Grade 8: Module 3B: Unit 2: Lesson 2 Close Reading



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Grade 8: Module 3B: Unit 2: Lesson 2

Close Reading: Brown v. Board of Education



Long-Term Targets Addressed (Based on NYSP12 ELA CCLS)

I can evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text (assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims). (RI.8.8)

I can cite text-based evidence that provides the strongest support for an analysis of informational text. (RI.8.1)



I can analyze the connections and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events in a text. (RI.8.3)


Supporting Learning Targets

Ongoing Assessment

  • I can analyze the central idea of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision.

  • I can use evidence from Brown v. Board of Education to support my understanding of the text and the desegregation of schools in the South.


Agenda

Teaching Notes

  1. Opening

    1. Engaging the Reader: Sharing Structured Notes (4 minutes)

    2. Reviewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  2. Work Time

    1. Close Reading: Brown v Board of Education Excerpts (33 minutes)

  3. Closing and Assessment

    1. Revisiting Learning Targets and Previewing Homework (5 minutes)

  4. Homework

    1. Read Chapter 8, pages 141-162 in A Mighty Long Way and complete the structured notes.

  • This lesson concludes the close reading of the excerpts from the landmark Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling. Students have an opportunity to make connections between Brown v. Board of Education and A Mighty Long Way.

  • In order to comprehend Brown v. Board of Education, students may need more time and support. If needed, consider spreading this lesson out over two class periods. If you do this, devote Lesson 2 Part 1 to solidifying students’ understanding of key vocabulary terms and begin the text-dependent questions, allowing time for discussion of each question before moving on. This in Lesson 2, Part 2,return to any unaddressed text-dependent questions, again with time for discussion of each. Ultimately, students should understand that Brown v. Board made segregation of schools illegal because even if the physical spaces were ‘equal’, the court argued that segregation had a psychological impact on students of color, making them feel as though they were inferior.

  • In advance: Review Whip-around or Go ‘round protocol (see Appendix A).

  • Post: Learning targets.




Lesson Vocabulary

Materials

compulsory, expenditures, plaintiffs, sanctions

  • Brown v. Board of Education excerpts (from Lesson 1)

  • Brown v. Board of Education text-dependent questions (one per student)

  • Close Reading Guide: Brown v. Board of Education excerpts (for teacher reference)

  • A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes, Chapter 8, pages 141–162 (one per student)

  • A Mighty Long Way Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 8, pages 141–162 (optional; for students needing extra support)

  • A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes Teacher’s Guide, Chapter 8, pages 141–162 (for teacher reference)



Opening

Meeting Students’ Needs

      A. Engaging the Reader: Homework Focus Question (7 minutes)

  • Invite students to get out the their A Mighty Long Way structured notes, Chapter 7, pages 124–140 (from homework) and meet with their Washington, D.C. discussion partners.

  • Direct students’ attention to the focus question on the structured notes,

    • “Why was the fact that Washington, D.C. was segregated so shocking to Carlotta?”

  • Provide time for them to discuss their answers with their partners.

  • Listen for students to say that Carlotta was shocked that Washington, D.C. was so much like the South—segregated. She expected the fact that D.C. is the nation’s capital to make a positive difference for black people there.

  • Share with students that Carlotta is realizing a lot of new things about her society. Have students take out their Journey to Justice note-catchers and reread stage 2 of the note-catcher, titled “Ain’t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Around”. Ask:

    • “What additional changes has Carlotta experienced?”

  • Invite students to work with their partners to add to their Journey to Justice note-catchers using Chapters 6 and 7. After a few minutes, cold call on student pairs to share the changes Carlotta is experiencing.

  • Opening the lesson by asking students to share their homework makes them accountable for completing it. It also gives you the opportunity to monitor which students have not been completing their homework.




      B. Reviewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Read the learning targets aloud:

    • “I can analyze the central idea of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision.”

    • “I can use evidence from excerpts from Brown v. Board of Education to support my understanding of the text and the desegregation of schools in the South.”

  • Ask students to turn and talk with their partner about the following question:

    • “How do you think that rereading and understanding Brown v. Board might help you understand Carlotta’s experience in A Mighty Long Way?”







