Guide to Lincoln's Life and Legacy



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3-16 Rest of the World in the 1860s of

A Living Resource Guide to Lincoln's Life and Legacy



Events in Europe and the Rest of the World in the 1860s


In the United States




In Europe and the Rest of the World



















  • Lincoln is elected President

  • South Carolina secedes from the Union

  • The US Secret Service is created

  • The Pony Express begins its overland message delivery service

  • Olympia Brown becomes the first female theology student in the US

  • In Boston Elizabeth Peabody establishes the first English-language kindergarten

  • Louis Agassiz rejects Darwin’s theory of evolution, citing missing links

  • Alvan Clarks discovers that Sirius is a double star

  • Croquet becomes a popular pastime




1860

  • Garibaldi conquers Sicily and Naples

  • George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) publishes A Mill on the Floss

  • Frenchman Jean J. Lenoir builds the first gas-burning engine

  • Florence Nightingale founds the world’s first nursing school

  • The first British Open Golf Championship is held













  • Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated President

  • The Confederate States of America is created

  • Fort Sumter is fired on, beginning the Civil War

  • Lincoln orders a blockade of Southern ports

  • The South defeats the North in the First Battle of Bull Run

  • Kansas is admitted to the Union

  • Matthew Brady begins his photographic chronicling of the Civil War

  • Elisha Otis patents a steam-powered elevator

  • The transcontinental telegraph line makes the Pony Express obsolete

  • Eberhard Faber opens a pencil factory in New York

  • Vassar College – first women’s college fully equal to a men’s college – is founded

  • The US Postal Service begins carrying merchandise in addition to letters

  • First federal income tax enacted

1861

  • Unification of Italy

  • Czar Alexander II abolishes serfdom in Russia

  • Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria, dies – leading the queen into 3 years of mourning

  • The principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia unite to form Romania

  • According to some, Edouard Manet’s Spanish Singer marks the beginning of Impressionism

  • Charles Dickens publishes Great Expectations

  • George Eliot publishes Silas Marner

  • Gustave Doré illustrates Dante’s Inferno

  • The Royal Academy of Music is founded in London

  • The first horse-drawn trams begin operation in London










  • Grant takes Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee

  • The ironclads Monitor and Merrimack fight to a draw

  • Grant wins the Battle of Shiloh

  • The bloodiest battle in American history – Antietam – is fought

  • Morrill Land Grant Act passed

  • Congress authorizes the printing of “greenbacks” – the first national currency

  • Gail Borden patent a process for concentrating fruit juice

  • Julia Ward Howe writes “The Battle Hymn of the Republic”

  • Abraham Jacobi opens the first pediatric clinic in America

  • Richard J. Gatling invents the Gatling gun

1862

  • Otto von Bismarck advocates the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership

  • Nicaragua, Honduras and San Salvador make an unsuccessful attempt to forma Central American union

  • Foucault measures the speed of light

  • France begins to occupy Indo-China

  • Victor Hugo publishes Les Misérables

  • Jean J. Lenoir builds the first automobile with and internal combustion engine

  • Swiss philanthropist Jean Henri Dunant proposes the creation of the Red Cross










  • Emancipation Proclamation issued

  • West Virginia admitted to the Union

  • Lee wins the Battle of Chancellorsburg

  • Union forces win the Battle of Gettysburg

  • Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address

  • Homestead Act passed

  • New York draft riots

  • Stephen Collins Foster composes “Beautiful Dreamer”

  • Samuel Langhorne Clemens adopts the penname Mark Twain

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson praises the Emancipation Proclamation in his “Boston Hymn”

  • Thomas Bishop writes the lyrics for “When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again”

  • The National Academy of Sciences is founded in Washington, DC

  • Ebenezer Butterick invents the first paper dress patterns sold in the US

  • James L. Plimpton introduces roller skating to Americans

1863

  • Danish Prince George is selected to be King of Greece (after the English poet Lord Byron turns down the position)

  • French troops occupy Mexico City – Maximilian of Austria declared Emperor of Mexico

  • Civil war breaks out in Uruguay

  • Ismail Pasha, the new king of Egypt, initiates modernization

  • Edouard Manet paints Luncheon on the Grass

  • Jules Verne publishes Five Weeks in a Balloon

  • Charles Kingsley publishes the children’s book The Water-Babies

  • William Huggins invents the stellar spectroscope and shows that stars are similar to the sun

  • Scarlet fever kills more than 30,000 in England

  • The Football (soccer) Association is founded in London

  • Speke and Grant travel down the Nile to Central Africa










  • Lincoln makes Grant general-in-chief of the Union Armies

  • Sherman takes Atlanta and makes his destructive March to the Sea

  • Admiral David Farragut defeats the Confederate Navy at Mobile

  • Nevada admitted to the Union

  • Lincoln wins re-election

  • Thomas Doughty invents the periscope

  • George Pullman builds the first railroad sleeping car (the Pullman Car)

  • “In God We Trust” appears on a US coin for the first time – the two-cent piece

  • The fraternal organization The Knights of Pythias is formed in Washington, DC

1864

  • Britain cedes the Ionian Islands to Greece

  • Russia crushes Polish revolts and begins “russification” of Poland

  • Austria and Prussia declare war on Denmark

  • Russia creates the zemstvo system, a form of representational limited local government

  • China suppressed the Taiping Rebellion

  • Coalition of British, French, Dutch, and American warships bombard Choshu forts to halt anti-Western movements in Japan

  • Jules Verne publishes A Journey to the Center of the Earth

  • Charles Dickens publishes Our Mutual Friend

  • Dostoevsky publishes Notes from Underground

  • James Clerk Maxwell proposes the electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light

  • Pasteur develops a method for “pasteurizing” wine (It will eventually lead to a similar process for milk.)

  • The Geneva Convention establishes the neutrality of medics and field hospitals in war













  • Jefferson Davis makes Lee general-in-chief of the Confederate Armies

  • Grant surrenders to Lee at Appomattox Court House

  • Lincoln assassinated

  • Andrew Johnson inaugurated President

  • Colorado militia suppress the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians

  • 13th Amendment ratified

  • William Lloyd Garrison publishes the last issue of the abolitionist paper The Liberator

  • MIT founded (It serves 15 students.)

  • Alexander Holley produces the first American steel using the Bessemer Process

  • Tony Pastor becomes the “Father of Vaudeville”

  • Walt Whitman publishes Drum Taps

  • Vassar appoints Maria Mitchell the first female professor of astronomy

  • Chicago becomes the world’s greatest meat-packing center

  • New York creates the first fire department staffed by paid fire fighters

1865

  • Peru declares war on Spain

  • Joseph Lister successfully uses carbolic acid to prevent infection in a wound

  • Leo Tolstoy publishes War and Peace

  • Jules Verne publishes From the Earth to the Moon, predicting that America will launch the first flight to the moon

  • Lewis Carroll publishes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

  • Gustave Doré makes his illustrations for the Bible

  • Marquis of Queensbury Rules supplant the practice of bare-knuckled boxing

  • William Booth founds and organization that will become the Salvation Army in 1878




Office of Curriculum & Instruction/Indiana Department of Education 09/08

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