1. Why were towns in medieval Europe dangerous places?




  • Towns were poorly lit, and streets were filled with pickpockets and thieves.




  1. What were two methods for deciding the guilt or innocence of accused criminals in the Early Middle Ages?




  • Two methods were:

    • trial by ordeal, in which the accused had to pass a dangerous test,

    • and trial by combat, in which he had to fight to prove his innocence.

  1. What were some ways criminals were punished in medieval Europe?




  • Fines and the stocks were used to punish those found guilty of minor crimes. Those convicted of more serious crimes were hanged or burned at the stake.




  1. How did the way in which those accused of crimes were treated begin to improve in the 12th century?




  • Beginning in the 12th century, court inquiries were used to determine a person’s innocence or guilt.




  1. Choose an object from the illustration on page 22 that represents this topic. Sketch it below.




  • Students should sketch the noose.

GUIDE TO READING NOTES CH 4 PP. 45-51

Sec 4.8 Leisure and Entertainment p. 50

  1. What were some games that were popular with children in medieval Europe?



  • Children played with dolls and toys, such as wooden swords and hobbyhorses.

  • They also rolled hoops and played badminton, lawn bowling, & blind man’s bluff.



  1. What were some leisure activities enjoyed by adults in medieval Europe?



  • Adults liked chess, checkers, and backgammon. Card games, dice games, and dancing were also popular.

  1. What was the difference between mystery plays and miracle plays?



  • Mystery plays re-created stories from the Bible. Miracle plays dramatized the lives of saints.



  1. How did the church’s attitude toward mystery and miracle plays differ from that of most townspeople?



5. Choose an object from the illustration on page 22 that represents this topic. Sketch it below.

  • Students should sketch the stage.

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