Grade 5 Correlation of Core Knowledge® and New York Learning Standards

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IV. The Renaissance and the Reformation

A. The Renaissance

• Islamic scholars translate Greek works and so help preserve classical civilization.

• A “rebirth” of ideas from ancient Greece and Rome

• New trade and new wealth

• Italian city states: Venice, Florence, Rome

• Patrons of the arts and learning

The Medici Family and Florence

The Popes and Rome

• Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo

• Renaissance ideals and values as embodied in

The Courtier by Castiglione: the “Renaissance man”

The Prince by Machiavelli: real-world politics
B. The Reformation

• Gutenberg’s printing press: the Bible made widely available

• The Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther and the 95 Theses

John Calvin

• The Counter-Reformation

• Copernicus and Galileo: Conflicts between science and the church

Ptolemaic (earth-centered) vs. sun-centered models of the universe

VII. Science Biographies (Moved from science)
V. England from the Golden Age to the Glorious Revolution

A. England in the Golden Age

• Henry VIII and the Church of England

• Elizabeth I

British naval dominance

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

Sir Francis Drake

British exploration and North American settlements
B. From the English Revolution to the Glorious Revolution

• The English Revolution

King Charles I, Puritans and Parliament

Civil War: Cavaliers and Roundheads

Execution of Charles I

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan regime

The Restoration (1660): Charles II restored to the English throne, many Puritans leave England for America

• The “Glorious Revolution” (also called the Bloodless Revolution)

King James II replaced by William and Mary

Bill of Rights: Parliament limits the power of the monarchy

VI. Russia: Early Growth and Expansion

A. History and Culture

• Russia as successor to Byzantine Empire: Moscow as new center of Eastern Orthodox Church and of Byzantine culture (after the fall of Constantinople in 1453)

• Ivan III (the Great), czar (from the Latin “Caesar”)

• Ivan IV (the Terrible)

• Peter the Great: modernizing and “Westernizing” Russia

• Catherine the Great

Reforms of Peter and Catherine make life even harder for peasants

B. Geography

• Moscow and St. Petersburg

• Ural Mountains, Siberia, steppes

Volga and Don Rivers

• Black, Caspian, and Baltic Seas

• Search for a warm port

VII. Feudal Japan

A. History and Culture

• Emperor as nominal leader, but real power in the hands of shoguns

• Samurai, code of Bushido

• Rigid class system in feudal Japanese society

• Japan closed to outsiders

• Religion

Buddhism: the four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, Nirvana

Shintoism: reverence for ancestors, reverence for nature, kami

B. Geography

• Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan

• Four main islands: Hokkaido, Honshu (largest), Shikoku, Kyushu

• Tokyo

• Typhoons, earthquakes

• The Pacific Rim

VII. Latin American Independence Movements

A. History

• The name “Latin America” comes from the Latin origin of the languages now most widely spoken (Spanish and Portuguese).

• Haitian revolution

Toussaint L’Ouverture

Abolition of West Indian slavery

• Mexican revolutions

Miguel Hidalgo

José María Morelos

Santa Anna vs. the United States

Benito Juárez

Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata

• Liberators

Simon Bolivar

José de San Martín

Bernardo O’Higgins

• New nations in Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

• Brazilian independence from Portugal

B. Geography of Latin America

• Mexico: Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico City

• Panama: isthmus, Panama Canal

• Central America and South America: locate major cities and countries including

Caracas (Venezuela)

Bogota (Colombia)

Quito (Ecuador)

Lima (Peru)

Santiago (Chile)

La Paz (Bolivia)

• Andes Mountains

• Brazil: largest country in South America, rain forests, Rio de Janeiro, Amazon River

• Argentina: Rio de la Plata, Buenos Aires, Pampas

History of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Different people living in the Western Hemisphere may view the same event or issue from different perspectives.

Key turning points and events in the histories of Canada, Latin America, and the United States can be organized into different historical time periods.

Important historic figures and groups have made significant contributions to the development of Canada, Latin America, and the United States.

Industrial growth and development and urbanization have had important impacts on Canada, Latin America, and the United States.
Geography of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

The physical and human characteristics of places in the United States, Canada, and Latin America today

Culture and experiences influence people’s perceptions of places and regions in the United States, Canada, and Latin America today.
The economies of the United States, Canada, and Latin American nations

Types and availability of resources are important to economic development in the United States, Canada, and Latin America today.

The nations of North, Central, and South America depend on one another for various resources and products they need.

