Greek language and literature



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GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
The subject familiarizes the student with the language, literature and culture of ancient and byzantine Greece and as well as their scientific study and their later influence. A central position is occupied by the classical Greek language and the literature composed in it.

Studies in Greek language and literature prepare students mainly for the careers of the researcher and the teacher, but they also give the eligibility for positions outside the field of ancient studies which require a humanist education.

Recommended minor subjects are Latin language and Roman literature, classical archaeology, a modern language (Italian, German, French, Spanish), general linguistics, South Asian studies, Semitic languages and cultures, general history, art history, aesthetics, theatre research, comparative literature, cultural anthropology, theoretical philosophy and comparative religion.
Dkr100 Basic level studies (25 ECTS)
The purpose of basic level studies is to familiarize the student with the main characteristics of ancient Greek culture and equip him with language skills sufficient for being able independently, by using aids, to understand simple classical Greek in the Attic dialect.
Complete DAY110 and DAY120. If they have been completed as part of another study module, complete DAY220 ja DAY230.
DAY110 Ancient history and mythology (5 ECTS)

P. Castrén, Uusi antiikin historia or Freeman, Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean, 2. edition, pp. 121-563 and

F. Graf, Griechische Mythologie. Eine Einführung (also in English: Greek Mythology: An Introduction)
DAY120 Ancient literary history (5 ECTS)

S. Kivistö & H.K. Riikonen & E. Salmenkivi & R. Sarasti-Wilenius, Kirjallisuus antiikin maailmassa.


DAY220 Ancient religion (5 ECTS)

W. Burkert, Greek Religion, chapters I-VI (approx. 300 p.) and either T.P.Wiseman, The Myths of Rome or M.-L. Hänninen & M. Kahlos & U. Lehtonen, Uskonnot antiikin Roomassa.


DAY230 Ancient art history II (5 ECTS)

J. Boardman (ed.), The Oxford History of Classical Art.


Instructors responsible: university lecturers (for the examiners see the webpage of the subject: helsinki.fi/hum/kla)
Dkr101-102 Basic course in classical Greek I-II (6 ECTS)

The course lasts an entire semester.

In the autumn semester the phonology, morphology and syntax of classical Greek are introduced through the elementary workbook. The aim is by means plentiful exercises to attain the ability to translate the simplest of Greek texts, analyse its grammatical structures and learn the most basic vocabulary.
Dkr103-104 Continuation course in classical Greek I-II (6 ECTS)

In the spring semester Greek vocabulary, morphology and syntax are introduced in more depth and translation exercises are carried out. Having completed the course, the student is able, by using aids, to understand simple Attic prose and analyse its grammatical structures.


Dkr105 Introduction to reading text (3 ECTS)

In the course simple Attic prose and its grammatical structure is analysed by using aids.


Instructor responsible: University lecturer / part-time teacher of Greek language and literature

Dkr200 Intermediate level studies (50 ECTS)
In intermediate level studies the student deepens and broadens his or her Greek skills and familiarity with Greek literature, learns to make use of varied source material and research literature and completes written assignments based on them.
Complete Day210. If it has been completed as part of another study module, complete one of the other study units mentioned.
Day210 Sources and methods of ancient studies (5 ECTS)

The department organizes an annual course dealing with the basics of scientific research, which is compulsory to all, as well as practicum-style methodology courses dealing with specific fields, of which the student is required to complete two.


Day240 Ancient philosophy (5 ECTS)

H. Thesleff- J. Sihvola, Antiikin filosofia ja aatemaailma or P. Hadot, Qu’est-ce que la philosophie antique? (also in English: What is Ancient Philosophy?) and in translation either Diogenes Laertios, Merkittävien filosofien elämät ja opit, 10. book (transl. M. Ahonen) or Marcus Aurelius, Itselleni (transl. M. Ahonen).


Day250 The ancient legacy (5 ECTS)

S. Goldhill, Who Needs Greek? Contests in the Cultural History of Hellenism and Salvatore Settis, Futuro del ‘classico’ (also in English: The Future of the ‘Classical’).


