Guide to Bullying Prevention



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27 Olweus, Daniel (1993) Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do (Understanding Children's Worlds). Blackwell Publishers: Oxford.


28 Walker, H.M., Colvin, G. and Ramsey, E. (1995) Antisocial Behaviors in School: Strategies and Best Practices. Brooks/Cole: Pacific Grove, CA.

29 Olweus, Daniel. (1993) Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do (Understanding Children's Worlds) Blackwell Publishers: Oxford.


30 Olson, S. (1992). Developmental conduct problems and peer rejection in preschool children: A social systems analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 327–350.

31 Olweus, Dan (1993) Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do (Understanding Children's Worlds) Blackwell Publishers: Oxford.


32 Eron, L.D. (1994) Theories of Aggression: From Drives to Cognition. In L.R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives 3-11.New York: Plenum

33 “Girls Are More Likely to Suffer Cyberbullying” as reported in the Guardian Unlimited, March 22, 2007, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/mar/22/news.pupilbehaviour

34 Cooper, Doug and Snell, Jennie. (2003) “Bullying: Not Just a Kid Thing.” Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 23–25

35 Van der Wal, M., de Wit, C., & Hirasing, R. (2003) “Psychosocial Health Among Young Victims and Offenders of Direct and Indirect Bullying”, Pediatrics Vol. 111 No. 6 June 2003, 1312-1317

36 Pollack, William (1998) Real Boys: Rescuing Our Sons from the Myth of Boyhood. Random House: New York.

37 Kupersmidt, J., & Patterson, C. (1991). “Childhood peer rejection, aggression, withdrawal, and perceived competence as predictors of self-reported behavior problems in preadolescence”  Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19: (4), 427–449. See also Twemlow, Stuart W.; Sacco, Frank C. (1996) “A clinical and interactionist perspective on the bully-victim-bystander relationship” Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Summer 96, Vol. 60, Issue 3, 296.

38 “30% of U.S. Schoolchildren Involved in Bullying,” as reported in the Washington Post, April 24, 2002.

39 National Association of School Psychologists, in Labi, Nadya. "Let Bullies Beware." Time online, March 25, 2001.

40 Lumsden, Linda (2002). Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.

41 National Education Association (2002). “National Bullying Awareness Campaign,” online at www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html.

42 Garbarino, James and deLara, Ellen (2002). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to protect adolescents from bullying, harassement, and emotional violence. Free Press: New York, NY.

43 Hoover, John and Oliver, Ronald (1996). The Bullying Prevention Handbook: A guide for principals, teachers, and counselors. National Education Service: Bloomington, IN.

44 Maine Project Against Bullying. Available at lincoln.midcoast.com/~wps/against/bullying.html

45 Ballard, M., Argus, T., & Remley, T. (1999).  Bullying and school violence: A proposed prevention program. NASSP Bulletin, 83(607), 38–47.

46 National Resource Center for Safe Schools (1999). Recognizing and Preventing Bullying. Fact Sheet 4, Winter, 1999, OJJDP.

47 Dr. Leonard Eron, University of Michigan psychologist as reported in “Bullying: A Serious Business” by Nancy Wartik in Child Magazine, February, 2001.

48 Ballard, M., Argus, T., & Remley, T. (1999).  “Bullying and school violence: A proposed prevention program.” NASSP Bulletin, 83(607), 38–47.

49 “30% of U.S. Schoolchidlren Involved in Bullying,” as reported in the Washington Post, April 24, 2002.

50 National Education Association (2002). “National Bullying Awareness Campaign.” Available at www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html

51 Coloroso, Barbara. The Bully, the Bullied, and the Bystander: From Preschool to High School--How Parents and Teachers Can Help Break the Cycle of Violence. Collins: 2004.

52 Definition developed at the 1998 International Associations of Chiefs of Police Summit on Hate Crime in America. The definitions applicable under Massachusetts law appear at G.L. c.22C, § 32 and 501 CMR 4.02.

