|Guess the Test #7 Name: _______________________
The Ottoman Empire: A Sunni Muslim empire in Turkey from the 1300s through World War 1.
Ghazis: The founders of the Ottoman Empire, these nomadic Muslim Turks thought of themselves as “warriors for Islam.”
Sultan: Arabic for “ruler,” this title was held by Ottoman emperors starting with Osman I.
Janissaries: Ottoman elite fighters, former Christians, who were enslaved as boys, converted to Islam and trained to fight for the sultan.
Suleyman the Magnificent: 1520-1566. The greatest Ottoman sultan, he expanded the empire into Persia and North Africa, reformed the tax system and the government bureaucracy and sponsored a golden age of culture.
Millets: Communities of Christians and Jews living in the Ottoman Empire. They could practice their own faiths, speak their own language, and elect their own leaders, who answered to the sultan.
The Safavid Empire: 1501-1722. A Shi’a Muslim empire based in Persia (Iran) and Iraq.
Esma’il: A 14-year-old Shi’a boy who founded the Safavid Empire after Sunnis killed his father.
Shah: The Persian word for ‘king’ – a title taken by Esma’il and all Persian leaders until 1976, when the last American-supported Shah of Iran was overthrown.
‘Abbas: 1588. The greatest Safavid shah, ‘Abbas reformed the government, adopted gunpowder weapons, brought Chinese artists to his capital, and created his own version of the Ottoman Janissaries by enslaving Russian boys and turning them into Muslim fighters.
Moors: Sunni Muslims from the north of Africa who conquered Spain beginning in 711 AD.
Iberian Peninsula: A peninsula south of France, home to the modern countries of Portugal and Spain.
La Reconquista: An effort by the Kings of Spain to kick out the Moors in the name of Christianity.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella: The Spanish monarchs who initiated the Spanish Inquisition, ended the Muslim presence in Spain, and sent Columbus to America.
The Spanish Inquisition: A call for Spaniards to “out” infidels, and a court system to convict and punish them.
Heretics: People who spoke out against the Catholic church, and defied church policy.
The Alhambra Decree: King Ferdinand’s order for all non-Muslims to leave Spain in 1492.
Auto-de-fé: A public event in which heretics were paraded through town, their names and sentences read aloud, prayers said, then executions presented for the the guilty.
1. Give 5 key facts about the rise of the Ottoman Empire and its sultans.
Ghazi warriors conquered territory in Turkey to convert folks to Islam in the 1300s.
The first sultan, Osam I, seized Byzantine territory, including the city of Adrianople.
Ottoman fighting success is linked to their Janissaries, an elite corps of loyal fighters who were once Christian boys, kidnapped, converted to Islam and trained.
The greatest Ottoman sultan was Suleyman the Magnificent who expanded the empire and brought about a golden age of culture and architecture.
The Ottomans, though Muslim, were tolerant of other people of the book – Jews and Christians – although these people were required to live in communities called millets.
2. Give 5 key facts about the rise of the Safavid Empire and its shahs:
The first Safavid shah was Esma’il, a Shi’a Muslim who went to war with Sunnis after his father was killed in 1501.
He made Shi’a Islam the official faith of the Safavid Empire, even though many Sunnis lived in it, and he adopted Persian language and government procedures.
The greatest Safavid shah was ‘Abbas, who modernized the army with gunpowder weapons and his own Janissaries made of Russian boys converted to Islam and trained.
‘Abbas invited Chinese potters to teach ceramic and tile techniques to his people, and built mosques with tiled domes, and public squares for the enjoyment of the people.
‘Abbas encouraged carpet weaving, which created jobs and wealth for the empire.
3. Explain what the Muslims were up to in Spain and the Western Mediterranean.
Muslim Moors came from North Africa to conquer the Iberian peninsula in 711 AD
By 732, the conquest was complete, and they attacked and lost to the Franks at the Battle of Tours.
They had fun attacking Italy, burning churches in Rome, pirating around the Mediterranean.
They began to lose territory in Spain when Spanish kings initiated La Reconquista to restore Christianity as the only faith in the Peninsula.
The last Muslim Caliph handed over his palace – the Alhambra – in 1492.
4. Identify King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, their programs, and the results.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella completed the “reconquest” of Spain from the Moors.
They initiated the Spanish Inquisition in 1481 to discover Muslims and Jews, and force them to convert, leave the country or die.
The result was that Muslims and Jews who did not want to leave the country – or die – converted to Catholicism. Most Spaniards thought that they were insincere about this.
The Auto-de-fé was the public announcement and parade of people convicted or found innocent of heresy, as well as the execution of the guilty tried in Inquisition courts.
After the last caliph left Spain, Queen Isabella funded Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the New World.