Day260 Ancient architecture and topography ( 5 ECTS)

R. Wycherley, The Stones of Athens and F. Sear, Roman Architecture.


Instructors responsible: University lecturers (for the examiners see the webpage of the subject)
Dkr113 PSP (1 ECTS)

At the beginning of their second academic year major subject students complete a personal study plan.


Instructor responsible: University lecturer in Greek language and literature
Dkr201 Greek grammar and metrics I (4 ECTS)

J. Blomqvist - P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 1–30 and § 49–214 or E. Bornemann - E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 1–142 or A. Kaegi, Kurzgefasste griechische Schulgrammatik (also in English: Kaegi's Greek Grammar).


Dkr202 Greek grammar and metrics II (4 ECTS)

J. Blomqvist - P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 49–214 or E. Bornemann - E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 29–142 or A. Kaegi, Kurzgefasste griechische Schulgrammatik (also in English: Kaegi's Greek Grammar).


Dkr203 Syntax (4 ECTS)

A. Rijksbaron, The Syntax and Semantics of the Verb in Classical Greek. An Introduction, § 1–40 (2. or 3. edition) and J. Blomqvist – P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 215–301 or E. Bornemann – E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 143–308.


Dkr211 Easy prose (3 ECTS)

The study unit involves reading approximately 25 pages of simple prose such as, for example, Xenophon. The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. M.D. Macleod, Xenophon: Apology and Memorabilia I or A.J. Bowen, Xenophon: Symposium or O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, Bücher 1-7.


Dkr212 Rhetoric and philosophy (3 ECTS)

Read approximately 30 pages of, for example, Lysias or Plato.

The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Lysias): S.C. Todd, A Commentary on Lysias, Speeches 1-11 or C. Carey, Lysias: Selected Speeches; (Plato) M.C. Stokes, Plato: Apology or E. Heitsch, Platon Werke I,2: Apologie des Sokrates or K. Dover, Plato: Symposion.
Dkr213 History writing (3 ECTS)

Read approximately 30 pages of Herodotus or 20 pages of Thucydides.

The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Herodotus) R.A. Mc Neal, Herodotus. Book I; A.M. Bowie, Herodotus. Histories. Book VIII; M.A. Flower & J. Marincola, Herodotus. Histories. Book IX; (Thucydides): H.D. Cameron, Thucydides. Book I. A Students Grammatical Commentary; J.S. Rusten, Thucydides: the Peloponnesian War, Book II.; K.J. Dover, Thucydides: Book VI.
Dkr221 Homer (4 ECTS)

Completed either as a course with a final examination or an examination in literature completed on the Faculty examination date.

Two rhapsodies of Homer, e.g. the 6th rhapsody of the Odyssey and a single rhapsody of the student’s own choice from the Iliad or the Odyssey. To be agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. A.F. Garvie: Homer: Odyssey Books VI-VIII; C. Macleod, Homer: Iliad Book XXIV; S. Pulleyn, Homer: Iliad. Book One; J. Griffin, Homer: Iliad. Book IX.

Dkr222 Drama (5 ECTS)

The dramatic work to be read is agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Aeschylus) D. Raeburn & O. Thomas, The Agamemnon of Aeschylus. A Commentary for Students; M. Griffith, Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound; (Sophocles) R.D. Dawe, Sophocles: Oedipus Rex; M. Griffith, Sophocles: Antigone; (Euripides) H.M. Roisman & C.A.E. Luschnig, Euripides: Electra; D.J. Mastronarde, Euripides: Medea; (Aristophanes) K. Dover, Aristophanes: Frogs; J. Henderson, Aristophanes: Lysistrata.


Dkr231 Proseminar (4 ECTS)

A prerequisite for participation in the proseminar is completion of basic level studies as well as Greek grammar and metrics I-II plus two of the study units Dkr211-222. In addition, it is recommended that the scientific writing course (YY11) have been completed earlier or be completed parallel with the proseminar.

Major subject students complete their TVT-studies in connection with the proseminar.

Further information is available from the instructor of the proseminar.