53 501 CMR 4.04 (3).

54 From the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines, 1992, pages 2-3; Uniform Definitions and Guidelines for Identification of Crimes Motivated, All or in Part, by Race, Ethnicity, Religion and Sexual Orientation, S.B. 2080, from Final Report, Attorney General's Commission on Racial, Ethnic, Religious and Minority Violence, 1986, Appendix E. The bias indicators applicable under Massachusetts law appear at 501 CMR 4.04.

55 Pepler, Debra and Zeigler, S. and Rosenstein-Manner, M. (1991) “Bullying in School,” LaMarsh Center for Research on Violence and Conflict Resolution at York University.

56 Kaufman, P., Chen, X., Choy, S.P., Peter, K., Ruddy, S.A., Miller, A.K., Fleury, J.K., Chandler, K.A., Planty, M.G., & Rand, M.R. (2001) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2001 (NCES 2002–113/NCJ 190075.) Washington, DC: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice.

57 Kaufman, P., Chen, X., Choy, S.P., Peter, K., Ruddy, S.A., Miller, A.K., Fleury, J.K., Chandler, K.A., Planty, M.G., & Rand, M.R. (2001) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2001 (NCES 2002-113/NCJ 190075.) Washington, DC: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice.

58 Killen, M. & Strangor, C. (2001). Children’s social reasoning about inclusion and exclusion in gender and race peer group contexts. Child Development, 72 (1), 174–186.

59 Garofalo, R., Wolf, C., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., & DuRant, R.H. (1998), The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(5), 895–902.

60 The 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior (MYRBS), Massachusetts Department of Education.


61 Jennings, Kevin, (2000) “But Who Are They Bullying?” Fall 2000 Issue of Respect, GLSEN

62 See G.L. c. 76, §5; c. 71, §37H; c. 265, §37.

63 This title was inspired by the name of a highly regarded guide on the topic by Nan Stein and Lisa Sjostrom (1994) Flirting or Hurting? A teacher’s guide on student-to-student harassment in schools. National Education Association & Wellesley College Center for Research on Women: Washington, D.C.

64 Limber, Susan and Cedillo, Sylvia (2003). Responding to Bullying. Intervention in School & Clinic, March, Vol. 38, Issue 4, pg. 236.

65 Definition taken from the 2001 American Association of University Women (AAUW) publication Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing and Sexual Harassment in Schools, available at http://www.aauw.org/research/all.cfm

66 Statistic obtained from the Center for Children.

67 American Association of University Women, Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing and Sexual Harassment in School (2001), available at http://www.aauw.org/research/all.cfm

68 Used with permission from “Sexual Harassment: It’s Not Academic” from the Office for Civil Rights.

69 Willard, Nancy (2005) An Educator’s Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats. From the Center For Safe and Responsible Internet Use.

70 Ibid.

71 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention “Research Announcement”, November 27, 2007 (http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/electronic_aggression.htm)

72 See Mass. Gen. Laws c. 269, § 17.

73 Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crime from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights (1999). Available online at www.ed.gov/offices/OCR/archives/Harassment/index.html

74 Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall.

75 Elias, M., Lantieri, L., Patti, J., Shriver, T., Walbert, H, Weissbert, R. and Zins, J. (2000) “No New Wars Needed!” CASEL Collections (CASEL: Chicago, IL).

76 Schaps, Eric (2003). Creating a School Community. Educational Leadership, March, 31-33.

77 Ibid.

78 From the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program as described in “Bullying at School” (2003). Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 12-17 by Dan Olweus.

79 As reported in “Seeds of Change,” Teacher Magazine (March 2001).

80 From the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program as described in Bullying at School (2003). Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 12-17 by Dan Olweus.

81 See Bell, Stephen K.; Coleman, Jennifer K.; Anderson, Adam; Whelan, James P.; Wilder, Cherie (2000) The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation in a Low-SES Rural Elementary School. Psychology in the Schools, 37 (6) 505-16.