Production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services are economic decisions which the nations of North and South America must make.

Science and technology have influenced the standard of living in nations in North, Central, and South America.

Nations in North, Central, and South America form organizations and make agreements to promote economic growth and development.

As the economic systems of the global community have become more interdependent, decisions made in one nation or region in the Western Hemisphere have implications for all nations or regions.
The governments of the United States, Canada, and Latin American nations

Across time and place, the people of the Western Hemisphere have held differing assumptions regarding power, authority, governance, and law.

Basic civic values such as justice, due process, equality, and majority rule with respect for minority rights are expressed in the constitutions and laws of the United States, Canada, and nations of Latin America.

Constitutions, rules, and laws are developed in democratic societies in order to maintain order, provide security, and protect individual rights.

The roles of citizenship are defined by different constitutions in the Western Hemisphere.

Governmental structures vary from place to place, as do the structure and functions of governments in the United States, Canada, and Latin American countries today.

Concepts such as civic life, politics, and government can be used to answer questions about what governments can and should do, how people should live their lives together, and how citizens can support the proper use of authority or combat the abuse of political power.

Citizenship in the United States, Canada, and nations of Latin America includes an awareness of the patriotic celebrations of those nations. In the United States these celebrations include: Lincoln’s Birthday, Washington’s Birthday, Independence Day, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day, Election Day, Flag Day, Memorial Day, and Conservation Day.

International organizations were formed to promote peace, economic development, and cultural understanding. The United Nations was created to prevent war and to fight hunger, disease, and ignorance

I. Westward Expansion

A. Westward Expansion Before the Civil War

• Early exploration of the west

Daniel Boone, Cumberland Gap, Wilderness Trail

Lewis and Clark, Sacagawea

“Mountain men,” fur trade

Zebulon Pike, Pike’s Peak

• Pioneers

Getting there in wagon trains, flatboats, steamboats

Many pioneers set out from St. Louis (where the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers meet).

Land routes: Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Trail

Mormons (Latter-day Saints) settle in Utah, Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake

Gold Rush, ’49ers

• Geography

Erie Canal connecting the Hudson River and Lake Erie

Rivers: James, Hudson, St. Lawrence, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Rio Grande

Appalachian and Rocky Mountains

Great Plains stretching from Canada to Mexico

Continental Divide and the flow of rivers: east of Rockies to the Arctic or Atlantic Oceans, west of Rockies to the Pacific Ocean

• Indian resistance

More and more settlers move onto Indian lands, treaties made and broken

Tecumseh (Shawnee): attempted to unite tribes in defending their land

Battle of Tippecanoe

Osceola, Seminole leader

• “Manifest Destiny” and conflict with Mexico

The meaning of “manifest destiny”

Early settlement of Texas: Stephen Austin

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Battle of the Alamo (“Remember the Alamo”), Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie

• The Mexican War

General Zachary Taylor (“Old Rough and Ready”)

Some Americans strongly oppose the war, Henry David Thoreau’s “Civil Disobedience”

Mexican lands ceded to the United States (California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona)

B. Westward Expansion After the Civil War

• Homestead Act (1862), many thousands of Americans and immigrants start farms in the West

• “Go west, young man” (Horace Greeley’s advice)

• Railroads, Transcontinental Railroad links east and west, immigrant labor

• Cowboys, cattle drives

• The “wild west,” reality versus legend: Billy the Kid, Jesse James, Annie Oakley, Buffalo Bill

• “Buffalo Soldiers,” African American troops in the West

• U. S. purchases Alaska from Russia, “Seward’s folly”

• 1890: the closing of the American frontier (as acknowledged in the U. S. Census), the symbolic significance of the frontier
II. The Civil War: Causes, Conflicts, Consequences

A. Toward the Civil War

• Abolitionists: William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator, Frederick Douglass

• Slave life and rebellions

• Industrial North versus agricultural South

• Mason-Dixon Line

• Controversy over whether to allow slavery in territories and new states

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Dred Scott decision allows slavery in the territories

• Importance of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

• John Brown, Harper’s Ferry

• Lincoln: “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

Lincoln-Douglas debates

Lincoln elected president, Southern states secede
B. The Civil War

• Fort Sumter

• Confederacy, Jefferson Davis

• Yankees and Rebels, Blue and Gray

• First Battle of Bull Run

• Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant• General Stonewall Jackson

• Ironclad ships, battle of the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia (formerly the USS Merrimack)

• Battle of Antietam Creek

• The Emancipation Proclamation

• Gettysburg and the Gettysburg Address

• African-American troops, Massachusetts Regiment led by Colonel Shaw

• Sherman’s march to the sea, burning of Atlanta

• Lincoln re-elected, concluding words of the Second Inaugural Address (“With malice toward none, with charity for all. . . .”)

