Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation



Download 173.58 Kb.
Page1/4
Date conversion28.04.2016
Size173.58 Kb.
  1   2   3   4



Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation




1.0

1.1


1.2

1.3


1.4

1.5


1.6

1.7


1.8

1.9


1.10

1.11


2.0

2.1


2.2

3.0


3.1

3.2


3.3

3.4


Grammar

Sentences

Paragraphs

Syntax


Nouns

Pronouns


Adjectives

Verbs


Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Subordinate Clauses



Spelling

Words to watch

Some odd Spelling ‘Rules’

Punctuation

Full Stops

Commas

Colons and Semi-Colons



Apostrophes







Academics are often accused of being pedantic about grammar, spelling and punctuation, but all these seemingly endless rules are actually about effective communication – expressing yourself clearly, accurately and precisely.
It is true that language is dynamic, so conventional rules about grammar and punctuation change all the time. It is also true that experts often disagree amongst themselves about correct spelling and punctuation. The fact is that there are different conventions about some things, and some academics will tell you one thing, and others will tell you something completely different….
Many of the errors found in student assignments are usually straightforward, however. Students may be criticised, or even lose marks, because they have neglected some basic rules. Effective academic writing requires good grammar, spelling, and punctuation.



1.0

Grammar

1.1

Sentences



The sentence is the basic unit of academic writing. This may seem obvious, but in informal spoken English, people often use incomplete sentences. Sentences in essays and assignments must always be complete.





Complete sentence:

The doctor saw the patient.

Incomplete sentence:

Seeing the patient.







‘Seeing the patient’ is a sentence fragment. These are extremely common in spoken English, so they sound okay. But watch out for sentence fragments in formal written academic assignments.

A complete sentence is a complete thought and always has (at least) two components: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the person or thing at the centre of attention; the predicate tells the reader something about the subject:






The doctor

saw the patient.

subject

predicate






Often, though not always, the predicate can be further divided into a verb and an object. The verb is the ‘doing or being’ word, and describes the action. The object (if there is one) tells you who is on the receiving end:





The doctor

saw

the patient.

subject

verb

object






  1   2   3   4


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page