A requisite for completion is active participation in the proseminar for the duration of one semester.
Instructors responsible: University lecturer (proseminar)

Professor (Bachelor’s thesis)



Dkr222 Bachelor’s thesis (6 ECTS)

The Bachelor’s thesis included in the intermediate level studies of the student’s major subject is a written assignment discussed in the proseminar, corrected and updated, with a recommended length of 15-20 pages (font size 12, line spacing 1.5).

The Bachelor’s thesis is a content-centred work related to the topic of the proseminar. The thesis may be composed in essay form, thus distancing itself more clearly from the proseminar paper, or it may contain characteristics of an exercise in textual interpretation, such as a translation (or translations), comments, the student’s own analysis of the texts as well as issues pertaining to textual tradition.
The goal is for the Bachelor’s thesis to be directed in connection with the proseminar and after it, and the finished work is delivered to the professor for evaluation (on the scale 0 - 5). If the student writes his Bachelor’s thesis on a topic unrelated to that of the proseminar work, he or she is to agree on the topic directly with the professor.
Working life course (4 ECTS)

The department’s common working life course is aimed to be organized annually. Alternative ways of completing this study unit can be discussed with the Amanuensis of the subject.



Dkr200S Greek language and literature: intermediate level studies for minor subject students (35 ECTS)
Dkr201 Greek grammar and metrics I (4 ECTS)

J. Blomqvist - P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 1–30 and § 49–214 or E. Bornemann - E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 1–142 or A. Kaegi, Kurzgefasste griechische Schulgrammatik (also in English: Kaegi's Greek Grammar).


Dkr202 Greek grammar and metrics II (5 ECTS)

J. Blomqvist - P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 49–214 or E. Bornemann - E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 29–142 or A. Kaegi, Kurzgefasste griechische Schulgrammatik (also in English: Kaegi's Greek Grammar).


Dkr203 Syntax (4 ECTS)

A. Rijksbaron, The Syntax and Semantics of the Verb in Classical Greek. An Introduction, § 1–40 (2. or 3. painos) and J. Blomqvist – P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk - Græsk Grammatik, § 215–301 or E. Bornemann – E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 143–308.


Dkr211 Easy prose (3 ECTS)

The study unit involves reading approximately 25 pages of simple prose such as, for example, Xenophon. The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. M.D. Macleod, Xenophon: Apology and Memorabilia I or A.J. Bowen, Xenophon: Symposium or O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, Bücher 1-7.


Dkr212 Rhetoric and philosophy (3 ECTS)

Read approximately 30 pages of, for example, Lysias or Plato.

The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Lysias): S.C. Todd, A Commentary on Lysias, Speeches 1-11 or C. Carey, Lysias: Selected Speeches; (Plato) M.C. Stokes, Plato: Apology or E. Heitsch, Platon Werke I,2: Apologie des Sokrates or K. Dover, Plato: Symposion.
Dkr213 History writing (3 ECTS)

Read approximately 30 pages of Herodotus or 20 pages of Thucydides.

The text or texts are agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Herodotus) R.A. Mc Neal, Herodotus. Book I; A.M. Bowie, Herodotus. Histories. Book VIII; M.A. Flower & J. Marincola, Herodotus. Histories. Book IX; (Thucydides): H.D. Cameron, Thucydides. Book I. A Students Grammatical Commentary; J.S. Rusten, Thucydides: the Peloponnesian War, Book II.; K.J. Dover, Thucydides: Book VI.
Dkr221 Homer (4 ECTS)

Completed either as a course with a final examination or an examination in literature completed on the Faculty examination date.

Two rhapsodies of Homer, e.g. the 6th rhapsody of the Odyssey and a single rhapsody of the student’s own choice from the Iliad or the Odyssey. To be agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. A.F. Garvie: Homer: Odyssey Books VI-VIII; C. Macleod, Homer: Iliad Book XXIV; S. Pulleyn, Homer: Iliad. Book One; J. Griffin, Homer: Iliad. Book IX.