• Richmond (Confederate capital) falls to Union forces

• Surrender at Appomattox

• Assassination of Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth

C. Reconstruction

• The South in ruins

• Struggle for control of the South, Radical Republicans vs. Andrew Johnson, impeachment

• Carpetbaggers and scalawags

• Freedmen’s Burueau, “40 acres and a mule”

• 13th. 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution

• Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan and “vigilante justice”

• End of Reconstruction, Compromise of 1877, all federal troops removed from the South

III. Native Americans: Cultures and Conflicts
A. Culture and Life

• Great Basin and Plateau ( for example, Shoshone, Ute, Nez Perce)

• Northern and Southern Plains (for example, Arpaho, Cheyenne, Lakota {Sioux}, Shoshone, Blackfoot, Crow)

Extermination of buffalo (review from grade 2)

• Pacific Northwest (for example, Chinook, Kwaliutl, Yakima)

B. American Government Policies

• Bureau of Indian Affairs

• Forced removal to reservations

• Attempts to break down tribal life, assimilation policies, Carlisle School

C. Conflicts

• Sand Creek Massacre

• Little Big Horn: Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Custer’s Last Stand

• Wounded Knee, Ghost Dance

History of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

The migration of groups of people in the United States, Canada, and Latin America has led to cultural diffusion because people carry their ideas and ways of life with them when they move from place to place.

Geography of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Culture and experiences influence people’s perceptions of places and regions in the United States, Canada, and Latin America today.

The characteristics, distribution, and complexity of cultures found in the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Human actions modify the physical environments of the United States, Canada, and Latin America.

The economies of the United States, Canada, and Latin American nations

Concepts such as scarcity, supply and demand, markets, opportunity costs, resources, productivity, economic growth, and systems can be used to study the economies and economic systems of the United States, Canada, and Latin America.

Individuals and groups in the United States, Canada, and Latin America attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce capital, natural, and human resources.
The governments of the United States, Canada, and Latin American nations

The rights of citizens in the United States are similar to and different from the rights of citizens in other nations of the Western Hemisphere.

Legal, political, and historic documents define the values, beliefs, and principles of constitutional democracy. In the United States these documents include the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. In Canada these documents include the British North America Act and the Canadian Bill of Rights.

Visual Arts

I. Art of the Renaissance

• The shift in world view from medieval to Renaissance art, a new emphasis on humanity and the natural world

• The influence of Greek and Roman art on Renaissance artists (classical subject matter, idealization of human form, balance and proportion)

• The development of linear perspective during the Italian Renaissance

The vantage point or point-of-view of the viewer

Convergence of parallel lines toward a vanishing point, the horizon line

• Observe and discuss works in different genres—such as portrait, fresco, Madonna—by

Italian Renaissance artists, including

Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus

Leonardo da Vinci: The Proportions of Man, Mona Lisa, The Last Supper

Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, especially the detail known as The Creation of Adam

Raphael: The Marriage of the Virgin, examples of his Madonnas (such as Madonna and Child with the Infant St. John, The Alba Madonna, or The Small Cowper Madonna)

• Become familiar with Renaissance sculpture, including

Donatello, Saint George

Michelangelo, David

• Become familiar with Renaissance architecture, including

The Florence Cathedral, dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi

St. Peter’s in Rome

• Observe and discuss paintings of the Northern Renaissance, including

Pieter Bruegel, Peasant Wedding

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (such as from 1498 or 1500)

Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (also known as Arnolfini Wedding)

III. Art of Japan

• Become familiar with

The Great Buddha (also known as the Kamakura Buddha)

Landscape gardens

Standard 4: Understanding the Cultural Dimensions and Contributions of the Arts
4. Visual Arts- Students will explore art and artifacts from various historical periods and world cultures to discover the roles that art plays in the lives of people of a given time and place and to understand how the time and place influence the visual characteristics of the art work. Students will explore art to understand the social, cultural, and environmental dimensions of human society.

•look at and discuss a variety of art works and artifacts from world cultures to discover some important ideas, issues, and events of those cultures (a)

•look at a variety of art works and artifacts from diverse cultures of the United States and identify some distinguishing characteristics (b)

•create art works that show the influence of a particular culture (c).