Work Time

Meeting Students’ Needs

      A. Close Reading: Brown v Board of Education Excerpts (30 minutes)

  • Explain that students will now have an opportunity to understand the court case Brown v. Board of Education more deeply, as well as make some connections to Carlotta’s experience in A Mighty Long Way.

  • Direct students’ to get out their copies of the Brown v. Board of Education excerpts.

  • Tell students that before they begin reading, they’ll need to understand the meanings of a few key words that are underlined in their texts.

  • With their Washington, D.C. discussion partners, ask students to try to define the underlined words using context clues in reference to the Brown v. Board of Education excerpts: compulsory, expenditures, plaintiffs, and sanctions.

  • After a couple of minutes, ask:

    • “What do these words mean and how did you determine the meaning?”

  • Listen for:

    • Compulsory means required.”

    • Expenditures are expenses.”

    • “The plaintiff of a case is the person who brings the court case against another person.”

    • Sanctions are penalties.”

  • Clarify as needed; the strategies used to arrive at these definitions may vary.

  • Distribute Brown v. Board of Education text-dependent questions. Use the Close Reading Guide: Brown v. Board of Education excerpts (for teacher reference) to help you guide through their work with these text-dependent questions.

  • When 5 minutes remain in Work Time, pause students and refocus the whole group. Check for understanding, refocusing on specific questions you noted that were more difficult for students.

  • Consider collecting the text-dependent questions as a formative assessment.

  • Defining key academic vocabulary prior to re-reading the text helps all students better grasp the details of that text.



Closing and Assessment

Meeting Students’ Needs

      A. Revisiting Learning Targets and Previewing Homework (5 minutes)

  • Debrief the learning target:

    • “I can use evidence from Brown v. Board of Education excerpts to support my understanding of the text and the desegregation of schools in the South.”

  • Using Whip-around protocol, ask:

    • “What details from A Mighty Long Way provide evidence that separate is not equal, and that educational opportunity must be made equal by the court in Brown v. Board of Education?”

  • Listen for details outlining how educational experiences for Carlotta and other black students differed from those of their white peers.

  • Distribute A Mighty Long Way structured notes, Chapter 8, pages 141–162. Read the focus question aloud, and remind students to use evidence from the text as they respond to the question.




Homework

Meeting Students’ Needs

  • Read Chapter 8, pages 141-162 in A Mighty Long Way and complete the structured notes.

  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the memoir.


Grade 8: Module 3B: Unit 2: Lesson 2

Supporting Materials







Brown v. Board of Education

Text-Dependent Questions




Name:

Date:




Text-dependent questions

Response using the strongest evidence from the text

What are the details of the argument supporting the claim that “education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments”?


How might the segregation of schools affect the motivation of a child to learn? What does Brown v. Board of Education have to say about this question? How does this connect to Carlotta’s story?



Based on the arguments presented in the case, how did the court decide that educational segregation deprives people “of the equal protection of state law”?




Close Reading Guide: Brown v. Board of Education excerpts

(For Teacher Reference)



Total Time: 23 minutes


Questions/Directions for Students




What are the details of the argument supporting the claim that “education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments”?

Read the question aloud and invite students to turn and talk to their discussion partner before cold calling on pairs to share their answers.
Listen for:

The fact that our society has made education mandatory and has chosen to spend tax money to support it indicates its importance. Education serves the crucial functions in society of preparing the young to fulfill civic duties and participate in the world of work and the larger society. It was considered so important by the court that the statement was made that “it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education.”
Scaffolding/probing questions:

* Why does it make sense to spend tax dollars for good schools?

* What do we learn in school that helps us be a citizen of our country?




Close Reading Guide: Brown v. Board of Education excerpts

(For Teacher Reference)




Questions/Directions for Students




How might the segregation of schools affect the motivation of a child to learn? What does Brown v. Board of Education have to say about this question? How does this connect to Carlotta’s story?


Read the question aloud and invite students to turn and talk to their discussion partner before cold calling on pairs to share their answers.
Listen for:

Brown v. Board says that segregation leads to a sense of inferiority for black people. In Carlotta Walls’ story, it was obvious that the resources given to the white students were newer and more costly. Black teachers and administrators were paid less than their counterparts in white schools. School buildings for black students had fewer amenities and cost less to construct. If the children were aware of these differences, they could feel that they were not really worth educating and so might give up on school and the value of education.