Dkr222 Drama (5 ECTS)

The dramatic work to be read is agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. (Aeschylus) D. Raeburn & O. Thomas, The Agamemnon of Aeschylus. A Commentary for Students; M. Griffith, Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound; (Sophocles) R.D. Dawe, Sophocles: Oedipus Rex; M. Griffith, Sophocles: Antigone; (Euripides) H.M. Roisman & C.A.E. Luschnig, Euripides: Electra; D.J. Mastronarde, Euripides: Medea; (Aristophanes) K. Dover, Aristophanes: Frogs; J. Henderson, Aristophanes: Lysistrata.


Dkr221 Proseminaari (4 ECTS)

In the proseminar, minor subject students complete a written assignment of textual interpretation (4 ECTS), completing their TVT-studies in connection with their major subject.


Dkr300 Advanced level studies (100 ECTS)
The main purpose of advanced level studies is to learn to work independently by making use of different ancient sources and write a thesis based on scientific research methods. Meanwhile the student deepens and broadens his or her knowledge of the Greek language and literature. The student may choose a specialization to focus on.
Complete the following study units:
Dkr301 The stages of the Greek language (4 ECTS)

G. Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (2. edition, 2010), pp. 1-230 and L.R.Palmer, The Greek Language (1980), pp. 3-173.


Dkr302 Textual tradition and the history of scholarship (4 ECTS):

L.D. Reynolds – N.G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars. A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature (3. edition, 1991).


Dkr313 History of Greek literature (4 ECTS):

E.g. either A. Dihle, Griechische Literaturgeschichte (3. edition, 1998, also in English: A History of Greek Literature from Homer to the Hellenistic Period, 1994) or O. Taplin (ed.), Literature in the Greek World (2001) or T. Whitmarsh, Ancient Greek Literature (2004) supplemented for the imperial period e.g. by P.E. Easterling – B.M.W. Knox (ed.), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature I: Greek Literature (1985), pp. 642-718.


Dkr311 Prose (4 ECTS)

Read approx. 80 pages of prose writing (e.g. Aristotle, Theophrastus, Polybius, Peri hypsous, Plutarch, Lucian, Marcus Aurelius, novel writers, scientific prose, church fathers).


Dkr312 Drama or other poetry (4 ECTS)

A single tragedy of Aeschylus, Sophocles or Euripides or a single comedy of Aristophanes or two comedies of Menander. – Alternatively the student may familiarize him or herself with Hellenistic or imperial poetry (approx. 1200 verses, e.g. Apollonius of Smyrna, Herodas, Callimachus, Theocritus, Oppianus, Quintus of Smyrna, Nonnus, Musaeus, the Greek anthology).


Dkr313 Lyric poetry (4 ECTS)

Approximately 1200 verses of monodic lyric poetry (e.g. Alcaeus, Anacreon, Archilochus, Callinus, Mimnermus, Sappho, Solon, Theognis, Tyrtaeus).

Alternatively approx. 900 verses of choral lyric poetry (e.g. Alcman, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Pindar, Simonides, Stesichorus). To be agreed upon with the examiner. Monodic poetry can be selected e.g. from the following works:

Iambi et elegi Graeci I-II, ed. M.L. West (revised ed. 1989 & 1992) or Lyrica Graeca selecta, ed. D.L. Page (1968) and Suppl. Lyricis Graecis, ed. D. Page (1974). Different poets have separate commentaries whose use as aids is recommended. – The choice of editions of Pindar is to be agreed upon separately with the examiner. For other choral lyric poets the student may use e.g. the work G.O. Hutchinson, Greek Lyric Poetry. A Commentary on Selected Longer Pieces (2001).
Dkr314 Papyri and/or inscriptions (4 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner. A basic introduction into the field, e.g. A.G. Woodhead, The Study of Greek Inscriptions (2. edition, 1981) or G. Klaffenbach, Griechische Epigraphik (2. edition, 1966) supplemented by a selection of approx. 40 pages of text (a catalogue can be obtained from the department).


