Greek Accomplishments



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Name: __________________________________________________________________ Mr. Shalaby

Date: ___________________________________________________________________ Collier High



Period: _________________________________________________________________ Mythology

Greek Accomplishments

The Trojan War

  • About 1200 B.C., the _________________ fought the Trojan War with the city of Troy in Anatolia.

  • At the same time, _______________ invaded the Mycenaean homeland

  • From 1100 to 800 B.C., ___________ reigned throughout the eastern Mediterranean

  • In the absence of a _______________ state or empire, local institutions took the lead in

restoring political order to Greece.

  • The Trojans were people from ancient __________ (Turkey).

  • The Trojan War was fought between the Trojans and the ___________ over the beautiful

maiden _____________.

  • The Greeks wanted to sneak into the gates of Ancient Troy, so they built a giant wooden

___________ and told the Trojans it was a gift from the ____________ (Greeks).

  • Two epic poems by Homer “___________” and “__________” describe the Trojan War

  • Approximately 1194-1184 BCE

  • Helen of Sparta + ________________ of Troy  “the face that launched a thousand ships”

Homer

  • Epic: a long poem which tells a story involving gods, heroes, and heroic exploits:

    • Iliad: Greek perspective on the war against Troy in the 12th century B.C.

    • Odyssey: Experiences of the Greek hero _____________ as he sailed home after the

Trojan.

Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom

  • Greek ___________ challenged the belief that events were caused by the whims of gods.

  • Instead, they used ___________ and reason to find causes for events.

  • The Greeks called these thinkers ________________, meaning “lovers of wisdom.”

  • Greek philosophers explored many subjects, from mathematics and music to logic, or ______________ thinking.

  • Through ____________ and observation, they believed, they could discover laws that governed the universe.

  • Much modern science traces its roots to the Greek search for such _______________.

Ethical Issues

  • Other Greek Philosophers were more interested in ___________ and morality.

  • They debated such questions as what was the best kind of ________________ and what standards should rule human behavior.

Socrates Questions Tradition

  • One outspoken critic of the Sophists was Socrates, an ___________ stonemason and philosopher.

  • Most of what we know about Socrates comes from his student _____________.

  • Socrates himself wrote no books. Instead, he passed his days in the ______________ asking people about their beliefs.

  • Using a process we now call the Socratic ___________, he would pose a series of

questions to a student or passing __________, and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers

  • When he was about 70 years old, Socrates was put on ____________. His enemies

accused him of _____________ the city’s youth and failing to respect the gods.

  • Standing before a jury of 501 citizens, Socrates offered a calm and reasoned defense. But

the jurors condemned him to _________. Loyal to the laws of Athens, Socrates accepted

the death penalty. He drank a cup of _____________, a deadly poison.



Plato Envisions A Perfect Society

  • The execution of Socrates left Plato with a lifelong distrust of ______________.

  • He fled Athens for 10 years. When he returned, he set up a school called the __________. There, he taught and wrote about his own ideas

  • In his book The ____________, Plato described his vision of an ideal state.

    • He rejected Athenian democracy because it had ______________ Socrates just as it tended to other excesses.

    • Instead, Plato argued that the ________ should regulate every aspect of its citizens’ lives in order to provide for their best interests

  • He divided his ideal society into three classes:

    • ___________ to produce the necessities of life,

    • _____________ to defend the state,

    • ______________ to rule. This elite class of leaders would be specially trained to ensure order and justice. The wisest of them, a philosopher-king, would have the ultimate authority.

Aristotle Pursues the Golden Mean

  • Plato’s most famous student, ___________, developed his own ideas about government.

  • He analyzed all forms of government, from ______________ to democracy, and found good and bad examples of each.

  • Like Plato, he was suspicious of democracy, which he thought could lead to ______ rule.

  • In the end, he favored rule by a ____________ strong and virtuous leader

  • He left ___________ on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, and many other subjects.

  • When the first European _____________ evolved some 1,500 years later, their courses

were based largely on the works and ideas of Aristotle.

Monumental Architecture

  • Greek architects sought to convey a sense of perfect ___________ to reflect the _________ and order of the universe.

  • The most famous example of Greek architecture is the ________________, a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena.

  • Greek architecture has been widely admired for centuries. Today, many public buildings

throughout the world have ___________________ Greek architectural elements, such as

______________, in their designs.



Sculptures - Artists Craft Lifelike Human Forms

  • Early Greek ____________ carved figures in rigid poses, perhaps imitating Egyptian styles.

  • By 450 B.C., Greek sculptors had developed a new style that emphasized more

_________ forms.

  • While their work was lifelike, it was also ____________. That is, sculptors carved gods,

goddesses, athletes, and famous men in a way that showed human beings in their most

____________, graceful form.



  • Ideals of classical art—Order, _________ and Proportion

  • Sculptures show ___________, serenity, strength and perfection

  • Most Greek Sculptures exist today because the _____________ copied them

Arts

  • The only Greek paintings to survive are on ____________.

  • They offer intriguing views of every day Greek ____________.

    • Women carry water from wells.

    • warriors race into battle, and athletes compete in javelin contests.

  • Each scene is designed to fit the _____________ of the pottery.

Greek Poetry and Fables

  • Greek poems and stories are the oldest in the ____________ world and serve as models for European and American poems and stories.

  • An ________ is a long poem about heroic deeds.

  • The first great epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey, written by Homer.

  • The Greeks believed these two epics were _________ history.

  • A slave named Aesop wrote many fable.

      • A __________ is a short tale that teaches a lesson.

      • Fables were passed from one person to another through ________ traditions.

Olympic Games

  • Began in 776 BC in the city-state of ______________.

  • Held to honor __________.

  • _______________ first included footraces then wrestling, boxing, javelin, discus throwing

were added

scratching the facial area

  • Winner would receive a _____________ of Olive leaves

Religion and Education

  • The ancient Greeks created great __________ and works of literature that influence the way we speak and wrote today.

  • The Greeks created myths to explain the ____________.

  • The ancient Greeks believed in many gods. These gods were at the ____________ of Greek mythology.

Worshipping the deities

  • Each city in Greece had a god or goddess that the citizens ______________. They built

temples, statues, and had celebrations to honor that ___________. They also made

offerings to the gods.



Study of History

  • ______________—History of the Persian wars—often called the father of history

  • ______________—History of the Peloponnesian Wars

    • Began the scientific analysis of events based on actual _______________ accounts and factual evidence and then added their own poetic interpretations

Science

  • Eratosthenes—Correctly measures the earth’s circumference.

  • ______________—Geocentric theory—cartography, creation of latitude/longitude

  • ______________—Develops a system of levers and pulleys

  • ______________ —Medicine

  • Astronomy—Aristarchus—proposed

  • Heliocentric theory

  • Anaxagoras—eclipses


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