Scaffolding/probing questions:

* What details about the differences in schooling between white and black students do you know from reading A Mighty Long Way?

* Why would knowing about the differences in educational experiences demotivate a person to learn?


Close Reading Guide: Brown v. Board of Education excerpts

(For Teacher Reference)




Questions/Directions for Students




Based on the arguments presented in the case, how did the court decide that educational segregation deprives people “of the equal protection of state law”?


Read the question aloud and invite students to turn and talk to their discussion partner before cold calling on pairs to share their answers.
Listen for:

The logic of the court’s decision was that education is probably the most important state and local government function. This importance is reflected in laws. It is necessary for “our most basic public responsibilities.” It instills cultural values and prepares for the workplace. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right that must be made available to all on equal terms. For black students, education is not, in reality, equal; this inequality affects their motivation to learn; therefore, they do not have equal protection under the law.
Scaffolding/probing questions:
* What was the first claim presented in Paragraph 2?

* Can you label parts of the argument with first, second, third, etc.?




A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes, Chapter 8, Pages 141–162


Name:

Date:



What is the gist of what you read?



On page 162, Carlotta recounts Jefferson’s first day of school in 1959. She refers to a decision that Elizabeth Eckford made that day when she writes, “That decision was nothing short of brave and heroic.” What decision is Carlotta referring to? Why does she think it is “brave and heroic”?


A Mighty Long Way Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 8, Pages 141–162


Name:

Date:




Summary of Chapter 7, pages 124–140
At the end of the summer after her first year of school, the Little Rock school district fights to delay the opening of school—all the way to the Supreme Court. Justice Warren and the court order integration with no delay. Faubus becomes governor again and passes a series of anti-integration bills that allow him to take control of the school system. He works to shut down the schools in Little Rock and thousands of families must look for alternative schooling options. Many black students drop out of school. The Little Rock Nine is now down to five students; they take correspondence courses and Carlotta is bored. She eventually goes to Cleveland to stay with a family there (the Christophers) and attend school. Mrs. Christopher encourages her to attend college, but Carlotta declines because she feels driven to finish Central High. She completes the eleventh grade in summer school in Chicago. Just before the next school year is to begin, Governor Faubus delivers a speech and incites a mob, which is put under control by new Police Chief Eugene Smith, who uses fire hoses on the anti-integrationist protesters.




On page 162, Carlotta recounts Jefferson’s first day of school in 1959. She refers to a decision that Elizabeth Eckford made that day when she writes, “That decision was nothing short of brave and heroic.” What decision is Carlotta referring to? Why does she think it is “brave and heroic”?


A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes Teacher’s Guide, Chapter 8, Pages 141–162



Summary of Chapter 7, pages 124–140
At the end of the summer after her first year of school, the Little Rock school district fights to delay the opening of school—all the way to the Supreme Court. Justice Warren and the court order integration with no delay. Faubus becomes governor again and passes a series of anti-integration bills that allow him to take control of the school system. He works to shut down the schools in Little Rock and thousands of families must look for alternative schooling options. Many black students drop out of school. The Little Rock Nine is now down to five students; they take correspondence courses and Carlotta is bored. She eventually goes to Cleveland to stay with a family there (the Christophers) and attend school. Mrs. Christopher encourages her to attend college, but Carlotta declines because she feels driven to finish Central High. She completes the eleventh grade in summer school in Chicago. Just before the next school year is to begin, Governor Faubus delivers a speech and incites a mob, which is put under control by new Police Chief Eugene Smith, who uses fire hoses on the anti-integrationist protesters.




On page 162, Carlotta recounts Jefferson’s first day of school in 1959. She refers to a decision that Elizabeth Eckford made that day when she writes, “That decision was nothing short of brave and heroic.” What decision is Carlotta referring to? Why does she think it is “brave and heroic”?
Carlotta is referring to Elizabeth’s decision to walk to the front doors of Central High School with Jefferson, although she was not returning to Central herself. Carlotta says it is brave and heroic because it would have brought up all the abuse Elizabeth suffered on the first day of school two years earlier, when she was caught in the mob alone. The mob on that particular day was then dissipated, but it would have still been frightening to the two young people.







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