82 National Resource Center for Safe Schools, 1999.

83 Available at http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm. Accessed July 2007.

84 These suggestions were drawn from a combination of programs including the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program.

85Weissbourd, R (2003). Moral Teachers, Moral Students. Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 6–11.

86 Ibid.

87 Ibid.

88 Ibid.

89 Berman, Sheldon (1997). Children’s Social Consciousness and the Development of Social Responsibility. State University of New York Press. (Albany, NY)

90 Gilligan, J. (1996). Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. Putnam: New York, NY.

91 Used with permission from CASEL.

92 NIDA InfoFacts: Lessons from Prevention Research, available at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/lessons.html

93 Hoover, J and Olson, G. “Sticks and Stones May Break Their Bones: Teasing as Bullying.” Reclaiming Children and Youth. 9:2, Summer 2000, 87–91.

94 Crawford, D., R. Bodine, and R. Hoglund (1993). The School for Quality Learning. Champaign, IL: Research Press. Reprinted with permission.

95 Goldstein, N.E., Arnold, D.H., Rosenberg, J.L. Stowe, R.M., and Ortiz, C. (2001) Contagion of aggression in day care classrooms as a function of peer and teacher responses. Journal of Educational Psychology, (2001) 93(4):708-719.

96 Garbarino, James and DeLara, Ellen. “Words Can Hurt Forever,” Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 18–21.

97 Ibid.

98 Special thanks go to Gretchen Werle of Gateway Middle School in Huntington for providing this lesson. Used with permission.

99 D. Lynn Hawkins, Debra J. Pepler, Wendy M. Craig (2001)
Naturalistic Observations of Peer Interventions in Bullying
Social Development 10 (4), 512–527.

100 Ibid.

101 Hazler, R.J. (1996) Bystanders: An overlooked factor in peer on peer abuse. The Journal for the Professional Counselor, 11, 11-21.

102 Adapted from recommendations made in Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager, N. & Short-Camilli, C. (1995). Bully proofing your school: A comprehensive approach for elementary schools. Longmount Colorado: Sopris West.

103 Special thanks go to Gretchen Werle of Gateway Middle School in Huntington for providing this lesson. Used with permission.

104 © 2001 Educators for Social Responsibility and Operation Respect. From Don’t Laught at Me, Grades 6–8 by Laura Parker-Roerden. Used with Permission.

105 Available at http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm . Educational Technology Center, Kennesaw State University, Georgia. Accessed July 2007.

106 Available at www.co-operation.org. The Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota. Accessed July 2007.

107 American Psychiatric Association Psychiatric Effects of Media Violence, available at http://www.healthyminds.org/mediaviolence.cfm

108 Pepler, Debra and Zeigler, S. and Rosenstein-Manner, M., Bullying in School, LaMarsh Center for Research on Violence and Conflict Resolution at York University. 1991

109 Brendtro, Larry (2001). Worse than Sticks and Stones: Lessons from Research on Ridicule, Forum, Educators for Social Responsibility, Summer, 2001, Volume 18, Issue 2.

110 Berdonini, L. & Smith, P.K. Cohesion and Power in the Families of Children Involved in Bully/Victim Problems at School: An Italian Replication. Journal of Family Therapy1996 (18) 99-102.

111 Special thanks go to Todd Smith, Clinical Director, Bay Cove Academy in Brookline for providing this exercise. Used with permission.

112 Special thanks go to Todd Smith, Clinical Director, Bay Cove Academy in Brookline for providing this exercise. Used with permission.

113 McGill, D.E., Mihalic, S.F., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1997). Blueprints for Violence Prevention: Book Two: Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.

114 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, National Association of Attorneys General (1999). Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crimes. Available online at www.ed.gov/offices/OCR/archives/Harassment/index.html .

115 This game is an adaptation of one by Project Adventure. For excellent cooperative learning and group building games see www.projectadventure.org .

116 This game is an adaptation of one by Project Adventure.

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