Instructor responsible: professor/university lecturer

Dkr315H or Dkr316T Working life practice or career orientation course (5 ECTS)

An internship improving the student’s expertise or studies supporting the student’s career orientation. To be agreed upon in the department with the Amanuensis.


Dkr334 PSP (1 ECTS)

A preliminary study plan is to be drawn up and delivered to the professor when announcing one’s participation in the seminar.



Dkr390 Master’s thesis seminar (8 ECTS)

An independent written assignment applying scientific methodology is composed on a topic agreed upon with the instructor. At least one of the two seminar papers should ideally provide the basis for the Master’s thesis.


Dkr800 Master’s thesis (40 ECTS)
Instructor responsible: Professor

Dkr330 Specializations (18 ECTS)

A prerequisite for the specialization study units is completion of the Bachelor’s degree. Specializations acquaint the student in more depth with a specific field of ancient studies. Each specialization is 18 ECTS in extent.


Instructor responsible: Professor
Dkr330 Linguistics

Cyk110 Basic course in general linguistics (3 ECTS). If the study unit has been completed in connection with studies in another subject, it is compensated for with supplementary studies..

Dkr331 Advanced history of the Greek language (5 ECTS)

H. Rix, Historische Grammatik des Griechischen: Laut- und Formenlehre (1. or 2. edition) and P. Bortone, Greek Prepositions from Antiquity to the Present (2010).



Dkr332 Dialects and regional variation (5 ECTS)

E.J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, pp. 171–252 and R. Schmitt, Einführung in die griechischen Dialekte or Y. Duhoux, Introduction aux dialectes grecs anciens and V. Bubeník, Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a Sociolinguistic Area.



Dkr333 Social and genre-based linguistic variation (5 ECTS)

E.J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, pp. 253–482 and T.V. Evans & D.D. Obbink (ed.), The Language of the Papyri, pp. 13–155 and 198–252.


Dkr340 Literature

Dkr341 Advanced history of literature (6 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner. E.g. A. Lesky, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (3. edition, 1971, also in English) or P.E. Easterling – B.M.W. Knox (ed.), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature I: Greek Literature (1985).



Dkr342 Research literature on a specific literary genre or author (6 ECTS)

Research literature on the subject, to be agreed upon with the examiner.



Dkr343 Original texts related to a specific literary genre or author (6 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner.


Dkr350 Byzantinistics

Dkr351 Byzantine history (4 ECTS)

C. Mango, Byzantium. The Empire of the New Rome or J. Haldon, Byzantium. A History (also in Finnish).



Dkr352 History of the language and literature (4 ECTS)

R. Browning, Medieval and Modern Greek and J.O. Rosenqvist, Bysantinsk litteratur från 500-talet till Konstantinopels fall 1453 (also in Modern Greek).



Dkr353 Research literature dealing with special questions (5 ECTS)

E.g. R. Beaton, The medieval Greek Romance (2. edition, 1996) and N.G. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium or P. Lemerle, Le premier humanisme byzantin: notes et remarques sur enseignement et culture à Byzance des origines au Xe siècle (also in English).



Dkr354 Byzantine original texts (5 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner.


Dkr360 Written primary sources

Dkr361 Methodological introduction into epigraphy or papyrology (5 ECTS), E.g. M. Guarducci, L’epigrafia greca dalle origini al tardo impero or O. Montevecchi, La papirologia (2. edition, 1988) or R. Bagnall (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (2009).

Dkr362 A specialized study on a single specific field of epigraphy or papyrology (4 ECTS)

E.g. B.H. McLean, An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods from Alexander the Great down to the Reign of Constantine or R. Seider, Paläographie der griechischen Papyri or R.S. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (1996) or J. Rowlandson, Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt (1998) or J. Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt. Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture (2007).



Dkr363 Research literature dealing with special questions (4 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner.



Dkr364 A selection of inscriptions or papyri (5 ECTS)

Texts can be selected from e.g. R. Meiggs – D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the Fifth Century BC (1988) and P.J. Rhodes – R. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions 404 - 323 BC (2003) or L. Mitteis – U. Wilcken, Grundzüge und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde I-II (1912) and P.W. Pestman, The New Papyrological Primer (2. edition, 1994).


