Major Headings of in-depth events and other subheadings
Major Battles in WW1 & WW2:
Vimy Ridge: - major turning point in war
- high point of Canadian achievement
- German highly defended hill
- Britain tried many times to capture
- Arthur Currie (Canada general) planned attack
- Took over hill
Passchendale: - Haig wanted to take over Belgium in 1917
- Canadians crawled waist deep in mud
- Only fifth of the force was alive
- Casualties: 15654
Suez Canal: - Suez canal controlled by British and French
- Egypt decided to take it back
- Jointed Israel to attack Egypt. Suez joined Egypt
- Pearson suggested peace keeping forces to UN-Peace resorted
Propaganda- a way to describe information (i.e. Propaganda Poster)
Conscription- for involuntary labor demanded by an established authority.
Conscription in WW1: - On May 18, 1917 Borden announced a new policy of conscription.
- Military Service Bill was passed a month later, making military service compulsory for all men between 20 and 45 years.
- Half of all Canadians opposed Borden’s bill. French Canadians rioted in Montreal.
- Henri Bourassa and Sir Wilfrid Laurier were against Military Service Bill. Bill was passed August 1917.
When first group of men were called many tried to be exempt and others disappeared. There was rioting and looting of businesses.
Conscription in WW2: - Canada had been torn apart by conscription in World War 1. Mackenzie King said that no Canadians would be conscripted in World War 11.
- Hitler’s Victory in Europe caused the National Resources Mobilization Act and men could be conscripted but only for defence within Canada. These men were called “Zombies” because people felt they were less than patriotic.
-Mackenzie King let Canadians vote as to whether he could be allowed to break his promise that there would be no conscription and the people voted in his favour and released him from his promise
- Mackenzie King finally agreed to conscript men as war was winding down.
Causes of WW1 & WW2:
WW1: 1) Imperialism
WW2: 1) The Treaty of Versailles
2) Conditions in Germany after WWI
3) The rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
4) The policy of Appeasement
Trench Warfare - machine guns most important weapon. trenches had rats, lice, many got diseases.
Winnipeg General Strike - May 1919. People striked across the country. It was called “Bloody Saturday” and two people died.
Benito Mussolini - Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. Created an Italian empire in alliance with Hitler’s Germany against democratic values including equality and individual freedom.
D-Day Invasion - June 6th 1944, the day in which the invasion of Normandy
Began. To begin the western allied effort to set free to the mainland of Europe
From Nazi occupation during world war two.
Super Powers After World War 11 – U.S. and U.S.S.R. –
- U.S. was equal to Soviet Union in military strength. It had not suffered bombing or invasion.
- Only country that had atomic bomb.
- Had taken over Britain’s role as world’s greatest imperial power.
- Richest country in the world.
Soviet Union had been devastated in war but because of its large area, population and wealth of natural resources it was a world power
After War Soviet Union still had up to 6 million soldiers, 50,000 tanks and 20,000 aircraft
Roy Brown – Pilot – came out of the clouds to surprise Germany’s “Red Baron.”
Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria/Hungary and Italy
Triple Entente – France, Great Britain and Russia
NATO and Warsaw Pact- - North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military
alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, between, Canada, Britain, France and eight other nations. Warsaw Pact - an organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe.
1930s New Political Parties, Their Leaders and Policies –
1. Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) – Saskatchewan party
-Leader J.S. Woodsworth
-Wanted government to provide necessities at a reasonable cost, such as water, hydro, transportation.
- Labour groups wanted protection for workers, such as laws regarding pay, hours, unemployment insurance.
2. CCF, Social Credit - Alberta Party
- Leader High School Principal and Radio Preacher – William Aberhard
- felt lots of goods for sale but people did not have enough money or credit to buy them.
- proposed that government give out social credits in $25.00 amounts every month to every citizen.
- no money was ever paid
3. Union National- Quebec Party
- Leader Maurice Duplessis
- Aim was to improve working conditions, give financial help to famers and end corruption in government
- Padlock Law gave the government the right to lock the doors of businesses that had communist ties
- opposed unions
Treaty of Versailles – Canada signed peace treaty which applied to Germany. Guaranteed Canada a seat in the vote of the new league of nations. Meant to ensure that World War 1 would be the “war to end all wars.” Treaty placed severe restrictions on German armed forces, forcing the German’s economy to suffer.
Ortona- 1943 – Canada losses were high. Canadians perused triumphant. Ortona blocked Rome. Canadians fought against Germans and best known fight for Canadians.