II. American Art: Nineteenth-Century United States

• Become familiar with the Hudson River School of landscape painting, including

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (The Connecticut River Near Northampton) (also known as View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm)

Albert Bierstadt, Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak

• Become familiar with genre paintings, including

George Caleb Bingham, Fur Traders Descending the Missouri

William Sidney Mount, Eel Spearing at Setauket

• Become familiar with art related to the Civil War, including

Civil War photography of Matthew Brady and his colleagues

The Shaw Memorial sculpture of Augustus Saint-Gaudens

• Become familiar with popular prints by Currier and Ives.

Standard 3: Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art
3. Visual Arts- Students will reflect on, interpret, and evaluate works of art, using the language of art criticism. Students will analyze the visual characteristics of the natural and built environment and explain the social, cultural, psychological, and environmental dimensions of the visual arts. Students will compare the ways in which a variety of ideas, themes, and concepts are expressed through the visual arts with the ways they are expressed in other disciplines.


•explain their reflections about the meanings, purposes, and sources of works of art; describe their responses to the works and the reasons for those responses (a)

•explain the visual and other sensory qualities (surfaces, colors, textures, shape, sizes, volumes) found in a wide variety of art works (b)

•explain the themes that are found in works of visual art and how the art works are related to other forms of art (dance, music, theatre, etc.) (c)

•explain how ideas, themes, or concepts in the visual arts are expressed in other disciplines (e.g., mathematics, science, literature, social studies, etc.) (d).

These standards are addressed in kindergarten through third grade.

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts

1. Visual Arts- Students will make works of art that explore different kinds of subject matter, topics, themes, and metaphors. Students will understand and use sensory elements, organizational principles, and expressive images to communicate their own ideas in works of art. Students will use a variety of art materials, processes, mediums, and techniques, and use appropriate technologies for creating and exhibiting visual art works


•experiment and create art works, in a variety of mediums (drawing, painting, sculpture, ceramics, printmaking, video, and computer graphics) based on a range of individual and collective experiences (a)

• develop their own ideas and images through the exploration and creation of art works based on themes, symbols, and events (b)

•understand and use the elements and principles of art (line, color, texture, shape) in order to communicate their ideas (c).

• reveal through their own art work understanding of how art mediums and techniques influence their creative decisions(d).

•identify and use, in individual and group experiences, some of the roles and means for designing, producing, and exhibiting art works (e).
Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources

2. Visual Arts- Students will know and use a variety of visual arts materials, techniques, and processes. Students will know about resources and opportunities for participation in visual arts in the community (exhibitions, libraries, museums, galleries) and use appropriate materials (art reproductions, slides, print materials, electronic media). Students will be aware of vocational options available in the visual arts.


•understand the characteristics of various mediums (two-dimensional, three-dimensional, electronic images) in order to select those that are appropriate for their purposes and intent (a)

•develop skills with electronic media as a means of expressing visual ideas (b)

•know about some cultural institutions (museums and galleries) and community opportunities (art festivals) for looking at original art and talking to visiting artists, to increase their understanding of art (c)

•give examples of adults who make their livings in the arts professions (d).


I. Elements of Music

• Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, etc.).

Recognize a steady beat, accents, and the downbeat; play a steady beat, a simple rhythm pattern, simultaneous rhythm patterns, and syncopation patterns.

Discriminate between fast and slow; gradually slowing down and getting faster; accelerando and ritardando.

Discriminate between differences in pitch: high and low.

Discriminate between loud and quiet; gradually increasing and decreasing volume; crescendo and decrescendo.

Understand legato (smoothly flowing progression of notes) and staccato (crisp, distinct notes).

Sing unaccompanied, accompanied, and in unison.

Recognize harmony; sing rounds and canons; two- and three-part singing.

Recognize introduction, interlude, and coda in musical selections.

Recognize verse and refrain.

Continue work with timbre and phrasing.

Recognize theme and variations.

Sing or play simple melodies while reading scores.

• Understand the following notation and terms:

names of lines and spaces in the treble clef, middle C, treble clef, staff, bar line, double bar line, measure, repeat signs, whole note, half note, quarter note, eighth note, whole rest, half rest, quarter rest, eighth rest, grouped sixteenth notes, tied and dotted notes, sharps, flats, Da cap [D] al fine, meter signature, common time, dynamics

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts
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