Dar370 Archaeology

Advanced level studies in classical archaeology have as a prerequisite basic and intermediate level studies in Greek language and literature or Latin and Roman literature; the common part of the advanced level studies (Dkr301-314/Dla311-316) must also be completed.



Dar371 Methodology.

Literature pertaining to the theoretical and methodological topic of the Master’s thesis in essays, seminar papers, examinations (5 ECTS)



Dar372 Special questions I.

Literature dealing with material related to the topic of the Master’s thesis (7 ECTS)



Dar373 Practice.

Work practice e.g. in an archaeological research project, assembling one’s own material in the field or working in a museum (6 ECTS)


Dnk326 Modern Greek

NOTE! This specialization will be removed from the curriculum as of 1.8.2014. Advanced level studies in Modern Greek have as a prerequisite basic and intermediate level studies in Greek language and literature; the common part of the advanced level studies (Dkr301-314) must also be completed.



Dnk326.2 History of the language and introduction into the linguistic study of Modern Greek (3 ECTS): For example H. Tonnet, Istoría tis néas ellinikís glóssas (also in French)

Dnk326.3 Modern Greek dialects (3 ECTS): a selection of articles can be obtained from the department.

Dnk326.4 Texts from different periods (5 ECTS): Digénis Akrítas, Erotókritos, The Chronicle of the Moréa, Cretan dramatic literature, Late Byzantine texts (e.g. Ptohopródromos).

Dnk326.5 Belles lettres (7 ECTS): Works of central Greek authors as agreed upon with the examiner. The collection of texts must, however, contain works of G. Seféris, O. Elítis, N. Kazantzákis and modern literature.

Dnk326.6 A written report in Greek on a topic specifically agreed upon (4 ECTS).

Dkr300S Advanced level studies in Greek language and literature for minor subject students (80 ECTS)
Complete the following study units in such a way that one of the units Dkr311-314 is 6 ECTS in extent (in order to make up for the PSP):
Dkr301 Stages of the Greek language (4 ECTS)

G. Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (2. edition, 2010), pp. 1-230 and L.R.Palmer, The Greek Language (1980), pp. 3-173.


Dkr302 Textual tradition and the history of scholarship (4 ECTS):

L.D. Reynolds – N.G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars. A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature (3. edition, 1991).


Dkr313 Greek literary history (4 ECTS):

E.g. either A. Dihle, Griechische Literaturgeschichte (3. edition, 1998, also in English: A History of Greek Literature from Homer to the Hellenistic Period, 1994) or O. Taplin (ed.), Literature in the Greek World (2001) or T. Whitmarsh, Ancient Greek Literature (2004) supplemented for the imperial period by e.g. the work P.E. Easterling – B.M.W. Knox (ed.), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature I: Greek Literature (1985) pp. 642-718.


Dkr311 Prose (4 ECTS)

Read approx. 80 pages of prose writing (e.g. Aristotle, Theophrastus, Polybius, Peri hypsous, Plutarch, Lucian, Marcus Aurelius, novel writers, scientific prose, church fathers).



Dkr312 Drama or other poetry (4 ECTS)

A single tragedy of Aeschylus, Sophocles or Euripides or a single comedy of Aristophanes or two comedies of Menander. – Alternatively the student may familiarize him or herself with Hellenistic or imperial poetry (approx. 1200 verses, e.g. Apollonius of Smyrna, Herodas, Callimachus, Theocritus, Oppianus, Quintus of Smyrna, Nonnus, Musaeus, the Greek anthology).


Dkr313 Lyric poetry (4 ECTS)

Approximately 1200 verses of monodic lyric poetry (e.g. Alcaeus, Anacreon, Archilochus, Callinus, Mimnermus, Sappho, Solon, Theognis, Tyrtaeus).