Avro Arrow- One of world’s fastest supersonic jets that was to be developed by A.V. Roe Company but project failed.
Invasion of USSR WWII – June 22nd, 1941 Hitler launched attacked on Soviet Union called Operation Barbarossa using Blitzkrieg tactic
On-to-Ottawa Trek – A 1935 march of unemployed Canadian workers to Ottawa to demand “work with wages”
U-Boats – refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in
World War I and World War II.
Pearl Harbor – December 1941. Relations deteriorating between Japan and U.S.A. U.S.A. station naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Japan already decided to make war on U.S.A. Japan bombed Pearl Harbor later. Almost nothing was left of American Pacific.
Nazi-Soviet Pact (Non-Aggression pact)– Germany and Soviet Union signed pact in which they promised not to go to war against each other and agreed to divide Poland between them.
Blitzkrieg - Swift military offensive using coordination between land, sear and air forces, also known as “Lightening War.”
Quiet Revolution and Separatism – - In 1960 New Liberal government began a quick and non-violent process of change and modernization
- Many Canadian’s called themselves Quebecois
- created civil service to give jobs to its supporters
- it modernized the educational system
- asked for “special status” for Quebec, demanding Federal money for health and education.
Allies & Axis Powers WWII:
Allied Powers – anti-fascist forces – British and its Commonwealth, France and Poland, later including US and Soviet Union.
Axis Powers – Italy and Germany
Allied – Canada, U.S. and Britain
Statute of Westminster – Passed in 1931. Gave Canada and other British Commonwealth countries complete control over their relations with other nations.
Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia.
Parti Quebecois & Leader – -Leader Rene Levesque
- came into power November 15th, 1976
- promised to win independence for Quebec
- passed Charter Bill 101 placing restrictions on the use of English language in Quebec (signs had to be in French only, limited number of English schools)
- English-speaking citizens of Quebec were outraged and many businesses moved to English Canada and formed group called Alliance Quebec to fight new law
Anti-Semitism – hatred of Jews
Pierre Trudeau – Official Languages Act and Constitution 1982
U.S Entry into WWI-
- Americans were shocked and horrified by surprise attack on Pearl Harbour
- United States declared war on Japan, fighting against fascism and Japanese expansion
- invested a large amount of money, arms and personnel into war effort
Schilieffen Plan – a strategic plan for victory on the western front against France
and against Russia in the east. A French counterattack, and a speedy Russian
offensives ended the Germans into years of trench warfare. Germans way of
avoiding war on two fronts.
Dieppe – August 1942 - the Dieppe Raid in the Second World War became
known as a bloody battle, and a costly one for the Allies. Canadian soldiers were
Defeated. Was called “another Passchendale.”
St. Louis – Ship on which Jews fled Nazi Germany in May 1939 to Cuba. Their Visas were rejected and they turned to Canada and United States but were also rejected. Eventually they returned to Europe.
Iron Curtain – Two new alliances – NATO and Warsaw Pact – deepened rift between East and West.
Cold War - the state of conflict, tension and competition that existed between the
United States and the Soviet Union.
October Crisis/FLQ – Morning of October 5th, 1970 four men from Front de Liberation du Quebec abducted British trade commissioner James Cross at gunpoint from his Montreal home. Demanded ransom money, transportation to Cub and release of political prisoners. Cross was released two months later and captors were allowed to go to Cuba. 23 people were brought to trial and sentended to Prison.
Gouzenko Affair – Soviet Union was trying to steal military secrets from Canada. On September 5th, 1945, young clerk with Soviet Embassy, Igor Gouzenko, walked out of embassy carrying 109 top-secret documents saying that Soviet Union was running a spy ring of civil servants and military officers in Canada.
Halifax Explosion – 1917 – Collision between two ships Mont Blanc and Imo in Halifax Harbor. Explosion was heard more than 300 kilometers away and left 2,000 people dead.
Lester Pearson –Liberal Party Leader and the fourteenth prime minister of Canada.
Woodrow Wilson/14 Points –28th president of the United States
Red Baron –German Fighter plane
Appeasement/Munich Agreement – Policy of making concessions in order to maintain peace. In September 1938 leaders of Italy, France and England met with Hitler in Munci to decide Czechosolvakia’s fate. Hitler got one-third of Czechosolvakia but had to stop all demands for territory.
Rome-Berlin Axis – Agreement in 1936 in which Italy formed close ties with Germany.
Anschluss –The unification of Austria and Germany (united together)