Governing Trouble and the Making of a Good Citizen



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Governing Trouble and the Making of a Good Citizen

Treaty of Westphalia: ***



  • Birth of Modern Nation state –

  • Key Principles*
    1) Political self determination

2) Equality between sovereign states

3) Principles of non-intervention



  • ‘Imagined Communities’ – states were assumed to correspond to nations – groups of people united by language and culture

What is citizenship?



  • being an official member of the state

  • where you were born

History of citizenship in Canada

  • few immigrans before 1896: in fact a lot of people emigrates to US in search of labour (US restricted this immigration in the 1920s)

  • Canadian Pacific Railroad (1885)

  • 3 Models of Integration:
    1) Anglo (French) conformity (prior to 1945); -- Canadian or french
    2) The melting pot; -- one particular identity

3) Pluralism/Multiculturalism (post 1945)
Canadian Immigration Policy Before 1945

  • Open doors; the more immigrants the better

  • ‘Only farmers need applt’ – farming the Prairies and the West

  • Assimilation: white ango – saxon protestants (WASP_

  • Canadian Immigration Act of 1910: FIRST LAW DEALING WITH RACE IN CANADA. Gave the Canadian government the power to prohibit the entry of “imigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or reqirments of Canada”

  • ‘Non-preffered’ and ‘not acceptable’: visible minorities – laws and/or regulations were issued to prevent their coming to Canada

Laws/Regulations for ‘Non-preferred’/’Not Acceptable’



  • the chinese head tax

  • ‘indians’ – ‘continuous journey’ regulation – couldn’t stop at any other location before coming to Canada

  • blacks – the health regulations – Canadian climate

  • Japanese – ‘Gentlemens agreement’

  • 1930’s – Canada refused

Context


  • no social safety net

  • immigrants who lost their jobs were deported

  • 193-1934; 16,765 immigrants were deported from Canada for having become ‘public charge’

  • by 1935 the number of deportations had reached more than 28,000

Changes to Immigratin Policy Post 1945



  • highly skilled and education immigrants are needed for national growth

  • increased national prosperity – no competition for scarce jobs

  • increased levels of education (stolerance) and travel

  • reactions to horrors of WW2 and concentration camps

  • fears of communism – asylum given to anti communist activists *** SECOND BIGGEST FEAR, REALLY OPENED UP IMMIGRATION POLICY

  • increased iving standards in Europe – less immigrants coming to Canada

  • humanitarian concerns: 1) family reunification and 2) refugee policy was progressively developed

Few immigrants before 1896

Canadian Pacific Railroad 1885

3 Models of Integration:

1.

2.

3.



Canadian Immigration Policy Before 1945:

Open doors:

‘Only Farmers Need Apply’

Assimilation:

Canadian Immigration Act of 1910:gave the Canadian government the power to prohibit the entry of “immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada”

‘Non-Preferred’ and ‘Not Acceptable’:

Context:


  • No Social Safety Net:

  • Deportations:

Changes to Immigration Policy Post 1945:

Highly skilled and educated immigrants are needed for national growth

Increased national prosperity – no competition for scarce jobs

Increased levels of education(=tolerance) and travel (=curiosity)

Reactions to horrors of WWII and concentration camps

Fears of communism

Increased living standards in Europe – less immigrants coming to Canada

Humanitarian concerns: 1) family reunification and 2) refugee policy was progressively developed

Canadian Citizenship Acts:

1st Canadian Citizenship Act (Jan.1st, 1947): until 1947 all Canadians were British subjects living in Canada anyone before that was a citizen of britan

2nd Canadian Citizenship Act (1977): citizenship is reconstituted as a right not a privilege

3rd Canadian Citizenship Act (2002): revised loyalty oath to Canada and its democratic values

Consumer Citizenship:


  • Citizenship is connected to national economic growth

  • Examinations of laws and regulations governing who belongs and who doesn’t belong cannot be separated from the analysis of the economy/capitalism

  • Ditto – dangerous/criminal and productive citizen

Dealing with Danger:

  • Danger/legitimation crisis

  • Legitimation of practices – murals, skating parks, back alleys, bars and etc.

  • Surveillance as a form of control:

What/Who is Dangerous?

Panopticon: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) **


  • Wanted to create a perfect way of punishing someone, not physically but soulfully

  • Completely circular, in the middle is a watchtower, around the perimeter there are cells with prisoners

  • Panopticon is meant to control the “soul” or the mind

  • Hospitals, asylums, schools, streets, etc. Example: Cameras everywhere, we are under survellance

  • Prison to punish offenders, not their body, their souls

  • Surveillance society: everywhere we go we are survelled, one way or another – so we behave in certain ways b/c we are constantly being watched

  • The ‘gaze’ – something constantly watching you to get you to behave, middle ages it was the idea of god, god would see you and punish you. In our society, it’s the law – police.

Panopticon in Practice:



  • Social normal influence the way we act – whats appropriate/inappropriate

  • We absorb social norms by watching others

  • Jeremy bentham did not like physical force as a form of punishment – wanted to make society better

  • Panopticon is meant to control the mind

  • Disorder

**Broken Windows:



  • The theory was introduced in 1982 article by social scientists James Q.Wilson and George L. Kelling

  • Prevents further petty crimes and deters individuals from committing more serious crimes

  • ‘Zero Tolerance Reforms’ – New York City – Mayor Rudy Giuliani

Broken Windows in Practice: when a window is broken you want to fix it as soon as you can or someone will get raped



  • if you don’t fix a small disorder a figurative disorder will take place

  • Behaviour is influenced by the environment – the way we can change our society is to change the environment – Brooklyn car experiment

  • If society cannot be changed – maybe the social spaces/places can be changed

  • BWT hods that disorder and crime are inextricable linked

  • “human behavior is strongly influenced by symbols of order and disprder”

  • disorderly environment ‘scream’s I am uncontrolled and uncontrollable

How does it come back to citizenship?



 Philip Zimbardo and Brooklyn Car Experiment

Disorderly environment = lack of control


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