Alternatively approx. 900 verses of choral lyric poetry (e.g. Alcman, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Pindar, Simonides, Stesichorus). To be agreed upon with the examiner. Monodic poetry can be selected e.g. from the following works:

Iambi et elegi Graeci I-II, ed. M.L. West (revised ed. 1989 & 1992) or Lyrica Graeca selecta, ed. D.L. Page (1968) and Suppl. Lyricis Graecis, ed. D. Page (1974). Different poets have separate commentaries whose use as aids is recommended. – The choice of editions of Pindar is to be agreed upon separately with the examiner. For other choral lyric poets the student may use e.g. the work G.O. Hutchinson, Greek Lyric Poetry. A Commentary on Selected Longer Pieces (2001).
Dkr314 Papyri and/or inscriptions (4 ECTS)

To be agreed upon with the examiner. A basic introduction into the field, e.g. A.G. Woodhead, The Study of Greek Inscriptions (2. edition, 1981) or G. Klaffenbach, Griechische Epigraphik (2. edition, 1966) supplemented by a selection of approx. 40 pages of text (a catalogue can be obtained from the department).


Dkr390 Master’s thesis seminar (8 ECTS)

An independent written assignment applying scientific methodology is composed on a topic agreed upon with the instructor. At least one of the two seminar papers should ideally provide the basis for the Master’s thesis.


Dkr800ST Minor subject thesis (20 ECTS, 30-40 pages)
Dkr320 Specializations Cf. major subject studies (18 ECTS)

Dkr500 Greek language and literature for theologians (25 ECTS)
These basic level studies are meant for theologians who want to complete a post-graduate degree majoring in New Testament exegesis. As for the starting level, the student is expected to have completed 15 ECTS’ worth of ancient Greek or a basic course in New Testament Greek plus the New Testament Greek study units completed in connection with basic and intermediate level studies in exegesis (20 ECTS).
Knowledge of antiquity (6 ECTS)

The study unit has the purpose of giving the student basic familiarity with the ancient Greek world. Alternative study units are literary history and sources and methods of ancient studies. The work P. Castrén – L. Pietilä-Castrén, Antiikin käsikirja is recommended as an aid for terminology and nomenclature.



Day111a History of Greece (3 ECTS): C. Freeman, Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean, pages 121–354. NOTE! 2. edition (2004)
Plus one of the following:

Day112a History of Greek literature (3 ECTS): J. de Romilly, Précis de littérature grecque (also in English as A Short History of Greek Literature) or S. Saïd – M. Trédé, A Short History of Greek Literature.

or

Day115 The sources and methods of ancient studies (3 ECTS): P. Castrén – J. Frösén, Johdatus antiikintutkimukseen and part of the work Kulttuuri antiikin maailmassa (chapters I/1, 3-5, IV and V).
Instructor responsible: university lecturers (For the examiners see the webpage of the subject: helsinki.fi/hum/kla)
Grammar and original texts (19 ECTS)

This study unit aims to improve and diversify the student’s language skill by acquainting him with archaic epic as well as classical and postclassical prose.


Instructor responsible: professor
Dkr211 Grammar of classical Greek (6 ECTS).

J. Blomqvist – P.O. Jastrup, Grekisk – Græsk Grammatik, phonology (§ 1 – 30), morphology (§ 49 – 214) and the outlines of syntax or E. Bornemann – E. Risch, Griechische Grammatik, § 1 – 142 and the outlines of syntax or A. Kaegi, Kurzgefasste griechische Schulgrammatik (also in English).



Dkr212 Greek texts (13 ECTS). Part (a) is compulsory; from parts b-e a total of 10 ECTS is to be selected from a minimum of two parts. Approx. 10 Oxford/Teubner pages correspond to a single ECTS.

a) A single rhapsody of Homer, completed in the Homer course, plus the entire of the Odyssey in translation (3 ECTS)

b) philosophy: Plato (e.g. Parmenides or Timaeus), Aristotle (e.g. Nikomachean ethics), Philo, Plutarch, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius

c) history writing: Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius

d) rhetoric: Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes, Peri hypsous

e) papyrus texts, which should preferably be read in a papyrus course organized by the department of classical philology (usually 3 ECTS).




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